United States House of Representatives elections, 1882

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1882
United States
1880 ←
November 7, 1882
(5 states held early elections)

→ 1884

All 325 seats to the United States House of Representatives
163 seats were needed for a majority

163 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 135 seats 147 seats
Seats before 133 seats[1] 149 seats
Seats won 192 seats 120 seats
Seat change Increase 59 Decrease 29

  Third party Fourth party Fifth party
 
Party Independent Readjuster Greenback
Last election 2 seats[2] 0 seats 9 seats
Seats before 3 seats[3] 0 seats 10 seats[4]
Seats won 6 seats[5] 5 seats 2 seats
Seat change Increase 3 Increase 5 Decrease 8

Speaker before election

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Elected Speaker

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party, which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1880 Census, 32 new seats were apportioned.[6] Three States lost 1 seat each, 13 States had no change in apportionment, 14 States gained 1 seat each, 6 States gained 2 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Several States that gained one or more seats did not redistrict immediately, electing the new Representatives at-large, while one state (Maine) which lost a Representative also delayed redistricting, electing all of its Representatives at-large for this Congress only.

192 6 5 2 120
Democratic I Rj Gb Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 Steady 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District
+ at-large[7]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District
+ 2 at-large[7]
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 4 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 Steady 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 Steady 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Georgia District
+ at-large[7]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 Increase 1 9[8] Increase 3 11 Decrease 2 0
Indiana District 13 Steady 9 Increase 4 4 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Iowa[9] District 11 Increase 2 2 Increase 2 8 Decrease 1 1[10] Increase 1
Kansas District
+ 4 at-large[7]
7 Increase 4 0 Steady 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Increase 1 9[8] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 Steady 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[9] At-large[11] 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2[10]
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 Increase 1 3 Increase 2 9[12] Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 Increase 2 6 Increase 6 5 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 1[13] Increase 1
Missouri District 14 Increase 1 14 Increase 6 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 4[10]
Nebraska District[14] 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 Steady 3 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District
+ at-large[7]
34 Increase 1 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[13]
North Carolina District
+ at-large[7]
9 Increase 1 7[8] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[9] District 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 8 8 Decrease 7 0 Steady
Oregon[9] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large[7]
28 Increase 1 12 Increase 5 15 Decrease 3 1[10] Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 Increase 5 10 Increase 5 0 Steady 1[13] Steady[15]
Vermont[9] District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Virginia District
+ at-large[7]
10 Increase 1 5 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 2 5[16] Increase 5
West Virginia District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 Increase 1 6 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total 325 Increase 32 195[17]
60.0%
Increase 59 121[12]
37.2%
Decrease 26 9
2.8%
Decrease 1
House seats
Democratic
  
60.00%
Republican
  
37.23%
Readjuster
  
1.54%
Greenback
  
0.62%
Others
  
0.62%

Five states, with 39 seats between them, held Congressional elections before the rest of the Union:

There were a total of 9 Representatives elected from third parties, 5 from the Virginia-based Readjuster Party, two from the declining Greenback Party, and two Independents. The previous election had had 9 Greenbacks and 1 Independent

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  Up to 100% Democratic
  Up to 100% Republican
 
  Up to 80% Democratic
  Up to 80% Republican
 
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Up to 60% Readjuster
Change in seats
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
 
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  3-5 Readjuster gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  no net change

All races[edit]

Party abbreviations

A slash between two abbreviations indicates a fusion ticket

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Rosecrans Democratic 1880 Re-elected William Rosecrans (D) 59.5%
Paul Neuman (R) 38.8%
James McMillan Shafter (Pr) 1.5%
H. S. Fitch (GB) 0.2%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
James Budd (D) 50.5%
Horace F. Page (R) 48.1%
J. L. Coles (Pr) 1.2%
F. J. Woodward (GB) 0.2%
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Retired
Democratic hold
Barclay Henley (D) 51.3%
John J. De Haven (R) 45.8%
H. S. Graves (Pr) 2%
W. O. Howe (GB) 0.9%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Retired
Democratic gain
Pleasant B. Tully (D) 54.4%
George L. Woods (R) 43.3%
M. V. Wright (Pr) 1.5%
Isaac Kinley (GB) 0.8%
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None (New seat) New seat
Democratic gain
John R. Glascock (D) 26.5%
Charles A. Sumner (D) 26.5%

William W. Morrow (R) 22.4%
Henry Edgerton (R) 22.3%
A. B. Hotchkiss (Pr) 0.8%
Jesse Yarnell (Pr) 0.8%
Warren Chase (GB) 0.3%
Stephen Maybell (GB) 0.3%
None (New seat) New seat
Democratic gain

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 51.5%
Emory F. Skinner (R) 32.2%
D. L. McKinnon (IR) 16.3%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1880[18] Re-elected Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 50.5%
Jesse J. Finley (D) 49.5%

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Retired
Democratic hold
Samuel Dibble (D) 56.9%
J. B. Campbell (GB/L) 43.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1878 Re-elected George D. Tillman (D) 67.8%
E. M. Brayon (GB/L) 31.9%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Re-elected D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 84.6%
T. H. Russell (GB/L) 15.4%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Re-elected John H. Evins (D) 71.8%
D. R. Elkins (GB/L) 27.2%
South Carolina 5 None (open seat) Democratic hold John J. Hemphill (D) 56.0%
E. B. C. Cash (GB/L) 44.0%
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat
Democratic gain
George W. Dargan (D) 64.7%
Edmund H. Deas (R) 21.7%
A. H. Bowen (GB/L) 13.6%
South Carolina 7 None (District created) New seat
Republican gain
Edmund W. M. Mackey (R) 64.8%
Samuel Lee (IR) 35.2%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Republican Congressional Committee, The Republican Campaign Text Book for 1882 (1882) online
  • Unless otherwise noted, electoral data are from Ourcampaigns.com
  1. ^ 2 Vacancies
  2. ^ 1 Independent, 1 Independent Democrat
  3. ^ 1 Independent, 1 Independent Democrat, 1 Independent Republican
  4. ^ 1 Vacancy
  5. ^ 2 Independents, 3 Independent Democrats, 1 Independent Republican
  6. ^ 22 Stat. 5
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h New seat or seats added without immediate redistricting
  8. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat
  9. ^ a b c d e Elections held early
  10. ^ a b c d Greenback Party
  11. ^ Changed from districts
  12. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Republican
  13. ^ a b c Independent
  14. ^ Changed from at-large
  15. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback
  16. ^ Readjusters
  17. ^ Includes 3 Independent Democrats
  18. ^ Seated after successful electoral challenge