United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association

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The United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association is an association of member institutions and organizations with college lacrosse programs at all levels of competition, including the three NCAA divisions and non-NCAA schools, at both the varsity and club levels for men and women. The association traces its history through predecessor organizations back to 1882, although it received its present name and became a governing body with unlimited membership in 1926.[1]

History[edit]

The first intercollegiate game in the United States was played on November 22, 1877 between New York University and Manhattan College.[2] Lacrosse had been introduced in upstate New York in the 1860s. Lacrosse was further introduced to the Baltimore area in the 1890s. An organizing body for the sport, the U. S. National Lacrosse Association, was founded in 1879.[1] The first intercollegiate lacrosse tournament was held in 1881, with Harvard beating Princeton, 3-0, in the championship game.[3] New York University and Columbia University also participated.[1]

In 1882 three colleges formed a league called the Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA), which several others also joined.[1] In most years from this point through 1931, collegiate lacrosse associations selected annual champions based on season records.[1] In 1899, the Inter-University Lacrosse League (IULL) began play using slightly different rules.[2] The two leagues merged in December, 1905, to form the 8-team United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse League[1] with Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Lehigh, Penn, Stevens Tech and Swarthmore.[4] The USILL was a closed-membership league, which excluded several lacrosse powers, such as the U.S. Naval Academy.[1][5] The national championship was officially bestowed only upon teams that were included in the membership of these organizations.[1]

In 1906, the USILL established Northern and Southern Divisions, and its by-laws encouraged the annual division winners to play a post-season championship game.[6] Only two such games were played, in 1912 and 1921.[1] As Navy was not a member of the USILL, its teams were not eligible for the championship, even though Navy had the best collegiate record in many of those years.[1][5] Navy was undefeated from 1917 through 1923, a stretch of 40 games with one tie.[1][5]

The USILL was replaced by the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association in March, 1926, as an open-membership governing body.[1] In addition to the 12 former USILL teams, Rutgers, Navy, Union College, NYU, Colgate and St. Stephen's (now Bard College) became new USILA members.[7] The USILA bestowed gold medals upon the teams that it selected as national champions through the 1931 season.[1] No official champions were named from 1932 through 1935.[1] In 1936, an award was established in the memory of a Baltimore sportswriter to recognize annually the most outstanding teams. From 1936 through 1972, the USILA executive board awarded the Wingate Memorial Trophy to the national champions.[1]

From 1953–1959, lacrosse divisions were officially named after legendary lacrosse-men. These were the Cy Miller, Laurie D. Cox, and Roy Taylor Divisions. They were more commonly referred to Division I, or A; Division II, or B; and Division III, or C.[8] All college teams were placed in one of the three divisions, dependent upon their records, schedules, and success for the preceding five years, and a point system was created. Any team of the three divisions was eligible to win the national championship, but this was virtually impossible for non-Division I teams. A Division II team, playing several Division I teams, might have been able to achieve it.[8] A team's record was required to include six games against teams in its own division. Teams were realigned every three years, again reflecting their records. All schools were eligible for the national rankings. The team that achieved the highest point total each year, however, was not guaranteed a solo national championship. The system served as guidance to the USILA executive board, who chose co-champions on frequent occasions.[1] This point system prevailed with modifications until the NCAA in the early 1970s established the playoff system for determining champions.[8] After 1959, Divisions II and III were realigned by geographical region instead of by team records.[7]

At its 1969 annual meeting in Baltimore, the USILA voted for its first playoff tournament to determine a national champion. In 1971, the NCAA began sponsoring men's lacrosse and began holding an annual championship tournament for Division I schools. The USILA conducted a small college tournament for non-Division I schools in 1972 and 1973 (won by Hobart and Cortland State).[1] In 1974, the NCAA took over the sponsorship of this tournament through the 1979 season, with separate tournaments being conducted in both 1980 and 1981 for Divisions II and III teams. The Division II tournament then was discontinued until returning in 1993.

Awards[edit]

The USILA has inducted members into the United States Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame annually since 1957. In addition, the USILA presents annually a number of awards to top collegiate athletes in NCAA Division I, Division II, and Division III.

