United States Senate elections, 1934

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United States Senate elections, 1934
United States
1932 ←
November 6, 1934 → 1936

36 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Joseph t robinson.jpg Charles mcnary.jpg
Leader Joseph Robinson Charles McNary
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Arkansas Oregon
Last election 59 seats 36 seats
Seats before 60 35
Seats won 69 25
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 10

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Farmer-Labor Progressive
Last election 1 seat 0 seats
Seats before 1 0
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Steady Increase 1

US 1934 senate election map.svg

  Republican hold
  Democratic holds
  Democratic gain
  Farmer-Labor hold
  Progressive gain

Majority Leader before election

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1934 occurred in the middle of Democratic President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first term. In the middle of the Great Depression, voters strongly backed Roosevelt's New Deal and his allies in the Senate. The Democrats picked up a net of nine seats, giving them a supermajority (which required 64 seats, two-thirds of the total 96 seats in 1934).[1] This marked the first time since the Civil War where an incumbent president's party gained seats during a midterm election, later being followed by Bill Clinton in 1998 and George W. Bush in 2002.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
D58 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
D59 D60 FL1 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
D58 O D57 O D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
D59 O D60 O D61 + D62 + D63 + D64 + D65 + D66 + D67 + D68 +
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 P1 + FL1 D69 +
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
FL# Farmer-Labor
P# Progressive
R# Republican
 
Incumbent re-elected or appointee elected to finish term
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
@ Party gain: Incumbent senator re-elected from different party

Gains and losses[edit]

The Democrats took nine Republican seats, including an open seat in Maryland and the seats of eight incumbents.

Losing incumbents[edit]

  1. Connecticut: Frederic C. Walcott (R) lost to Francis T. Maloney (D)
  2. Indiana: Arthur Raymond Robinson (R) lost to Sherman Minton (D)
  3. Missouri: Roscoe C. Patterson (R) lost to Harry S. Truman (D)
  4. New Jersey: Hamilton F. Kean (R) lost to A. Harry Moore (D)
  5. Ohio: Simeon D. Fess (R) lost to Vic Donahey (D)
  6. Pennsylvania: David A. Reed (R) lost to Joseph F. Guffey (D)
  7. Rhode Island: Felix Hebert (R) lost to Peter G. Gerry (D)
  8. West Virginia: Henry D. Hatfield (R) lost to Rush D. Holt (D)

Retirement[edit]

  1. Maryland: George L. P. Radcliffe (D) picked up the seat when Phillips Lee Goldsborough (R) retired.

Party change[edit]

  1. Republicans suffered an additional loss when Robert M. La Follette, Jr. (WI) left the Republican Party to join the Progressive Party.

Complete list of races[edit]

Bold state indicates election article link. Bold candidate indicates winner.

Separate election[edit]

Date State Incumbent Party Result Candidates
January 16, 1934 Vermont
Special: Class 3
Ernest W. Gibson Republican Appointee elected to finish term Ernest W. Gibson (Republican), 58.2%
Harry W. Witters (Democratic), 41.8%

November elections[edit]

All races are for the Class 1 seat, unless otherwise noted.

Bold states link to articles about the individual elections.

