United States Senate elections, 1788 and 1789

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United States Senate elections, 1788 and 1789
United States
Chosen by state legislatures → 1790 / 1791

All of the 26 seats in the U.S. Senate
14 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Seats won 19 7

Elected Majority faction

Pro-Administration

The United States Senate election of 1788 and 1789 were the first elections for the United States Senate, which coincided with the election of President George Washington. As of this election, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of senators who supported George Washington's administration were known as "Pro-Administration," and the senators against him as "Anti-Administration."

As this election was prior to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Senate composition[edit]

Beginning of the 1st Congress[edit]

V1*
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 P13 P12 P11
Majority → P10
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9
V2*
Notes:
  • V1, V2: Two seats were vacant because New York elected its senators late.

End of the 1st Congress[edit]

A6 A7 A8
A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 P18 P17 P16 P15 P14
Majority → P13
P4* P5* P6* P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12
P3* P2* P1*
Notes:
  • P5, P6: New York elected its senators late.
Key:
A# = Anti-Administration
P# = Pro-Administration
V# = Vacant
√ = Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O = Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ = Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag = Seat not up for election this year

Complete list of races[edit]

State Result Candidates
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
Oliver Ellsworth (Pro-Administration)
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
William S. Johnson (Pro-Administration)
Delaware
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1788
Anti-Administration win
Richard Bassett (Anti-Administration)
Delaware
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
George Read (Pro-Administration)
Georgia
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1789
Anti-Administration win
William Few (Anti-Administration)
Georgia
(Class 3)
Winner elected in 1789
Anti-Administration win
James Gunn (Anti-Administration)
Maryland
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1789
Pro-Administration win
Charles Carroll (Pro-Administration)
Maryland
(Class 3)
Winner elected in 1789
Pro-Administration win
John Henry (Pro-Administration)
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1789
Pro-Administration win
Tristram Dalton (Pro-Administration)
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1789
Pro-Administration win
Caleb Strong (Pro-Administration)
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
John Langdon (Pro-Administration)
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1788
Anti-Administration win
Paine Wingate (Anti-Administration)
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
Jonathan Elmer (Pro-Administration)
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
William Paterson (Pro-Administration)
New York
(Class 3)
Winner elected on July 25, 1789
Pro-Administration win
Rufus King (Pro-Administration)
New York
(Class 1)
Winner elected on July 27, 1789
Pro-Administration win
Philip Schuyler (Pro-Administration)
North Carolina
(Class 2)
North Carolina ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789
Winner elected November 27, 1789
Pro-Administration win
Benjamin Hawkins (Pro-Administration)
North Carolina
(Class 3)
North Carolina ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789
Winner elected November 27, 1789
Pro-Administration win
John Walker (Pro-Administration)
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1788
Anti-Administration win
William Maclay (Anti-Administration)
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Winner elected in 1788
Pro-Administration win
Robert Morris (Pro-Administration)
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1789
Pro-Administration win
Pierce Butler (Pro-Administration)
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Winner elected in 1789
Pro-Administration win
Ralph Izard (Pro-Administration)
Virginia
(Class 1)
Winner elected in 1788
Anti-Administration win
William Grayson (Anti-Administration)
Virginia
(Class 2)
Winner elected in 1788
Anti-Administration win
Richard Henry Lee (Anti-Administration)

See also[edit]

References[edit]