United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania, 2012

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The 2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania were held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012, to elect the 18 U.S. Representatives from the state of Pennsylvania, a loss of one seat following the 2010 United States Census. The elections coincided with the elections of other federal and state offices, including a quadrennial presidential election and an election to the U.S. Senate. Primary elections were held Tuesday, April 24.

Redistricting[edit]

Republicans control redistricting in Pennsylvania, which lost one seat in reapportionment.[1] A map released on December 13, 2011, effectively merged the 4th and 12th congressional districts, represented by Democrats Jason Altmire and Mark Critz.[2] The map was passed by the Pennsylvania Senate.[3]

Overview[edit]

United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania, 2012[4][5]
Party Votes Percentage Seats Before Seats After +/–
Democratic 2,793,538 50.28% 6 5 -1
Republican 2,710,070 48.77% 13 13 -
Libertarian 6,210 00.11% 0 0 -
Independent 41,358 00.74% 0 0 -
Bednarski for Congress 5,154 00.09% 0 0 -
Totals 5,556,330 100.00% 19 18

District 1[edit]

Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district has been represented by Democrat Bob Brady since 1998. Jimmie Moore, a judge of the Philadelphia Municipal Court, had planned to challenge Brady in the Democratic primary[6][7] but ended his campaign in February 2012.[8]

John Featherman, a realtor and former unsuccessful candidate for mayor of Philadelphia, sought the Republican nomination.[9]

Brady and Featherman ran unopposed in their respective primaries and faced each other in the general election. Brady won his ninth term with 235,394 votes to Featherman's 41,708 votes (85% to 15.1%).

General Election[edit]

Pennsylvania 1st Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bob Brady (Incumbent) 235,394 84.9%
Republican John Featherman 41,708 15.1%
Totals 277,102 100%
Democratic hold Swing

District 2[edit]

Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district has been represented by Democrat Chaka Fattah since 1995. He ran unopposed in the Democratic primary. Robert Allen Mansfield, Jr. ran unopposed in the Republican primary. Independent candidate James Foster also ran creating a three-way race.

In the general election, Fattah retained his seat winning his 10th term with 318,176 votes (89.3%). His challengers, Mansfield and Foster, placed second and third respectively, each earning 33,381 (9.4%) and 4,829 (1.4%) votes.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 2nd Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Chaka Fattah (Incumbent) 318,176 89.3%
Republican Robert Mansfield 33,381 9.4%
Independent James Foster 4,829 1.4%
Totals 356,386 100%
Democratic hold Swing

District 3[edit]

Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district has been represented by Republican Mike Kelly since January 2011. He ran unopposed in the Republican primary.

Missa Eaton, Sharon resident and president of Democrat Women of Mercer County, ran unopposed in the Democratic primary. She was the first Democrat to announce a bid against Kelly, on January 19, 2012, and did so with the blessing of former Rep. Dahlkemper.[10] Two other announced candidates, George Schroeck and Mel Marin, failed to collect enough verifiable signatures to appear on the Democratic primary ballot.[11] Democrat Kathy Dahlkemper, who represented the district from 2009 until 2011, considered running to regain her seat,[12] but ultimately decided not to do so. Joe Sinnott, the mayor of Erie, will not run.[13] Ron DiNicola, a local attorney and Marine Corps veteran who narrowly lost a bid for the then-21st District in 1996, seriously considered running, but decided not to run in December 2011.[14]

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 3rd Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mike Kelly (Incumbent) 165,826 54.8%
Democratic Missa Eaton 123,933 41.0%
Independent Steven Porter 12,755 4.2%
Totals 302,514 100%
Republican hold Swing
External links
Missa Eaton
Mike Kelly

District 4[edit]

Republican Todd Platts, who has represented Pennsylvania's 19th congressional district since 2001 and had been expected to seek re-election in the new 4th district, will not seek re-election. State representative Scott Perry[15] won the Republican nomination, winning over 50% of the vote in a crowded seven-man field which included York County Commissioner Chris Reilly;[15] Sean Summers, a lawyer who represented Albert Snyder in Snyder v. Phelps;[16] Ted Waga, a member of the York 912 Patriots;[15] Steve Chronister, Reilly's colleague on the York County Commission;[15] state representative Seth Grove, a former aide to Platts;[17] Mike Smeltzer, who heads the Manufacturers' Association of South Central Pennsylvania and unsuccessfully challenged Pitts in 2010.[15] Brock McCleary, the deputy political director of the National Republican Congressional Committee, will not run.[18]

