United States House of Representatives elections, 1890

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1890
United States
1888 ←
November 4, 1890
(5 states held early elections)
→ 1892

All 332 seats to the United States House of Representatives
167 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 161 seats 171 seats
Seats won 235 88
Seat change Increase 74 Decrease 83

  Third party
 
Party Populist
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 9
Seat change Increase 9

Speaker before election

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elected Speaker

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1890 for members of the 52nd Congress, taking place in the middle of President Benjamin Harrison's term.

A stagnant economy which became worse after the Panic of 1890, combined with a lack of support for then Representative William McKinley's (defeated in the election) steep tariff act, which favored large industries at the expense of consumers, led to a sharp defeat for Harrison's Republican Party, giving a large majority to the Democratic Party and presaging Harrison's defeat in 1892. The Republican-controlled Congress was highly criticized for its lavish spending, and it earned the unflattering nickname of The Billion Dollar Congress. Democrats promised to cut the outlandish budget. This election also saw the Populist Party, a coalition of farmers and laborers who wanted to overhaul the nation's financial system, make a small mark on Congress.

Election summaries[edit]

235 9 88
Democratic P Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Populist
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 6 2 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 10 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Idaho[1] At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 14 Increase 7 6 Decrease 7 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 11 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 6 Increase 5 5 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Kansas District 7 0 Steady 2 Decrease 5 5 Increase 5
Kentucky District 11 10 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine[1] District 4 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 6 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 7 Increase 5 5 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 7 Increase 5 4 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 3 Increase 3 1 Decrease 4 1 Increase 1
Mississippi District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 14 14 Increase 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Montana At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Nebraska District 3 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 5 Increase 2 2 Decrease 2 0 Steady
New York District 34 23 Increase 8 11 Decrease 8 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 8 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 14 Increase 9 7 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Oregon[1] At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District 28 10 Increase 3 18 Decrease 3 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[1] District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 10 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Washington At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 8 Increase 6 1 Decrease 6 0 Steady
Wyoming[1] At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total 332 235
70.8%
Increase 74 88
26.5%
Decrease 83 9
2.7%
Increase 9
House seats
Democratic
  
70.78%
Republican
  
26.51%
Populist
  
2.71%

Five states, with 9 seats between them, held elections early in 1890:

Idaho and Wyoming held elections for both the outgoing 51st Congress and the incoming 52nd Congress in 1890, having been admitted that year, and held future elections on the standard election day.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Populist
  60.1-80% Republican
  <=60% Democratic
  <=60% Republican
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Populist gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Populist gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Separate races[edit]

Complete returns[edit]

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Vacant Democratic gain Thomas J. Geary (D) 49.3%
John A. Barham (R) 48.8%
L. B. Scranton (Pr) 1.9%
California 2 Marion Biggs Democratic 1886 Retired
Democratic hold
Anthony Caminetti (D) 49%
George I. Blanchard (R) 48.6%
J. S. Witherell (Pr) 2.4%
California 3 Joseph McKenna Republican 1884 Re-elected Joseph McKenna (R) 55.4%
John P. Irish (D) 42.5%
O. O. Felkner (Pr) 2.1%
California 4 William W. Morrow Republican 1884 Retired
Republican hold
John T. Cutting (R) 49.2%
Robert Ferral (D) 45.1%
Thomas V. Cator (S) 5.6%
Joseph Rowell (Pr) 0.2%
California 5 Thomas J. Clunie Democratic 1888 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Eugene F. Loud (R) 52.8%
Thomas J. Clunie (D) 45.9%
E. F. Howe (Pr) 1.3%
California 6 William Vandever Republican 1886 Retired
Republican hold
William W. Bowers (R) 51.1%
W. J. Curtis (D) 44.1%
O. R. Dougherty (Pr) 4.8%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Lost primary
Democratic hold
Stephen R. Mallory, Jr. (D) 78.5%
Harrison Reed (R) 21.5%
Florida 2 Robert Bullock Democratic 1888 Re-elected Robert Bullock (D) 58.8%
Joseph Stripling (R) 41.2%

Ohio[edit]

The Ohio Legislature redistricted the state between censuses. Coupled with other Democratic gains, this redistricting gave the Democrats a nine seat net gain.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[2]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Butterworth Republican 1884 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Re-elected
Ohio 3 Elihu S. Williams Republican 1886 Retired
Republican loss
Henry Lee Morey
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1888 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 4 Samuel S. Yoder Democratic 1886 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 5 George E. Seney Democratic 1886 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 6 Melvin M. Boothman Republican 1886 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 7 William E. Haynes
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic 1888 Re-elected
Ohio 8 Robert P. Kennedy Republican 1886 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 9 William C. Cooper Republican 1884 Retired
Republican loss
Joseph H. Outhwaite
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic 1884 Re-elected
Ohio 10 Open seat New seat
Republican gain
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1886 Lost renomination
Democratic gain
Ohio 12 Jacob J. Pugsley Republican 1886 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 13 Open seat New seat
Democratic gain
Ohio 14 Charles Preston Wickham Republican 1886 Retired
Republican loss
James W. Owens
Redistricted from the 16th district
Democratic 1888 Re-elected
Ohio 15 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1886 Lost renomination
Democratic gain
Ohio 16 William McKinley
Redistricted from the 18th district
Republican 1886 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 17 Open seat New seat
Democratic gain
Ohio 18 Joseph D. Taylor
Redistricted from the 17th district
Republican 1886 Re-elected
Ohio 19 Ezra B. Taylor Republican 1880 Re-elected
Ohio 20 Martin L. Smyser Republican 1888 Lost renomination
Republican hold
Ohio 21 Theodore E. Burton Republican 1888 Lost re-election
Democratic gain

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Samuel Dibble Democratic 1882 Retired
Democratic hold
William H. Brawley (D) 84.2%
William D. Crum (R) 15.7%
Others 0.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Re-elected George D. Tillman (D) 85.5%
Seymour E. Smith (R) 14.3%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 3 James S. Cothran Democratic 1886 Retired
Democratic hold
George Johnstone (D) 91.4%
John R. Tolbert (R) 8.2%
Others 0.4%
South Carolina 4 William H. Perry Democratic 1884 Retired
Democratic hold
George W. Shell (D) 81.9%
J. F. Ensor (R) 17.8%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 5 John J. Hemphill Democratic 1882 Re-elected John J. Hemphill (D) 87.1%
G. G. Alexander (R) 12.2%
Others 0.7%
South Carolina 6 George W. Dargan Democratic 1882 Retired
Democratic hold
Eli T. Stackhouse (D) 78.8%
Edmund H. Deas (R) 20.5%
Others 0.7%
South Carolina 7 Thomas E. Miller Republican 1888[3] Lost re-election
Democratic gain
William Elliott (D) 44.4%
Thomas E. Miller (R) 38.8%
E. M. Brayton (IR) 16.5%
Others 0.3%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Elections held early
  2. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 592, 593. 
  3. ^ After disputed election