Division I awards[edit]

Award Presented for
Lt. Raymond Enners Award National Player of the Year
F. Morris Touchstone Award Coach of the Year
Jack Turnbull Award Attackman of the Year
Lt. Donald McLaughlin Jr Award Midfielder of the Year
William C. Schmeisser Award Defenseman of the Year
Ensign C. Markland Kelly, Jr. Award Goaltender of the Year

Special Awards[edit]

See footnote[9]
  • Howdy Meyers Man of the Year Award
  • Frenchy Julien Service Award
  • Doyle Smith Sports Information/Media Award
  • Coach of the Year (Division III)
  • Coach of the Year (Division II)
  • Coach of the Year (Division I) – see F. Morris Touchstone Award

Champions[edit]

ILA Champions 1881–1898[edit]

U.S. National Lacrosse Association tournament

Year Champion
1881[1] Harvard

Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association

Year Champion Year Champion
1882 Harvard 1890 Lehigh
1883 Harvard, Princeton, Yale 1891 Johns Hopkins
1884 Princeton 1892 Stevens Tech
1885 Harvard 1893 Lehigh
1886 Harvard 1894 Stevens Tech
1887 Harvard 1895 Lehigh[10]
1888 Princeton 1896 Lehigh
1889 Princeton 1897 Lehigh
1898 Johns Hopkins

USIULL and ILA Champions 1899–1905[edit]

U.S. Inter-University Lacrosse League and Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association

Year USIULL winner (overall record)[7] ILA winner (overall record)[7] Notes, including head-to-head results between league winners Schools claiming national championship#
1899 Cornell (4-3-2) Johns Hopkins (4-1) Cornell and Hopkins did not play each other in 1899. Johns Hopkins
1900 tie: Columbia (2-4-2) [11] and
Harvard (1-2-1)
Johns Hopkins (6-1) Johns Hopkins def. Columbia during season, 5-0. Columbia def. Harvard during season, 6-3. USIULL declared co-champions, each with record of 1-1-1 in league standings.[12] Johns Hopkins
1901 Harvard (4-2) None[13] Johns Hopkins withdrew from the ILA in protest of violent play in its 1900 game with Stevens. Stevens def. Lehigh in the only ILA game of 1901. Swarthmore* [14] (def. Hopkins, 4-2, after Hopkins def. Harvard, 4-0)
1902 Cornell (4-2) Johns Hopkins (6-1) Cornell and Hopkins did not play each other in 1902. Johns Hopkins
1903 Cornell (2-4-1)[15][16][17][18][19] Johns Hopkins (4-2) "The Inter-university Lacrosse Association held its usual series of games for the intercollegiate championship during 1903, but the season ended in a fizzle. Five games were actually played, and Columbia forfeited 1 game to Harvard, Columbia and Cornell each winning 2 and losing 1, while Harvard and the University of Pennsylvania each won 1 and lost 2. This left Cornell and Columbia tied for the championship, but each protested players on the other's team, and both protests were upheld, ... with the two leading teams disqualified, [ ] the season was unsatisfactory to all concerned."[20] In February 1904, "[i]t was unanimously voted to award to Cornell the championship of the Inter-University League for last year."[21] Cornell and Hopkins did not play each other in 1903. Cornell, Johns Hopkins
1904 Harvard (3-4-1) Swarthmore (10-1)[22] Swarthmore def. Harvard during season, 6-3 Swarthmore
1905 3-way tie: Cornell (3-6-1), Harvard (4-5) & Columbia (6-3)[23] Swarthmore (7-1)[24] Swarthmore def. Harvard, 6-2, and Cornell, 9-0. Cornell def. Harvard, 6-4. Harvard def. Columbia, 8-1. Columbia def. Cornell, 4-2. Swarthmore

* Swarthmore joined the ILA in 1902. The university's website claims a championship for the year 1900.[25] Although not a member of a league in either 1900 or 1901, Swarthmore had a leading team in 1901, which is a credible championship claim.[7]

# Championship or co-championship claims, as published in school media guide, record book or yearbook[26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

USILL Champions 1906–1925[edit]

The USILL was a closed membership organization. Some strong teams of the era, such as Army and Navy, were never members, so that in some years, the USILL champion was not necessarily the best team in the United States.

Bold indicates victory or tie in head-to-head game, or that such game was not played.