Harry Perkinson, who works for a Texas-based defense contractor,[19] won the Democratic nomination, defeating Ken Lee.[19] Matt Matsunaga, who served as co-chair of the College Republicans while at Catonsville Community College;[20] County Commissioner Doug Hoke, and 2010 Democratic nominee Ryan Sanders decided not to run.[15] John Brenner, a former Mayor of York,[15] and state representative Eugene DePasquale, who will instead run for Pennsylvania Auditor General,[21] will not run. Mike Koffenberger will run as the nominee of the Libertarian Party.[19]

General Election Results[edit]

Pennyslvania's 4th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Scott Perry 181,603 59.7%
Democratic Harry Perkinson 104,643 34.4%
Independent Wayne Wolff 11,524 3.8%
Libertarian Mike Koffenberger 6,210 2.0%
Totals 303,980 100%
Republican gain from Democratic


External links
Mike Koffenberger
Harry Perkinson
Scott Perry

District 5[edit]

Pennsylvania's 5th congressional district is currently represented by Republican Glenn Thompson, who was first elected in 2008. He is being challenged by Democrat Prof. Charles Dumas, a professor at Penn State University. They each ran unopposed in their respective primaries and will face each other in the general election.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 5th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Glenn Thompson (Incumbent) 177,740 62.9%
Democratic Charles Dumas 104,725 37.1%
Totals 282,465 100%
Republican hold Swing

District 6[edit]

Pennsylvania's 6th congressional district has been represented by Republican Jim Gerlach since 2003, and he is running for re-election.

The Democratic nominee is Manan Trivedi, a physician and Iraq War veteran who unsuccessfully challenged Gerlach in 2010.[22] Doug Pike, who unsuccessfully ran for the Democratic nomination in 2010, decided not to run again[23] and so Trivedi ran unopposed in the Democratic primary.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 6th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Gerlach (Incumbent) 191,725 57.1%
Democratic Manan Trivedi 143,803 42.9%
Totals 335,528 100%
Republican hold Swing
External links

District 7[edit]

Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district has been represented by Republican Pat Meehan since January 2011. He is running for re-election.

George Badey III, an attorney who led a campaign against budget cut-backs which would have threatened the Mummers Parade, ran unopposed for the Democratic nomination.[24] Former U.S. Representative Joe Sestak, who represented the district from 2007 until 2011 and unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate in 2010;[25] and Jack Stollsteimer, a former Safe Schools Advocate who also previously served as a press spokesman for Meehan,[26] decided not to run.

General Elections Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 7th Congressional District[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Patrick Meehan (Incumbent) 209,942 59.4%
Democratic George Badey 143,509 40.6%
Totals 353,451 100%
Republican hold Swing
External links
George Badey
Pat Meehan

District 8[edit]

Pennsylvania's 8th congressional district has been represented by Republican Mike Fitzpatrick since January 2011. Fitzpatrick previously represented the district from 2005 until 2007. He ran unopposed in the Republican primary after Jennifer Stefano, the Pennsylvania director of policy for labor and energy for Americans for Prosperity,[27] announced in January 2012 she would instead become Americans for Prosperity's state director.[28]

Attorney Kathy Boockvar, who unsuccessfully ran for the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania in 2011, ran unopposed in the Democratic primary.[29] Doylestown Township Supervisor Cynthia Philo,[30] Doylestown Borough Council President Det Ansinn[31] and Bucks County Commissioner Diane Marseglia[30] decided not to run.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 8th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Michael G. Fitzpatrick (Incumbent) 199,379 56.6%
Democratic Kathryn Boockvar 152,859 43.4%
Totals 352,238 100%
Republican hold Swing
External links
Kathy Boockvar
Mike Fitzpatrick

District 9[edit]

Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district has been represented by Republican Bill Shuster since 2001. Businessman Travis Schooley was challenging Shuster in the primary but he was disqualified from the ballot after only 987 of his 1,045 petition signatures turned out to be valid, 13 below the required 1,000. Karen Ramsburg, a nurse from Mercersburg, had been running as an Independent, but after no Democrat filed to run, she mounted a write-in campaign for the April primary.[32] She was successful, receiving enough write-in votes to receive the Democratic nomination.[33]

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 9th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bill Shuster (Incumbent) 169,177 61.7%
Democratic Karen Ramsburg 105,128 38.3%
Totals 274,305 100%
Republican hold Swing

