United States Penitentiary, Marion
|Location||Southern Precinct, Williamson County,
near Marion, Illinois
|Security class||Medium-security (with minimum-security prison camp)|
|Population||1,062 (350 in prison camp)|
|Managed by||Federal Bureau of Prisons|
|Warden||L. J. W. Hollingsworth|
The United States Penitentiary, Marion (USP Marion) is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Illinois. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also has an adjacent satellite prison camp that houses minimum security male offenders.
- 1 History
- 2 Notable incidents
- 3 Downgraded to medium-security prison
- 4 Communication Management Unit
- 5 Notable inmates (current and former)
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
USP Marion was built and opened in 1963 to replace the maximum security federal prison on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, which closed the same year. The facility became the nation's first control unit when violence forced a long-term lockdown in 1983.
Birth of the "control-unit" prison
USP Marion was originally constructed to hold 500 of the most dangerous federal inmates, mostly transfers from Alcatraz. Prison administrators aimed to maintain a safe and orderly environment and rehabilitate the inmates while avoiding the high-profile abuses which occurred at Alcatraz. They implemented a behavior modification program named Control and Rehabilitation Effort (CARE) in 1968. Inmates in the program spent most of their time in solitary confinement or in "group therapy" sessions where they were berated for their deviant behavior and urged to change. In 1973, the first blocks of "control unit" cells were created. Inmates assigned to the control-unit would spend 23 to 24 hours a day in one-man cells which were specifically designed to severely limit or eliminate the inmate's contact with other people inside the prison and the outside world.
High-profile escape attempts
The first escape from USP Marion occurred in 1975, when five inmates used a homemade electronic device to open the front gates of the prison. One of them had been an electrician and was assigned to work on the lock mechanisms of all of the doors in the main corridors. He also converted a radio into a remote control, with which he opened all of the doors. The five escapees were all eventually captured and returned to prison.
Two escape attempts occurred in 1978 involving the same inmate, Garrett Brock Trapnell. On May 24, 1978, Trapnell's friend, 43-year-old Barbara Ann Oswald, hijacked a St. Louis based charter helicopter and ordered the pilot, Allen Barklage, to fly to USP Marion. Barklage complied, but he wrestled the gun away from Oswald and shot her while he was landing in the prison yard, thwarting the escape. On December 21, 1978, Trapnell's 17-year-old daughter, Robin Oswald, hijacked TWA Flight 541, which was en route from Louisville International Airport to Kansas City International Airport and threatened to detonate dynamite strapped to her body if the pilot did not fly to Williamson County Regional Airport, located only miles from USP Marion. When the pilot landed at the airport in Marion, hundreds of law enforcement officers had responded. Robin Oswald surrendered to FBI negotiators at the Williamson airport without incident about ten hours later. The dynamite was later found to be fake.
Murders of Correction Officers Clutts and Hoffman
The events of October 22, 1983 were the most highly publicized and significant in the history of USP Marion and the federal prison system as a whole. Correction officers Merle E. Clutts and Robert L. Hoffman, were killed in separate incidents only hours apart, both at the hands of members of the Aryan Brotherhood, a white-supremacist prison gang. Officer Clutts was stabbed to death by Thomas Silverstein. Later that same morning officer Hoffman was stabbed to death by Clayton Fountain, after he pulled him off another officer who was attacked. Despite being known as the most secure federal prison in the system, two inmates were able independently to kill their accompanying guards. Relatively lax security procedures allowed a prisoner, while walking down a hall, to turn to the side and approach a particular cell. The prisoner in that cell subsequently unlocked Silverstein's handcuffs with a stolen key and provided him with a knife.
As a result of the murders of Clutts and Hoffman, USP Marion went into "permanent lockdown" for the next 23 years, which meant that all inmates were locked in their cells for the majority of the day. All of USP Marion was effectively transformed into a "control unit" or supermax, meaning "super-maximum" security, prison. This method of prison construction and operation involves the keeping of inmates in solitary confinement for 22 to 23 hours a day, and does not allow communal dining, exercising, or religious services. These practices were used to keep prisoners under control and prevent prisoners from assaulting other prisoners or prison staff by severely limiting their contact with other people.
Downgraded to medium-security prison
Years later, Norman Carlson, director of the Bureau of Prisons at the time of the Marion incident, said that ordering the permanent lockdown was the only way to deal with "a very small subset of the inmate population who show absolutely no concern for human life." He pointed out that the two inmates who killed the guards were already serving multiple life sentences, so adding another would have had no effect. The "control unit" model at Marion was later the basis for ADX Florence, which opened in 1994 as a specifically-designed supermax prison.
In 2006, USP Marion's designation was changed to a medium security prison and major renovations were made. The renovations increased Marion's inmate population from 383 to 900.
Communication Management Unit
Although the facility no longer operates as a "supermax" facility, USP Marion is now home to one of two "Communication Management Units" in the federal prison system. The Federal Bureau of Prisons created the Communication Management Unit (CMU) in response to criticism that it had not been adequately monitoring the communications of prisoners. "By concentrating resources in this fashion, it will greatly enhance the agency's capabilities for language translation, content analysis and intelligence sharing," according to the Bureau's summary of the CMU. The other is at the Federal Correctional Complex, Terre Haute, Indiana. The units severely restrict the visitation rights for inmates and monitor all telephone calls and mail. Most of the inmates are Arab Muslims convicted of terrorism-related charges.
