United States House of Representatives elections, 1916

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1916
United States
1914 ←
November 7, 1916[1] → 1918

All 435 seats to the United States House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  James Robert Mann 1909.jpg ChampClark.jpg
Leader James Mann Champ Clark
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Illinois-2nd Missouri-9th
Last election 197 seats 230 seats
Seats won 216 214[2]
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 16

  Third party Fourth party Fifth party
 
Party Progressive Socialist Prohibition
Last election 5 seats 1 seat 1 seat
Seats won 3 1 1
Seat change Decrease 2 Steady Steady

Speaker before election

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1916 were held for members of the 65th Congress, coinciding with the re-election of President Woodrow Wilson.

Wilson eked out a narrow re-election, but his Democratic Party lost seats to the opposition Republican Party. Wilson's hybrid approach, which injected a progressive element into Democratic policies, had proved to be dissatisfying to much of the nation. International affairs also became important in the traditionally non-interventionist United States, as voters attempted to determine which party would be best served to keep the nation from entering The Great War.

Although the Republicans gained a plurality, the Democrats narrowly maintained control of the House with minor party support, forming an alliance with the remaining third-party Progressives and Socialist Meyer London. This is the last example (to date) of a type of coalition holding power in the House, rather than a single party winning a majority of seats. Specifically, this is also the only election in U.S. history when three different parties were able to form a coalition government instead of just two. Because of this, it was the only Congress where the party with the most seats was in opposition (versus being part of the ruling government) in the House. This rare occurrence may have been why the parties' plan to form a coalition backfired, as voters quickly rejected the Progressive and Socialist parties in the next election. Meanwhile, the Democrats would not control the House again until after the 1930 elections.

Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana was the first woman ever elected to congress.

Election summaries[edit]

214 1 3 1 216
Democratic S P Pn Republican
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Progressive Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District[3] 10 0 Steady 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arizona At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 11 5 Increase 1 4 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 1[4] Decrease 1
Colorado District 4 1 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 5 4 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 4 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 12 0 Steady 12 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District
+2 at-large
27 21 Increase 5 6 Decrease 4 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 9 Increase 7 4 Decrease 7 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 11 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas District 8 3 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 2 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 8 0 Steady 7 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Maine[5] District 4 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 2 Increase 1 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 16 12 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 13 12 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 10 9 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District 8 0 Steady 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 16 2 Steady 14 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Montana At-large 2 1 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 12 9 Increase 1 3 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Mexico At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 43 26 Increase 4 16 Decrease 3 0 Decrease 1 1[6] Steady
North Carolina District 10 0 Decrease 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Dakota District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 22 9 Decrease 4 13 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oklahoma District 8 2 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+4 at-large
36 29 Decrease 1 6 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 3 2 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota District 3 2 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 2 Steady 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District
+2 at-large
18 0 Steady 18 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Utah District 2 0 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 1 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Washington District 5 4 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
West Virginia District[3] 6 4 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 11 11 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 435 216
49.7%
Increase 19 214
49.2%
Decrease 16 3
0.7%
Decrease 2 2[7]
0.5%
Decrease 1
House seats
Republican
  
49.66%
Democratic
  
49.20%
Progressive
  
0.69%
Prohibition
  
0.23%
Socialist
  
0.23%

The Democrats retained control of the House by forming a coalition with the Progressives and the single Socialist, combining to form a razor-thin majority of 218 Representatives

Maine held its election September 11, 1916. There had previously been multiple states with earlier elections, but between 1914 and 1958, Maine was alone in holding early elections.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Republican
  80.1-100% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  6+ Republican gain
  6+ Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Progressive gain
  no net change

Complete results[edit]