State Incumbent Party Results Candidates
Arizona Henry F. Ashurst Democratic Incumbent re-elected Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic) 72.0%
J. E. Thompson (Republican) 25.6%
California Hiram W. Johnson Republican Incumbent re-elected Hiram W. Johnson (Republican) 94.5%
George R. Kirkpatrick (Socialist) 5.3%
Connecticut Frederic C. Walcott Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Francis T. Maloney (Democratic) 51.8%
Frederic C. Walcott (Republican) 48.3%
Delaware John G. Townsend, Jr. Republican Incumbent re-elected John G. Townsend, Jr. (Republican) 53.3%
Wilbur L. Adams (Democratic) 46.2%
Florida Park Trammell Democratic Incumbent re-elected Park Trammell (Democratic) unopposed
Indiana Arthur Raymond Robinson Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Sherman Minton (Democratic) 51.5%
Arthur Raymond Robinson (Republican) 47.5%
Maine Frederick Hale Republican Incumbent re-elected Frederick Hale (Republican) 50.1%
Frederick Harold Dubord (Democratic) 49.7%
Maryland Phillips Lee Goldsborough Republican Incumbent retired
Democratic gain
George L. P. Radcliffe (Democratic) 56.1%
Joseph I. France (Republican) 42.0%
Massachusetts David I. Walsh Democratic Incumbent re-elected David I. Walsh (Democratic) 59.4%
Robert M. Washburn (Republican) 37.4%
Michigan Arthur H. Vandenberg Republican Incumbent re-elected Arthur H. Vandenberg (Republican) 51.3%
Frank A. Picard (Democratic) 47.0%
John Monarch (Socialist),[2] 1.7%
Minnesota Henrik Shipstead Farmer-Labor Incumbent re-elected Henrik Shipstead (Farmer-Labor) 49.9%
Einar Hoidale (Democratic) 29.2%
N. J. Holmberg (Republican) 19.8%
Mississippi Hubert D. Stephens Democratic Incumbent lost renomination
Democratic hold
Theodore G. Bilbo (Democratic) unopposed
Missouri Roscoe C. Patterson Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Harry S. Truman (Democratic) 59.5%
Roscoe C. Patterson (Republican) 39.7%
W. C. Meyer (Socialist) 0.7%
Montana Burton K. Wheeler Democratic Incumbent re-elected Burton K. Wheeler (Democratic) 70.1%
George M. Bourquin (Republican) 28.7%
Montana
Special: Class 2
John E. Erickson Democratic Appointee lost nomination
Winner elected to finish term ending January 3, 1937
Democratic hold
James E. Murray (Democratic) 59.6%
Scott Leavitt (Republican) 39.5%
Nebraska Richard C. Hunter Democratic Incumbent retired
Democratic hold
Edward R. Burke (Democratic) 55.3%
Robert G. Simmons (Republican) 42.9%
Nevada Key Pittman Democratic Incumbent re-elected Key Pittman (Democratic) 64.5%
George W. Malone (Republican) 33.4%
New Jersey Hamilton F. Kean Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
A. Harry Moore (Democratic) 57.9%
Hamilton F. Kean (Republican) 40.9%
New Mexico Bronson M. Cutting Republican Incumbent re-elected Bronson M. Cutting (Republican) 50.2%
Dennis Chavez (Democratic) 49.4%
New Mexico
Special: Class 2
Carl A. Hatch Democratic Appointee elected to finish term ending January 3, 1937 Carl A. Hatch (Democratic) 54.5%
Richard C. Dillon (Republican) 45.0%
New York Royal S. Copeland Democratic Incumbent re-elected Royal S. Copeland (Democratic) 55.3%
E. Harold Cluett (Republican) 36.9%
Norman Thomas (Socialist) 5.3%
North Dakota Lynn J. Frazier Republican Incumbent re-elected Lynn J. Frazier (Republican) 58.2%
Henry Holt (Democratic) 40.2%
Ohio Simeon D. Fess Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Vic Donahey (Democratic) 60.0%
Simeon D. Fess (Republican) 39.4%
Pennsylvania David A. Reed Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Joseph F. Guffey (Democratic) 50.8%
David A. Reed (Republican) 46.5%
Rhode Island Felix Hebert Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Peter G. Gerry (Democratic) 57.1%
Felix Hebert (Republican) 42.9%
Tennessee Kenneth D. McKellar Democratic Incumbent re-elected Kenneth D. McKellar (Democratic) 63.4%
Ben W. Hooper (Republican) 35.8%
Tennessee
Special: Class 2
Nathan L. Bachman Democratic Appointee elected to finish term ending January 3, 1937 Nathan L. Bachman (Democratic) 80.1%
John R. Neal (Independent) 19.9%
Texas Tom Connally Democratic Incumbent re-elected Tom Connally (Democratic) 96.7%
Utah William H. King Democratic Incumbent re-elected William H. King (Democratic) 53.1%
Don B. Colton (Republican) 45.4%
Vermont Warren R. Austin Republican Incumbent re-elected Warren R. Austin (Republican) 51.0%
Fred C. Martin (Democratic) 48.4%
Virginia Harry F. Byrd Democratic Incumbent re-elected Harry F. Byrd (Democratic) 76.0%
Lawrence C. Page (Republican) 20.9%
Washington Clarence C. Dill Democratic Incumbent retired
Democratic hold
Lewis B. Schwellenbach (Democratic) 60.9%
Reno Odlin (Republican) 34.0%
West Virginia Henry D. Hatfield Republican Incumbent lost re-election
Democratic gain
Rush D. Holt (Democratic) 55.1%
Henry D. Hatfield (Republican) 44.4%
Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Republican Incumbent re-elected in new party
Progressive gain
Robert M. La Follette, Jr. (Progressive) 47.8%
John M. Callahan (Democratic) 24.2%
John B. Chapple (Republican) 22.8%
Wyoming Joseph C. O'Mahoney Democratic Incumbent re-elected Joseph C. O'Mahoney (Democratic) 56.6%
Vincent Carter (Republican) 43.0%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arthur Krock (November 7, 1934). "Tide Sweeps Nation". New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  2. ^ http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/monaco-monro.html#monarch