District 10[edit]

Pennsylvania's 10th congressional district has been represented by Republican Tom Marino since January 2011. Chris Carney, a Democrat who represented the district from 2007 until 2011, had considered seeking a rematch but announced in February 2012 that he would not run again.[34] Phillip Scollo was the only Democrat in the primary and will face Marino in the general election.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennyslvania's 10th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Tom Marino (Incumbent) 179,563 65.6%
Democratic Philip Scollo 94,227 34.4%
Totals 273,790 100%
Republican hold Swing

District 11[edit]

Pennsylvania's 11th congressional district has been represented by Republican Lou Barletta since January 2011. Gene Stilp, an activist who unsuccessfully ran for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 2010 and for Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania in 2006;[35] and William Vinsko, a lawyer and assistant Wilkes-Barre city attorney,[36] ran for the Democratic nomination to challenge Barletta. Chris Doherty, the mayor of Scranton;[36] former U.S. Representative Paul Kanjorski, who represented the 11th district from 1985 until 2011 but lost re-election in 2010;[37] and Lackawanna County Commissioner Corey O'Brien[36] may also run for the Democratic nomination. Michael Lombardo, the former mayor of Pittston, is unlikely to seek the Democratic nomination.[38] Former U.S. Representative Chris Carney, who represented the 10th district from 2007 until 2011 but lost re-election in 2010, had considered seeking the Democratic nomination in the 11th district but announced in February 2012 that he would not run.[34] Stilp defeated Vinsko in the Democratic primary; there were no other candidates.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 11th Congressional District[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lou Barletta (Incumbent) 166,967 58.5%
Democratic Gene Stilp 118,231 41.5%
Totals 285,198 100%
Republican hold Swing

District 12[edit]

Democrats Mark Critz, who has represented Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district since 2010; and Jason Altmire, who has represented Pennsylvania's 4th congressional district since 2007, both sought re-election in the new 12th district.[39] In the primary Critz defeated Altmire, 51-49. Altmire's opposition to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and climate change legislation are believed to have contributed to his defeat by a more liberal opponent.[40]

Keith Rothfus, who unsuccessfully challenged Altmire as the Republican nominee in the 4th district in 2010, won the Republican nomination, and was expected to run neck-and-neck with Critz in the general election.[41] State representative Jim Christiana[39] and Mike Turzai, the majority leader of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives,[41] did not run. Tim Burns, who ran unsuccessfully as the Republican nominee in the 12th district in a May 2010 special election and the November 2010 general election and unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate, ending his Senate campaign in January 2012,[42] was a speculative candidate in the 12th district.[43]

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 12th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Keith Rothfus 175,352 51.7%
Democratic Mark Critz (Incumbent) 163,589 48.3%
Totals 338,941 100%
Republican gain from Democratic
External links
Mark Critz
Keith Rothfus

District 13[edit]

Democrat Allyson Schwartz, who has represented Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district since 2005, sought re-election. Nathan Kleinman, a member of the Occupy Philadelphia movement who worked as a field organizer for Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign, was expected to challenge Schwartz in the Democratic primary,[44] but Schwartz ran unopposed. She defeated Republican Joseph James Rooney in the general election.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 13th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Allyson Schwartz (Incumbent) 209,901 69.1%
Republican Joe Rooney 93,918 30.9%
Totals 303,819 100%
Democratic hold Swing

District 14[edit]

Incumbent Democrat Mike Doyle defeated challenger Janis C. Brooks in the Democratic primary. He faced Republican Hans Lessmann in the general election.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 14th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Michael F. Doyle (Incumbent) 251,932 76.9%
Republican Hans Lessmann 75,702 23.1%
Totals 327,634 100%
Democratic hold Swing

District 15[edit]

Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district has been represented by Republican Charlie Dent since 2005. Rick Daugherty, the chairman of the Lehigh County Democratic Party, ran for the nomination to challenge Dent.[45] Jackson Eaton, an Army veteran and former Republican from Allentown, also ran for the Democratic nomination.[46] John Callahan, the mayor of Bethlehem and the unsuccessful Democratic nominee for the 15th district in 2010, may run again.[47] Daugherty defeated Eaton in the Democratic primary; there were no other candidates.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 15th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Charlie Dent (Incumbent) 168,960 56.8%
Democratic Rick Daugherty 128,764 43.2%
Totals 297,724 100%
Republican hold Swing

District 16[edit]

Incumbent Republican Joe Pitts will face Democrat Aryanna C. Strader. They each ran unopposed in their respective primaries.