Year Northern Div. winner[1] *
(overall record)
Southern Div. winner[1] *
(overall record)
Result of head-to-head games between USILL division winners Schools claiming national championship#
1906 Cornell (3-4-2) Johns Hopkins (6-0) Johns Hopkins def. Cornell during season, 9-0 Johns Hopkins
1907 Cornell (7-0) Johns Hopkins (5-1) none Cornell, Johns Hopkins
1908 Harvard (4-4) Johns Hopkins (8-1) Johns Hopkins def. Harvard during season, 6-3 Harvard, Johns Hopkins
1909 Harvard (4-3) &
Columbia (4-4)
Johns Hopkins (6-1) Johns Hopkins def. Harvard during season, 11-1. Harvard def. Columbia during season, 5-2. Harvard, Johns Hopkins
1910 Harvard (5-4) Swarthmore (7-2) Swarthmore def. Harvard during season, 11-7 Harvard, Swarthmore
1911 Harvard (5-2) Johns Hopkins (7-1) Johns Hopkins def. Harvard during season, 3-2 Harvard, Johns Hopkins
1912 Harvard (6-2) Swarthmore (6-3-1) Harvard def. Swarthmore in post-season playoff game, 7-3 Harvard
1913 Harvard (7-2) Johns Hopkins (6-1-1) Johns Hopkins def. Harvard during season, 6-3 Harvard, Johns Hopkins
1914 Cornell (6-2-2) Lehigh (6-1-1)[33] Lehigh and Cornell tied during season, 1-1 Cornell, Lehigh[5]
1915 Harvard (5-3) Johns Hopkins (7-0-1) Johns Hopkins def. Harvard during season, 8-1 Harvard, Johns Hopkins
1916 Cornell (5-3) Lehigh (6-1)[34] Lehigh def. Cornell during season, 5-4 Cornell, Lehigh
1917 none Lehigh (4-0)[35] Stevens Tech (1-3-1) was the only active Northern Division team. Johns Hopkins was the only inactive Southern Division team. Lehigh did not face Stevens. Lehigh, Stevens Tech[36][37]
1918 none Johns Hopkins (3-3-1) none (Stevens Tech (3-1-1) def. Yale in the only Northern Division game.) Johns Hopkins,[5] Stevens Tech[36][37]
1919 Hobart (3-2)[7][38] Johns Hopkins (7-1) none Johns Hopkins[5]
1920 Syracuse (5-3-4) Lehigh (6-2)[39] Lehigh def. Syracuse during season, 4-1 Syracuse, Lehigh[5]
1921 Syracuse (11-3-1) Lehigh (8-1)[40] Lehigh def. Syracuse in post-season playoff game, 3-1 Lehigh[5]
1922 Syracuse (17-0) 3-way tie (division records of 3-1 before scheduled playoff games): Penn (5-8), Johns Hopkins (7-4) & Lehigh (5-5) [records include defaults] During the season Syracuse def. both Penn, 5-1, and Johns Hopkins, 3-1. Also, Penn def. Hopkins, 5-3; Hopkins def. Lehigh, 3-1; and Lehigh def. Penn, 3-1. A Southern Division tie-breaker playoff was arranged with Hopkins to play at Lehigh, and the winner to meet Penn. However, Hopkins defaulted to Lehigh, and Lehigh then refused to play Penn, except in a series. Thus Penn was declared winner of the Southern Division by default.[40] Syracuse, Johns Hopkins[5]
1923 Syracuse (10-3-2) &
Cornell (6-2)
Johns Hopkins (6-2) Army^ (8-1-1) def. Syracuse during season, 3-2. Cornell def. Syracuse during season, 3-1. Johns Hopkins, Army^
1924 Syracuse (13-0-1) Johns Hopkins (7-2) none Syracuse, Johns Hopkins
1925 Syracuse (14-1) Maryland (4-1-1) none Syracuse[5]

* Division champions were selected based on results of intra-division games, difficulty of schedule and number of wins.[41]

# Championship or co-championship claims, as published in school media guide, record book or yearbook

In 1917–1919, World War I and the influenza epidemic curtailed lacrosse activity, as many schools eliminated or reduced schedules. Cornell, Harvard and Hobart did not field teams in 1917-1918. Yale and Johns Hopkins sat out 1917 only. Cornell did not return until 1920.

