United States Senate elections, 1800

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United States Senate elections, 1800
United States
1798 ←
Chosen by state legislatures → 1802

13 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 23 seats (61.9%) 9 seats (28.1%)
Seats before 22 (68.8%) 10 (31.2%)
Seats won 17 (54.5%) 15 (45.5%)
Seat change Decrease 5 Increase 5

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate election of 1800 was an election for the United States Senate which, coinciding with their takeover of the White House, led to the Democratic-Republican Party take control of the United States Senate. Although the Federalists began the next (7th) Congress with a slim majority, they lost their majority shortly thereafter due to mid-year special elections.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

All of the class 3 Senators were up for election this cycle. There were also special elections to all three classes during 1800 and 1801 in the 6th and 7th Congresses.

Before the elections[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17
Majority → F16
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

End of the 6th Congress[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11+* F21O* F20O* F19O* F18O* F17O*
Majority → F16
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Notes:
  • DR11+ (New York class 3 seat): John Laurance (F) resigned August 1800 and John Armstrong (DR) was elected November 7, 1800 to finish the term ending in March 1801.
  • F21O (Maryland class 3 seat): James Lloyd (F) resigned December 1, 1800 and William Hindman (F) was elected December 12, 1800 to finish the term ending in March 1801.
  • F20O (Massachusetts class 1 seat): Benjamin Goodhue (F) resigned November 8, 1800 and Jonathan Mason (F) was elected December 12, 1800 to finish the term ending in March 1803.
  • F19O (Massachusetts class 2 seat): Samuel Dexter (F) resigned November 8, 1800 and Dwight Foster (F) was elected December 12, 1800 to finish the term ending in March 1805.
  • F18O (New York class 1 seat): James Watson (F) resigned March 19, 1800 and Gouverneur Morris (F) was elected April 8, 1800 to finish the term ending in March 1803.
  • F17O (New Jersey class 1 seat): James Schureman (F) resigned February 16, 1801 and Aaron Ogden (F) was elected February 28, 1801 to finish the term ending in March 1803.

Beginning of the 7th Congress[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9O DR10O DR11+ DR12+ DR13+ DR14+ DR15+ F17+
Majority → F16O
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15O
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Later in the 7th Congress (end of 1801)[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14O* DR15O* DR16+*
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14O* DR18+* DR17+*
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Notes:
  • DR14O (South Carolina class 2 seat): Charles Pinckney (DR) resigned June 6, 1801 and Thomas Sumter (DR) was elected December 15, 1801.
  • DR15O (Pennsylvania class 3 seat): Peter Muhlenberg (DR) resigned June 30, 1801 and George Logan (DR) was elected December 16, 1801.
  • DR16+ (Maryland class 3 seat): Robert Wright (DR) was elected November 19, 1801 to finish the term left vacant by the state's previous failure to elect.
  • DR17+ (Rhode Island class 2 seat): Ray Greene (F) resigned March 5, 1801 and Christopher Ellery (DR) was elected May 6, 1801.
  • DR18+ (Vermont class 3 seat): Elijah Paine (F) resigned September 1, 1801 and Stephen R. Bradley (DR) was elected December 15, 1801.
  • F14O (New Hampshire class 2 seat): Samuel Livermore (F) resigned June 12, 1801 and Simeon Olcott (F) was elected June 17, 1801.
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races in 1800 and 1801[edit]

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats, except where noted

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Uriah Tracy Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1801. Uriah Tracy (F)
Georgia James Gunn Federalist 1789
1795
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Democratic-Republican gain
James Jackson (DR)
Kentucky Humphrey Marshall Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election
Winner elected November 20, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain
John Breckinridge (DR)
Maryland
(Special)
James Lloyd Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 1, 1800.
Winner elected December 12, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1801.
Federalist hold (for only the 6th Congress)
William Hindman (F)
Maryland Incumbent resigned December 1, 1800.
Legislature failed to elect.
Winner of special election was then appointed to start the term ending March 4, 1807.
Federalist hold (beginning of 7th)
None
Maryland
(Special)
William Hindman Federalist 1800 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee did not run to finish the term
Winner elected November 19, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1807.
Democratic-Republican gain (7th, 8th, and 9th Congress)
Robert Wright (DR)
Massachusetts
(Special: Class 1)
Benjamin Goodhue Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent resigned November 8, 1800.
Winner elected November 14, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Federalist hold (6th and 7th Congress)
Jonathan Mason (F)
Massachusetts
(Special: Class 2)
Samuel Dexter Federalist 1799
1796
Incumbent resigned May 30, 1800 to become U.S. Secretary of War
Winner elected June 6, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1805.
Federalist hold (6th, 7th, and 8th Congress)
Dwight Foster (F)
New Hampshire
(Special: Class 2)
Samuel Livermore Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned June 12, 1801.
Winner elected June 17, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1805.
Federalist hold (7th and 8th Congress)
Simeon Olcott (F)
New Hampshire John Langdon Democratic-
Republican
1795 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Winner elected in 1801.
Federalist gain
James Sheafe (F)
New Jersey
(Special: Class 1)
James Schureman Federalist 1799 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 16, 1801.
Winner elected February 28, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Federalist hold (6th and 7th Congress)
Aaron Ogden (F)
New York
(Special: Class 1)
James Watson Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 19, 1800, to become Naval Officer of the Port of New York.
Winner elected April 8, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Federalist hold (6th and 7th Congress)
Gouverneur Morris (F)
New York
(Special)
John Laurance Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 1800.
Winner elected November 7, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain (for only the 6th Congress)
John Armstrong (DR)
New York John Armstrong Democratic-
Republican
1800 (Special) Incumbent re-elected April 8, 1801. John Armstrong (DR)
North Carolina Timothy Bloodworth Democratic-
Republican
1795 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Winner elected November 27, 1800.
Democratic-Republican hold
David Stone (DR)
Pennsylvania William Bingham Federalist 1795 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected February 18, 1801.[1]
Democratic-Republican gain (for 7th Congress)
Peter Muhlenberg (DR) 50.0%
George Logan (DR) 48.9%
William Jones (DR) 1.0%
Pennsylvania
(Special)
Peter Muhlenberg Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1801.
Winner elected December 16, 1801 to finish the term ending March 4, 1807.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold (7th, 8th, and 9th Congress)
George Logan (DR) 63.6%
Joseph Hiester (F) 28.0%
Other 8.4%
Rhode Island
(Special: Class 2)
Ray Greene Federalist 1797 (Special)
1799
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1801.
Winner elected May 6, 1801 to finish the term ending March 4, 1805.
Democratic-Republican gain (7th and 8th Congress)
Christopher Ellery (DR)
South Carolina
(Special: Class 2)
Charles Pinckney Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned June 6, 1801.
Winner elected December 15, 1801 to finish the term ending March 4, 1805.
Democratic-Republican hold (7th and 8th Congress)
Thomas Sumter (DR)
South Carolina Jacob Read Federalist 1795 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain
John E. Colhoun (DR)
Vermont Elijah Paine Federalist 1795 Incumbent re-elected. (Beginning of the 7th Congress) Elijah Paine (F)
Vermont
(Special)
1795
1801
Incumbent resigned September 1, 1801.
Winner elected October 15, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1807.
Democratic-Republican gain (7th, 8th, and 9th Congress)
Stephen R. Bradley (DR)

See also[edit]

References[edit]