Party abbreviations

A slash between two labels indicates a fusion ticket

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Kent Independent 1910 Retired
Democratic gain
Clarence F. Lea (D) 48.8%
Edward H. Hart (R) 42.8%
Mary M. Morgan (S) 5.5%
Jay Scott Ryder (Proh) 2.9%
California 2 John E. Raker Democratic 1910 Re-elected John E. Raker (D) 71%
James T. Matlock (R) 29%
California 3 Charles F. Curry Republican 1912 Re-elected Charles F. Curry (R) 66.7%
O. W. Kennedy (D) 23.4%
Ben Cooper (S) 6.2%
Edwin F. Van Vlear (Proh) 3.7%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Re-elected Julius Kahn (R) 77.2%
J. M. Fernald (D) 15.7%
Allen K. Gifford (S) 5.6%
Henry W. Hutchinson (Proh) 1.5%
California 5 John I. Nolan Republican 1912 Re-elected John I. Nolan (R) 84.7%
Charles A. Preston (S) 9.6%
Frederick Head (Proh) 5.8%
California 6 John A. Elston Progressive 1912 Re-elected John A. Elston (Prog) 64.6%
H. Avery Whitney (D) 22.6%
Luella Twining (S) 8.7%
Harlow E. Wolcott (Proh) 4.1%
California 7 Denver S. Church Democratic 1912 Re-elected Denver S. Church (D) 51%
W. W. Phillips (R) 36.4%
Harry M. McKee (S) 7.2%
J. F. Butler (Proh) 5.3%
California 8 Everis A. Hayes Republican 1904 Re-elected Everis A. Hayes (R) 68.6%
George S. Walker (Prog/D) 23.8%
Cora Pattleton Wilson (S) 7.5%
California 9 Charles H. Randall Prohibition 1914 Re-elected Charles H. Randall (Proh.) 57.8%
Charles W. Bell (I) 32.7%
Ralph L. Criswell (S) 9.5%
California 10 Henry S. Benedict Progressive 1916 Retired
Republican gain
Henry Z. Osborne (R) 49.5%
Rufus V. Bowden (D) 25.7%
Henry Stanley Benedict (Prog) 11.1%
James H. Ryckman (S) 7%
Henry Clay Needham (Proh) 6.8%
California 11 William Kettner Democratic 1912 Re-elected William Kettner (D) 44.5%
Robert C. Harbison (R) 35.7%
James S. Edwards (Proh) 15.6%
Marcus W. Robbins (S) 4.1%

Montana[edit]

This was the last time Montana used an at-large district until its representation was reduced to one in 1992. This was also the first time a woman was elected to Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Montana at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John M. Evans Democratic 1912 Re-elected John M. Evans (D) 26.7%
Jeannette Rankin (R) 24.3%

Harry B. Mitchell (D) 22.3%
George W. Farr (R) 21.2%
John McGuffey (S) 2.8%
Albert F. Meissner (S) 2.7%
Tom Stout Democratic 1912 Retired
Republican gain

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Richard S. Whaley Democratic 1913 (special) Re-elected Richard S. Whaley (D) 95.4%
J. O. Ladd (R) 4.6%
South Carolina 2 James F. Byrnes Democratic 1910 Re-elected James F. Byrnes (D) 98.5%
Isaac Myers (R) 1.5%
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Lost primary
Democratic hold
Frederick H. Dominick (D) 100%
South Carolina 4 Samuel J. Nicholls Democratic 1915 (special) Re-elected Samuel J. Nicholls (D) 99.4%
G. F. Mills (R) 0.6%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Re-elected David E. Finley (D) 100%
South Carolina 6 J. Willard Ragsdale Democratic 1912 Re-elected J. Willard Ragsdale (D) 99.1%
W. L. McFarlan (R) 0.9%
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Re-elected Asbury F. Lever (D) 93.5%
I. S. Leevy (R) 6.5%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ September 11, 1916 in Maine
  2. ^ Formed a 218-member coalition with Progressives and Socialists
  3. ^ a b At-large seat eliminated in redistricting
  4. ^ Prohibition
  5. ^ Elections held early
  6. ^ Socialist
  7. ^ 1 Socialist and 1 Prohibition