^ Not a USILL member

USILL Championship Tally[edit]

In four of the 20 years of the USILL's existence (1907, 1923, 1924, 1925), it was difficult to determine the national champion because the division winners did not play each other.[41] In 1907 and 1924, both division winners claimed championships. In the other two years, Cornell (1923) and Maryland (1925) did not. In the war years of 1917 and 1918, Stevens Tech fielded the only Northern Division team to be active both years. Only one Northern intra-division game was played during that span, thus no Northern Division champion could be declared. However, by virtue of default and one win, the current Stevens Tech record book lists two championships.[36][37]

Team Championships[1] Winning Years (1906–1925)
Johns Hopkins 11 1906, 1907†, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918, 1919, 1923, 1924†
Lehigh 5 1914†, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921‡
Syracuse 3 1922, 1924†, 1925
Cornell 2 1907†, 1914†
Swarthmore 1 1910
Harvard 1 1912‡

† Co-champion

‡ Won a post-season playoff game for the championship

USILA Champions 1926–1935[edit]

In 1926, the USILL disbanded and formed the USILA as an open-membership governing body. In addition to the former league's 12 schools, six others were soon admitted as members. From 1926–1931, the USILA executive board awarded gold medals after each season to the team(s) it selected as the most outstanding in the nation.

Year Champion
1926 Johns Hopkins
1927 Johns Hopkins
1928 Johns Hopkins, Maryland, Navy, Rutgers
1929 Navy, Union College[1][42]
1930 St. John's (MD)
1931 St. John's (MD)
1932† Johns Hopkins†
1933† Johns Hopkins†
1934† Johns Hopkins†
1935† Princeton†

† The USILA did not name champions for the 1932–1935 seasons.[1] The teams listed claim the national championship based on being the leading team in the nation for these years.[1]

USILA Champions 1936–1972[edit]

Further information: Wingate Memorial Trophy

From 1953–1959, all college teams were placed in one of three divisions, dependent upon their records, schedules, and success for the preceding five years, and a point system was created. Teams were required to play at least six games against teams in their own divisions. Teams were realigned every three years.[7]

Year Division I Champion Division II Champion Division III Champion
Cyrus Miller Trophy Laurie Cox Trophy Roy Taylor Trophy
1953 Princeton Swarthmore Stevens Tech
1954 Navy Syracuse, Washington College Union
1955 Maryland Hofstra, Rutgers New Hampshire
1956 Maryland University of Baltimore Colgate
1957 Johns Hopkins Univ. of Baltimore Colgate
1958 Army Univ. of Baltimore M.I.T., Dickinson
1959 Johns Hopkins, Maryland, Army Univ. of Baltimore M.I.T., Lehigh

Intercollegiate Championship Claims, 1881–1935[edit]

In all years it existed (1882–1905), the ILA consisted of 3 to 5 teams, with league championships dominated by a few schools. Likewise, the USIULL had only 3 or 4 teams during 1899–1905, with only Cornell's 1903 league title claimed in the present as a championship. Several schools have claimed their Northern and Southern Division titles won during the USILL years as national championships (based on the results of 3 or 4 intra-division games), while others have not. Still others were acclaimed in their time as unofficial title winners based on being leading teams in the collegiate ranks in particular years. Non-league members were ineligible for official title consideration before 1926. The USILA awarded gold medals to leading teams from 1926–1931, but made no selections from 1932–1935.

Team Championships Years Claimed#
Johns Hopkins 24 1891, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918, 1919, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1932§, 1933§, 1934§
Harvard 13 1881†, 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912‡, 1913, 1915
Lehigh 10 1890, 1893, 1895,[10] 1896,[43] 1897,[44] 1914, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921‡
Princeton 5 1883, 1884, 1888, 1889, 1935§
Stevens Tech 4 1892, 1894, 1917, 1918[36]
Swarthmore 4 1900,[25] 1904, 1905, 1910[45]
Cornell 4 1903, 1907, 1914, 1916
Syracuse 4 1920, 1922, 1924, 1925
Navy 2[5] 1928, 1929
St. John's (MD) 2 1930, 1931
Yale 1 1883
Army 1 1923
Maryland 1 1928
Rutgers 1 1928
Union College 1 1929

# Championship or co-championship claims, as published in school media guide, record book or yearbook

§ The USILA did not name champions for the 1932–1935 seasons.[1] School claims national championship based on being that year's leading team.[1]

† Won a tournament conducted for the first collegiate national championship by the U.S. National Lacrosse Association.

