United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801

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United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801

1798 / 1799 ←
Dates vary by state → 1802 / 1803

10 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 23 seats (61.9%) 9 seats (28.1%)
Seats before 22 (68.8%) 10 (31.2%)
Seats won 17 (54.5%) 15 (45.5%)
Seat change Decrease 5 Increase 5
Seats up 7 3

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate election of 1800 was an election for the United States Senate which, coinciding with their takeover of the White House, led to the Democratic-Republican Party take control of the United States Senate. Although the Federalists began the next (7th) Congress with a slim majority, they lost their majority shortly thereafter due to mid-year special elections.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

End of the 6th Congress[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11+ F21O F20O F19O F18O F17O
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 7th Congress[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9O DR10O DR11+ DR12+ DR13+ DR14+ DR15+ F17+
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15O F16O
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Later in the 7th Congress (end of 1801)[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14O DR15O DR16+
Majority → DR17+
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14O DR18+
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races in 1800 and 1801[edit]

Special elections during the preceding Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history


New York
(Class 1)
James Watson Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 19, 1800, to become Naval Officer of the Port of New York.
Winner elected April 8, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Federalist hold
Gouverneur Morris (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Samuel Dexter Federalist 1799
1796
Incumbent resigned May 30, 1800 to become U.S. Secretary of War
Winner elected June 6, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1805.
Federalist hold
Dwight Foster (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
James Lloyd Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 1, 1800.
Winner elected December 12, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1801.
Federalist hold
William Hindman (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York
(Class 3)
John Laurance Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 1800.
Winner elected November 7, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain
John Armstrong (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Benjamin Goodhue Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent resigned November 8, 1800.
Winner elected November 14, 1800 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Federalist hold
Jonathan Mason (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey
(Class 1)
James Schureman Federalist 1799 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 16, 1801.
Winner elected February 28, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Federalist hold
Aaron Ogden (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1801; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Uriah Tracy Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1801. Uriah Tracy (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia James Gunn Federalist 1789
1795
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Democratic-Republican gain
James Jackson (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Humphrey Marshall Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election
Winner elected November 20, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain
John Breckinridge (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland William Hindman Federalist 1797 (Special) Legislature failed to elect.
Incumbent was then appointed to start the term ending March 4, 1807.
None
New Hampshire John Langdon Democratic-
Republican
1795 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Winner elected in 1801.
Federalist gain
James Sheafe (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York John Armstrong Democratic-
Republican
1800 (Special) Incumbent re-elected April 8, 1801. John Armstrong (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Timothy Bloodworth Democratic-
Republican
1795 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Winner elected November 27, 1800.
Democratic-Republican hold
David Stone (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania William Bingham Federalist 1795 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected February 18, 1801.[1]
Democratic-Republican gain
Peter Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 50.0%
George Logan (Democratic-Republican) 48.9%
William Jones (Democratic-Republican) 1.0%
South Carolina Jacob Read Federalist 1795 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain
John E. Colhoun (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Elijah Paine Federalist 1795 Incumbent re-elected. Elijah Paine (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Special elections during the next Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated after March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Ray Greene Federalist 1797 (Special)
1799
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1801.
Winner elected May 6, 1801 to finish the term ending March 4, 1805.
Democratic-Republican gain
Christopher Ellery (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Samuel Livermore Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned June 12, 1801.
Winner elected June 17, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1805.
Federalist hold
Simeon Olcott (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Elijah Paine Federalist 1795
1801
Incumbent resigned September 1, 1801.
Winner elected October 15, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1807.
Democratic-Republican gain
Stephen R. Bradley (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
William Hindman Federalist 1800 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee did not run to finish the term
Winner elected November 19, 1801 to finish term ending March 4, 1807.
Democratic-Republican gain
Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Charles Pinckney Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned June 6, 1801.
Winner elected December 15, 1801 to finish the term ending March 4, 1805.
Democratic-Republican hold
Thomas Sumter (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Peter Muhlenberg Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1801.
Winner elected December 16, 1801 to finish the term ending March 4, 1807.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold
George Logan (Democratic-Republican) 63.6%
Joseph Hiester (Federalist) 28.0%
Other 8.4%

See also[edit]

References[edit]