General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 16th Congressional District 2012[4][48]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Joseph R. Pitts (Incumbent) 156,192 54.8%
Democratic Aryanna Strader 111,185 39.1%
Independent John Murphy 12,250 4.3%
Bednarski for Congress James Bednarski 5,154 1.8%
Totals 284,781 100%
Republican hold Swing

District 17[edit]

Democrat Tim Holden, who has represented Pennsylvania's 17th congressional district since 2003, ran for re-election.[49] Matt Cartwright, a Scranton attorney, ran against Holden in the Democratic primary;[50] Corey O'Brien, a Lackawanna County Commissioner who unsuccessfully ran for the Democratic nomination in 2010, said in April 2011 that if his home were drawn into Holden's district in redistricting, he would not run.[51]

Pennsylvania Republicans, who controlled the redistricting process after the 2010 United States Census, drew this district to be much more Democratic, taking in parts of Scranton and Wilkes Barre. Holden, a Blue Dog Democrat who had represented a very Republican district for 10 years, was considered vulnerable to a primary challenge due to the bluer hue of the new district. Holden was defeated in the Democratic primary by attorney Matt Cartwright, 57-43. Holden's opposition to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and climate change legislation are believed to have contributed to his defeat by a more liberal opponent.[40]

Scranton Tea Party Leader Laureen Cummings ran on the Republican ticket after she withdrew her bid for the Senate seat currently held by Bob Casey Jr.[52] Cummings went on to lose the general election to Cartwright, who defeated the Republican by a 60.3%-39.7% margin on November 6.

General Election Results[edit]

Pennsylvania's 17th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Matt Cartwright 161,393 60.3%
Republican Laureen Cummings 106,208 39.7%
Totals 267,601 100%
Democratic hold Swing

District 18[edit]

Republican Tim Murphy, who has represented Pennsylvania's 18th congressional district since 2003, successfully sought re-election.[53] Evan Feinberg, a former aide to U.S. Senators Tom Coburn and Rand Paul, unsuccessfully challenged Murphy in the Republican primary.[54] Murphy won the primary with over 60% of the vote.

Washington County Commissioner Larry Maggi sought the Democratic nomination.[55] Ralph Kaiser, a former member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, who considered seeking the Democratic nomination while Murphy was considering running for the U.S. Senate, decided not to run.[53] Maggi ran unopposed in the Democratic primary. Demo Agoris ran under the Libertarian Party.[56]

General Election[edit]

Pennsylvania's 18th Congressional District 2012[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Timothy F. Murphy (Incumbent) 216,727 64%
Democratic Larry Maggi 122,146 36%
Totals 338,873 100%
Republican hold Swing