An ACLU lawsuit charges that CMUs of the federal prisons violates inmates' rights. In a Democracy Now interview on June 25, 2009, animal rights activist Andrew Stepanian talks about being jailed at the CMU. Stepanian is believed to be the first prisoner released from a CMU.
Notable inmates (current and former)
† Inmates who were released from custody prior to 1982 are not listed on the Federal Bureau of Prisons website.
†† The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 eliminated parole for federal inmates. However, inmates sentenced for offenses committed prior to 1987 are eligible for parole consideration.
Foreign citizens who committed or attempted terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Status||Details|
|Serving sentences ranging from 30 years to life.||Al-Qaeda operatives and followers of Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman; convicted in 1996 of seditious conspiracy and other charges for their involvement in the foiled NYC landmark bomb plot.|
|Omar Rezaq||20267-016||Serving a life sentence; eligible for release in 2023.††||Follower of the militant Palestinian leader Abu Nidal and the sole surviving hijacker of EgyptAir Flight 648; 58 people were killed during the 1985 hijacking; Rezaq was convicted of air piracy in 1996.|
|Ghassan Elashi||29687-177||Serving a 65-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2069.||Former Chairman of the Holy Land Foundation; convicted in 2008 of providing material support for terrorism charges for funneling money to the terrorist organization Hamas. Four co-conspirators were also convicted.|
American citizens who committed or attempted terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Status||Details|
|Mohamad Shnewer||61283-066||Serving a life sentence.||Involved in the 2007 Fort Dix attack plot; convicted in 2008 of conspiring to kill US soldiers at the New Jersey military base; four co-conspirators were also sentenced to prison.|
|Chesser, ZacharyZachary Chesser||76715-083||Serving a 25-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2032.||Al-Shabaab supporter; pleaded guilty in 2010 to providing material support for terrorism for threatening the creators of the TV show South Park for portraying the Prophet Mohammed in an episode.|
|Francis Schaeffer Cox||16179-006||Serving a 25-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2033.||Leader of the Alaska Peacekeepers Militia; convicted in 2012 of murder conspiracy for plotting the murders of judges and law enforcement agents; two co-defendants were also sentenced to prison.|
|Michael Finton||17031-026||Serving a 28-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2034.||Follower of the late militant cleric Anwar Al-Awlaki; pleaded guilty in 2011 to attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction for plotting to destroy a federal building in Illinois with a truck bomb in 2009.|
|Russell DeFreitas||64347-053||Serving a life sentence||Al-Qaeda supporter; convicted in 2010 of terrorism conspiracy for masterminding a foiled plot to bomb John F. Kennedy Airport in New York in 2007; three co-conspirators were also sentenced to prison.|
|Walter Bond||37096-013||Serving a 12-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2021.||Member of the Animal Liberation Front; pleaded guilty in 2011 to arson in connection with 2010 fires at three businesses in Utah and Colorado; author of "Always Looking Forward," Liberation Press, 2011.|
|Carlos Almonte||61800-050||Serving a 20-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2027.||Pleaded guilty to conspiracy to murder persons outside the US for attempting to join Al Shabaab, a terrorist group based in Somalia; co-conspirator Mohamed Alessa was sentenced to 22 years.|
Organized Crime Figures
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Status||Details|
|Gotti, JohnJohn Gotti†||18261-053||Died in 2002 while serving a life sentence.||Boss of the Gambino Crime Family in New York City from 1985 to 1992; convicted of murder, murder conspiracy, loansharking, illegal gambling, obstruction of justice, bribery, and tax evasion in 1992.|
|Daddano, Sr., WilliamWilliam Daddano, Sr.†||Unlisted||Died in 1975 while serving a 15-year sentence.||Top loan shark and enforcer for the Chicago Mafia; convicted in 1964 of conspiracy to commit bank robbery.|
|Bout, ViktorViktor Bout||91641-054||Serving a 25-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2029.||Russian arms dealer; convicted in 2011 of conspiring to kill Americans and supplying anti-aircraft missiles and other weapons to FARC, a Marxist group on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.|
|Nix, KirkseyKirksey Nix||20921-077||Serving a life sentence.||Leader of the Dixie Mafia, a criminal organization based in Mississippi; convicted in 1991 of ordering murders and masterminding a blackmail scheme from prison.|
|Alexander Cooper||99666-024||Serving a life sentence.||Chicago Drug kingpin; directed a drug trafficking operation which supplied heroin and cocaine to the Black P. Stones gang; convicted in 1991 of ordering the 1989 murder of a federal informant.|
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Status||Details|
|Rose, PetePete Rose||01832-061||Released from custody in 1991 after serving five months.||Major League Baseball player and record holder for career hits; convicted of filing false tax returns in 1990.|
|Andrew Stepanian||26399-050||Released from custody in 2009 after serving 2 years; a portion in the highly restrictive Communication Management Unit.||Member of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty, which aims to shut down an animal testing laboratory run by Huntingdon Life Sciences; convicted of using the Internet to incite violence against company executives.|
|Trapnell, Garrett BrockGarrett Brock Trapnell||72021-158||Deceased; died of natural causes in 1993 while serving a life sentence.||Convicted in 1973 of air piracy for hijacking TWA Flight 2 and threatening to ram the plane into the terminal of JFK Airport unless he received a ransom.|
|Scott Sippola||14431-040||Serving a 4-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2014.||Convicted in 2010 with his girlfriend, Allison Coss, of extortion for threatening to sell fabricated photographs of actor John Stamos to the tabloids unless Stamos paid them $680,000.|
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