United States House of Representatives elections, 1868

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1868
United States
1866 ←
June 1, 1868 - August 2, 1869[1][2]
→ 1870

All 243[3] seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  JamesGBlaine.png Michael C. Kerr - Brady-Handy.jpg LMcKenzie.jpg
Leader James Blaine Michael Kerr Lewis McKenzie
Party Republican Democratic Conservative
Leader's seat Maine-3rd Indiana-3rd Virginia-7th
Last election 174 seats 48 seats 2 seats
Seats won 168 70 5
Seat change Decrease 6 Increase 22 Increase 3

Speaker before election

Theodore Pomeroy
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1868 to elect Representatives to the 41st United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1868, which was won by Ulysses S. Grant.

The Democrats gained 20 seats, but Grant's Republican Party retained a commanding majority in the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War, holding onto a firm legitimacy through an association with victory. As more Southern states exited Reconstruction, more Democratic seats appeared in the South. However, Democratic gains in the South were limited, as the Republican power-brokers of Reconstruction held a great deal of influence. The small Conservative Party also picked up several Southern seats, as it had support among wealthy Southern leaders who wanted to increase the region's power.

Election summaries[edit]

Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia were readmitted during this Congress, leaving Congress without vacant State delegations for the first time since 1860. Georgia had been partially readmitted in the previous Congress, but was not initially admitted to the 41st Congress. With Georgia's final readmission in 1870, all former Confederate states were once more represented in Congress.

168 5 70
Republican C Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Conservative[disambiguation needed]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama[4] District 6 4 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Arkansas District 3 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
California District 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut[4] District 4 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida[5] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia[6] District 7[7] 3 Decrease 1 4 Increase 2 0 Steady
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 10 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana[5] District 11 7 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
Iowa[5] District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 9[7] 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 2 0 Steady
Louisiana District 5 5 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine[5] District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 5 0 Decrease 1 5 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1
Massachusetts District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 2 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Mississippi[6] District 5 5 Increase 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 9 7 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Nebraska[5] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire[4] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 2 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
New York District 31 18 Decrease 3 13 Increase 3 0 Steady
North Carolina District 7 6 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Ohio[5] District 19 13 Decrease 3 6 Increase 3 0 Steady
Oregon[5] At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania[5] District 24 16 Decrease 2 8 Increase 2 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 8 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas[6] District 4 3 Increase 3 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont[5] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia[6] District 8 3 Increase 3 0 Steady 5 Increase 5
West Virginia[5] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 6 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total[3] 243 168
69.1%
Decrease 6 70
28.8%
Increase 22 5
2.1%
Increase 3
House seats
Republican
  
69.14%
Democratic
  
28.81%
Conservative
  
2.06%

Mississippi had held rejected elections on July 1, 1868.

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to that date. 1868 was the first year in which the majority of States (20 of 37) held their elections on that date. There were still 9 states which held elections before that date and 4 that held regular elections after that date, in addition to 4 readmitted states that held elections after that date

Late elections to the 40th Congress[edit]

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large None (Readmitted state) Republican gain Charles M. Hamilton (R) 58.1%
John Friend (D) 32.6%
Liberty Billings (I) 9.4%

Complete list of elections[edit]

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1866 Re-elected Samuel Beach Axtell (D) 54.1%
Frank M. Pixley (R) 45.9%
California 2 William Higby Republican 1863 Lost renomination
Republican hold
Aaron A. Sargent (R) 54.7%
James W. Coffroth (D) 45.3%
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1866 Re-elected James A. Johnson (D) 50.4%
Chancellor Hartson (R) 49.6%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868[8] Re-elected Charles M. Hamilton (R) 56.4%
W. D. Barnes (D) 38.5%
William U. Saunders (I) 5.1%

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Eggleston Republican 1864 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 2 Samuel F. Cary Ind-Republican 1867 (s) Lost Re-election
Republican hold
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Re-elected
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 6 Reader W. Clarke Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 7 Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 9 Ralph P. Buckland Republican 1864 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley Republican 1862 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 13 Columbus Delano Republican 1866[10] Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 15 Tobias A. Plants Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 17 Ephraim R. Eckley Republican 1862 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 18 Rufus P. Spalding Republican 1862 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Re-elected

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes states readmitted after the start of Congress
  2. ^ The majority of States held elections on November 3, 1868
  3. ^ a b Including late elections
  4. ^ a b c Elections held late
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Elections held early
  6. ^ a b c d Readmitted state
  7. ^ a b Previous election had one vacancy
  8. ^ Late election to 40th Congress
  9. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 258, 259. 
  10. ^ Columbus Delano lost election in 1866 to George W. Morgan, contested the election, and was seated June 1868.

External links[edit]