‡ Won a post-season championship game between the winners of the USILL Northern and Southern Divisions.[1]

Swarthmore's website claims a championship for the year 1900. However, Swarthmore had a leading team in 1901, which is a credible championship claim.[7]

Notes regarding Intercollegiate Champions[edit]

Year Champion Note
1891 Johns Hopkins First of Johns Hopkins' 44 national titles; team went 5-1 defeating Lehigh, Stevens, Pennsylvania (twice) and club team Schuylkill Navy,[32][46] with a lone loss to Schuylkill also.
1910 Swarthmore Won championship with defeats of Harvard, Carlisle, Stevens, Navy, Lehigh, Johns Hopkins (a 16-3 win) and Johns Hopkins Alumni, and losses to Toronto University and club team Mt. Washington.
1914 Navy Navy began a string of years in which its teams recorded some of the best collegiate records, although not as a member of the USILL.[1] The team went 6-0-1, defeating Harvard, Baltimore City, Johns Hopkins, Swarthmore, as well as the eventual national co-champions, Lehigh and Cornell, with a tie against Carlisle.[5]
1928, 1932 Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins won Olympic trial tournaments among the nation's leading teams and represented the United States in the Olympic Games of Amsterdam and Los Angeles.

College Lacrosse League Active Membership by Year, 1882-1925[edit]

CIntercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA), 1882–1905
UU.S. Inter-University Lacrosse League (USIULL), 1899–1905
LU.S. Intercollegiate Lacrosse League (USILL), 1906–1925

The following table considers as inactive, for a particular year, a school that fielded no team (as in war years), as well as a school that did not have, or withdrew from, membership.

School 1
8
8
2
1
8
8
3
1
8
8
4
1
8
8
5
1
8
8
6
1
8
8
7
1
8
8
8
1
8
8
9
1
8
9
0
1
8
9
1
1
8
9
2
1
8
9
3
1
8
9
4
1
8
9
5
1
8
9
6
1
8
9
7
1
8
9
8
1
8
9
9
1
9
0
0
1
9
0
1
1
9
0
2
1
9
0
3
1
9
0
4
1
9
0
5
1
9
0
6
1
9
0
7
1
9
0
8
1
9
0
9
1
9
1
0
1
9
1
1
1
9
1
2
1
9
1
3
1
9
1
4
1
9
1
5
1
9
1
6
1
9
1
7
1
9
1
8
1
9
1
9
1
9
2
0
1
9
2
1
1
9
2
2
1
9
2
3
1
9
2
4
1
9
2
5
Princeton C C C C C C C C C
Harvard C C C C C C C C U U U U U U U L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
NYU C C C C C C C
Columbia C U U U U U U U L L L L L
Yale C C L L L L L L L L L
Stevens C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Lehigh C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Johns Hopkins C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Cornell U U U U U U U L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Penn U U U U U U L L L L L L L L L L L L
Swarthmore C C C C L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Hobart L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Syracuse L L L L L L
Maryland L L
Penn State L L