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hirschhorn, Dan (March 30, 2011). "Pennsylvania's Democratic face-off". Politico. Retrieved June 27, 2011. 
  2. ^ Mellott, Kathy (December 13, 2011). "Congressional changes: Critz's 12th and Altmire's 4th to be merged". The Tribune-Democrat. Retrieved December 14, 2011. 
  3. ^ Gibson, Keegan (December 15, 2011). "Pa. Senate Passes Congressional Map 26-24". PoliticsPA. Retrieved December 16, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Statistics of Presidential and Congressional Election of November 6, 2012". Karen Haas, Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. February 28, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. 
  5. ^ Bednarski for Congress is listed separately as a political party in the recapitulation of votes cast in Pennsylvania in the Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 6, 2012.
  6. ^ Gelbart, Marcia (June 15, 2011). "Former Phila. judge Jimmie Moore says he'll challenge Brady for Congress". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  7. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (June 16, 2011). "Party Boss Brady Draws Primary Challenger". Roll Call. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  8. ^ Gibson, Keegan (February 29, 2012). "Moore Drops Primary Challenge to Brady". PoliticsPA. Retrieved March 1, 2012. 
  9. ^ Hill, Miriam (January 12, 2012). "Featherman to take on Brady". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
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  16. ^ Gibson, Elizabeth (January 23, 2012). "Sean Summers, lawyer for Albert Snyder in case against Westboro Baptist Church, announces run for Congress". The Patriot-News. Retrieved January 28, 2012. 
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  24. ^ Brennan, Chris (February 6, 2012). "Mummers advocate to run for 7th Congressional Seat". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved February 8, 2012. 
  25. ^ Gibson, Keegan (June 17, 2011). "Stollsteimer Meets With Pelosi, Sestak Meets with Donors". PoliticsPA. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  26. ^ Gibson, Keegan (March 22, 2011). "Exclusive: Democrats Recruiting Jack Stollsteimer to Challenge Meehan in PA-7". PoliticsPA. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  27. ^ Joseph, Cameron (September 26, 2011). "Americans for Prosperity staffer may challenge Rep. Fitzpatrick in primary". The Hill. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  28. ^ Gibson, Keegan (January 4, 2012). "Stefano Rules Out Primary to Fitzpatrick; Update: Ansinn Also Bows Out". PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  29. ^ Gibson, Keegan (January 12, 2012). "It’s Official: Boockvar to Challenge Fitzpatrick". PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
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  31. ^ Kristofic, Christina (January 5, 2012). "Ansinn withdraws from congressional race". phillyBurbs.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  32. ^ Elyse Clonan (March 16, 2012). "Shuster Alone on the PA-9 Ballot, Might Face Dem". PoliticsPA. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  33. ^ Jennifer Fitch (May 9, 2012). "Mercersburg write-in candidate to face Bill Shuster in the fall". Herald-Mail. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  34. ^ a b Seder, Andrew M. (February 1, 2012). "Chris Carney will not run for Congress this year". The Times Leader. Retrieved February 4, 2012. 
  35. ^ Gibson, Keegan (January 9, 2012). "Updated: Anti-Pay Raise Activist Gene Stilp to Challenge Barletta". PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  36. ^ a b c Hirschhorn, Dan (July 21, 2011). "Barletta has first challenger". Politico. Retrieved July 31, 2011. 
  37. ^ Seder, Andrew M. (July 25, 2011). "Kanjorski leaves options open, including try for office". The Times Leader. Retrieved July 31, 2011. 
  38. ^ Random, Roderick (July 23, 2011). "Maps, candidates, unsettled". The Times-Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Roarty, Alex (December 19, 2011). "Christiana Won't Run in PA-12". National Journal. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b Jonathan Weisman (April 25, 2012). "2 House Democrats Defeated After Opposing Health Law". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2012. 
  41. ^ a b McNulty, Timothy; Olson, Laura (January 24, 2012). "Turzai changes his mind, won't run for Congress". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  42. ^ Gibson, Keegan (February 2, 2012). "Burns Exits Senate Race". PoliticsPA. Retrieved February 4, 2012. 
  43. ^ Gibson, Keegan (January 26, 2012). "Burns for Congress Instead of Senate?". PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 28, 2012. 
  44. ^ Weckselblatt, Gary (January 25, 2012). "Schwartz may face primary challenge from 'Occupier'". phillyBurbs.com. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  45. ^ Itkowitz, Colby (July 18, 2011). "Lehigh Valley congressional race: Challenger emerges in Lehigh Valley congressional race". The Morning Call. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  46. ^ McEvoy, Colin (November 17, 2011). "Jackson Eaton, of Allentown, announces he will run against Congressman Charlie Dent". The Express-Times. Retrieved January 11, 2012. 
  47. ^ Itkowitz, Colby (May 12, 2011). "Callahan to take on Dent again?". The Morning Call. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  48. ^ Bednarski for Congress is listed as the political party in the list of votes cast in the 16th District in the Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 6, 2012.
  49. ^ Gibson, Keegan (March 25, 2011). "Redistricting Watch: Primary Trouble for Tim Holden?". PoliticsPA. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  50. ^ Clark, Adam (January 24, 2012). "Scranton attorney to challenge Holden in 17th District primary". The Morning Call. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  51. ^ Singleton, David (April 14, 2011). "O'Brien: Congress run 'not something I'm considering'". The Times-Tribune. Retrieved June 26, 2011. 
  52. ^ Itkowitz, Colby. "Petitions filed for Pa. primary". Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  53. ^ a b Gibson, Keegan (January 9, 2012). "Kaiser Won't Challenge Murphy". PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  54. ^ Gibson, Keegan (September 29, 2011). "Tim Murphy Gets a Challenger". PoliticsPA. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  55. ^ Gibson, Keegan (January 23, 2012). "WashCo Commish Maggi Gets in Vs. Murphy". PoliticsPA. Retrieved January 28, 2012. 
  56. ^ "Pennsylvania". Libertarian Party. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 

External links[edit]