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Scott, Bob (1976). Lacrosse Technique and Tradition. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2060-X. 
  2. ^ a b Fisher, Donald M. (14 Mar 2002). Lacrosse: A History of the Game. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 64–71. 
  3. ^ "Lacrosse History: The Birth of Modern North American Lacrosse 1850-1900". E-Lacrosse. Retrieved May 30, 2009. 
  4. ^ Barbour, Ralph Henry (1904). The Book of School and College Sports. D. Appleton and Company. p. 314. These two leagues co-exist at present, but the supremacy has remained with the older organization. While for reasons of convenience these two leagues are separate and distinct, the most cordial relations exist, and games between the different teams comprising the leagues decide each year the collegiate championship of the country. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The History of Navy Lacrosse". 2014 NAVY MEN’S LACROSSE MEDIA GUIDE: 84. Retrieved 2014-10-21. Coach Finlayson expanded the cornerstone of Navy’s winning lacrosse tradition with seven undefeated seasons from 1917 through 1923 (one tie), a 40 game winning streak. In that seven–year span, Navy stood supreme among college lacrosse teams in the nation. By the end of the 1926 season, Coach Finlayson had eleven undefeated seasons (including three with one tie), but had not yet won a National Championship. In 1928, Navy shared its first National Championship with Johns Hopkins, Maryland and Rutgers, followed by its second in 1929 when Navy and Union College were both presented gold medals. 
  6. ^ Spalding’s Athletic Library (1907). Constitution, By-Laws and Playing Rules of the United States Inter-Collegiate Lacrosse League 1907. American Sports Publishing Company. pp. 11–12. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Weyand, Alexander M.; Roberts, Milton R. (1965). The Lacrosse Story. H. & A. Herman. p. 204–238, 351–356. 
  8. ^ a b c Clark, Charles B. "Letters". WASHINGTON COLLEGE Magazine (Washington College). Spring 1995. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  9. ^ 2009 USILA Special Awards. USILA official website. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
  10. ^ a b "Lehigh beats Stevens at lacrosse". New York Times. 26 May 1895. Retrieved 2014-11-09. [In t]he final game for the intercollegiate lacrosse championship ... Lehigh University ... were in fine form, and won easily by a score of 6 goals to 1. 
  11. ^ Class of 1902 (1901). The 1902 Columbian (yearbook). Columbia College. p. 215. Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  12. ^ "Lacrosse Championship Tied". The Crimson. 16 June 1900. Retrieved 2014-11-22. At a recent meeting of the Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association an attempt was made to settle the tie between Harvard and Columbia for the championship, but as Harvard's protest of the Pennsylvania game was not acted upon, the tie between Harvard and Columbia still stood. The protest was finally referred to James Garvin of the Crescent Athletic club. Since the point was purely a technical one it has now been decided by Harvard to withdraw the protest. For this reason the championship banner will be duplicated and one will be awarded to both Harvard and Columbia. 
  13. ^ "New Lacrosse League. – Johns Hopkins, Lehigh, and Swarthmore in an Association.". New York Times. 6 December 1901. 
  14. ^ Paret, J. Parmly; Maddren, William Harvey (1904). Lawn Tennis, its Past, Present and Future, to which is added a Chapter on Lacrosse. The MacMillan Co. Swarthmore deserves especial praise for the quality of the game they have played, for with but a handful of material, comparatively, they have always played splendid lacrosse. In 1901 they virtually won the American College championship, defeating all teams played, including Johns Hopkins, though there was no official banner awarded. 
  15. ^ "No Lacrosse with Columbia". The Crimson. 23 May 1903. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Columbia has cancelled the lacrosse game which was scheduled for today on Soldiers Field. ... Next Friday, the University team will play Cornell at Ithaca, and the final standing of the members of the league will then be established. It will be seen that a victory for the University team would tie Harvard for first place. 
  16. ^ "Saturday a big day for college athletics". New-York Tribune (New York [N.Y.]) (Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress). 25 May 1903. p. 9. Retrieved 2014-11-22. Columbia, by cancelling the lacrosse game, makes the standing of the four universities in the Intercollegiate league as follows: Columbia 2 won, 1 lost. Cornell 1 won, 1 lost. Harvard 1 won, 1 lost. Pennsylvania 1 won, 2 lost. On Friday Harvard will play Cornell at Ithaca, ... 
  17. ^ "CORNELL VS. HARVARD. Last Lacrosse Game of Season Today — Close Score Expected". The Cornell Daily Sun. XXIII (178). 29 May 1903. Retrieved 2014-11-22. The game promises to be the closest and most interesting played this year, as by a victory either Harvard or Cornell will be tied with Columbia for first place in the Interuniversity league series. Columbia recently forfeited to Harvard because it was unable to meet the requirements in regard to a guarantee. ... If Cornell wins today's game it will in all probability keep the championship cup, as there is question regarding the eligibility of several of the men who played with Columbia against Cornell... . 
  18. ^ "Cornell Wins Lacrosse". The Crimson. 30 May 1903. Retrieved 2014-11-22. May 29.--Cornell defeated Harvard in lacrosse today by the score of 4 to 3. ... The result of this game makes the intercollegiate championship a tie between Cornell and Columbia, each university having won two matches and lost one. 
  19. ^ "Lacrosse Starts". Cornell Daily Sun. 11 February 1905. Retrieved 2014-11-22. The interuniversity lacrosse championship cup is now in Ithaca and will be placed in the Trophy room of Barnes Hall next Wednesday. The cup was won in 1903, Cornell defeating Columbia, Pennsylvania and Harvard, which universities make up the Interuniversity Lacrosse league. 
  20. ^ Greeley, Horace (1904). The Tribune Almanac and Political Register. Tribune Association. Retrieved 2014-11-15. 
  21. ^ "Inter-University Lacrosse Meeting". The Harvard Crimson. 8 February 1904. 
  22. ^ Junior Class of Swarthmore CoIIege 1905. The Halcyon, 1906 12. Swarthmore CoIIege. p. 143. Retrieved 2014-12-03. 
  23. ^ Class of 1907 (1906). The 1907 Columbian (yearbook). Columbia College. p. 220. Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  24. ^ Junior Class of Swarthmore CoIIege 1906. The Halcyon, 1907 13. Swarthmore CoIIege. p. 118. Retrieved 2014-12-03. 
  25. ^ a b "Swarthmore Team Championships". Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  26. ^ "Penn men's lacrosse all-time results by year". Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  27. ^ Army Lacrosse 2014 Media Guide. U.S. Military Academy. 2014. p. 83-88. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  28. ^ 2009 Harvard Men's Lacrosse Media Guide. Harvard University. 2009. p. 54, 57-61. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  29. ^ 2009 Cornell Big Red Men's Lacrosse Media Guide. Cornell University. 2009. p. 50-51, 66-69. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  30. ^ 2014 Syracuse Orange Lacrosse Media Guide. Syracuse University. 2014. p. 110-111. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  31. ^ "Year-By-Year Records - Maryland Terrapins Athletics". Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  32. ^ a b All-Time Results. 2011 Johns Hopkins Men's Lacrosse Guide (Johns Hopkins University). 2011. p. 91-97. 
  33. ^ Lehigh University Class of 1916 (1915). Epitome (yearbook). pp. 378–379. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  34. ^ Lehigh University Class of 1918 (1917). Epitome (yearbook). pp. 388–389. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  35. ^ Lehigh University Class of 1919 (1918). Epitome (yearbook). pp. 364–365. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  36. ^ a b c d "(Stevens) Men's Lacrosse Record Book". p. 27. Retrieved 2014-10-30. 
  37. ^ a b c Coyne, Jac (27 Nov 2008). "Small College Scoop Slides & Rides". Lacrosse Magazine Online. Retrieved 2014-10-31. 
  38. ^ The Echo of the Seneca (yearbook) 57. Junior and Senior Classes of Hobart College. 1919. pp. 131, 133. Retrieved 2014-11-28. 
  39. ^ Lehigh University Class of 1922 (1921). Epitome (yearbook). pp. 380–381. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  40. ^ a b Laurie D. Cox; Clarence Goldsmith, eds. (1922). Spalding's Athletic Library Official Lacrosse Guide 1922-1923. American Sports Publishing Co. pp. 51–55. 
  41. ^ a b Pietramala, David G.; Grauer, Neil A. (2006). Lacrosse: Technique and Tradition, The Second Edition of the Bob Scott Classic. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 13. Retrieved 2014-10-30. A champion was selected for each division based on the difficulty of the schedule each team played and the number of its wins, but in some years it was difficult to determine the national champion because the division champions did not play each other. 
  42. ^ "Hall of Fame 1929 Men's Lacrosse Team". Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  43. ^ "Lehigh Beat Stevens at Lacrosse". New York Times. 24 May 1896. p. 2. Lehigh defeated Stevens ... and thereby won the intercollegiate lacrosse championship. 
  44. ^ "Lehigh's Lacrosse Champions". New York Times. 23 May 1897. p. 6. ... Lehigh University and Stevens Institute teams in Hoboken. The game resulted in a victory for Lehigh who thereby retains the championship. 
  45. ^ "Swarthmore Lacrosse Champion". New York Times. 15 May 1910. p. S3. Johns Hopkins ... lost the intercollegiate championship to the Swarthmore team, being defeated by it by a score of by 13 to 3. 
  46. ^ "Crescent's Lacrosse Team Practice for Many Games Begun at Bay Ridge–Schedule of Contests". New York Times. 12 April 1895. Capt. Post is also trying to arrange games with New-York University, City College of New-York, and the Schuylkill Navy. 

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