United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797

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United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797

1794 / 1795 ←
Dates vary by state → 1798 / 1799

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
16 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Last election 20 seats (66.7%) 10 seats (33.3%)
Seats before 21 (65.6%) 11 (34.4%)
Seats won 21 (67.7%) 10 (32.3%)
Seat change Steady Decrease 1

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1796 and 1797 were elections for the United States Senate which, coinciding with John Adams's election as President, had the ruling Federalist Party gain one seat.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results[edit]

5th Congress (1797–1799):

  • Majority Party: Federalist (21)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (10)
  • Vacant: 1 (later filled by Democratic-Republican)
  • Total Seats: 32

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17
Majority → F16
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the elections[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8O DR9O DR10+ V1+ F21+ F20O F19O F18O F17O
Majority → F16O
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12O F13O F14O F15O
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 5th Congress[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9O D10 V1 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17O
Majority → F16
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14O F15O
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races[edit]

Special elections during the 4th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1797; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Georgia
(Special: Class 3)
George Walton Federalist 1795 (Appointed) Appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected February 20, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain
Josiah Tattnall (Democratic-Republican)
Connecticut
(Special: Class 1)
Oliver Ellsworth Federalist 1788
1791
Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of the United States.
Winner elected May 12, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1797.
Federalist hold
James Hillhouse (Federalist)
Massachusetts
(Special: Class 1)
George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
Winner elected June 11, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1797.
Federalist hold
Benjamin Goodhue (Federalist)
Massachusetts
(Special: Class 2)
Caleb Strong Federalist 1789
1793
Incumbent resigned June 1, 1796.
Winner elected June 11, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1799.
Federalist hold
Theodore Sedgwick (Federalist)
Connecticut
(Special: Class 3)
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Federalist 1794 Incumbent resigned June 10, 1796 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
Winner elected October 13, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1801.
Federalist hold
Uriah Tracy (Federalist)
Vermont
(Special: Class 1)
Moses Robinson Federalist 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
Winner elected October 18, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1797.
Federalist hold
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist)
New York
(Special: Class 3)
Rufus King Federalist 1789
1795
Incumbent resigned May 23, 1796 to become U.S. Minister to Great Britain.
Winner elected November 9, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1801.
Federalist hold
John Laurance (Federalist)
Maryland
(Special: Class 1)
Richard Potts Federalist 1793 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 24, 1796.
Winner elected November 30, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1797.
Federalist hold
John Eager Howard (Federalist)
South Carolina
(Special: Class 2)
Pierce Butler Democratic-
Republican
1789
1793
Incumbent resigned October 25, 1796.
Winner elected December 8, 1796 to finish the term ending March 4, 1799.
Democratic-Republican hold
John Hunter (Democratic-Republican)

Races leading to the 5th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1797; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. James Hillhouse (Federalist)
Delaware Henry Latimer Federalist 1795 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Henry Latimer (Federalist)
Maryland Richard Potts Federalist 1793 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 24, 1796.
Winner elected November 30, 1796 to finish the term, as well as to the next term.
John Eager Howard (Federalist)
Massachusetts George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
Winner elected June 11, 1796 to finish the term, as well as to the next term.
Benjamin Goodhue (Federalist)
New Jersey John Rutherfurd Federalist 1790
1796
Incumbent re-elected. John Rutherfurd (Federalist)
New York Aaron Burr Democratic-
Republican
1791 Incumbent lost re-election January 24, 1797.
Federalist gain
Philip Schuyler (Federalist)
Pennsylvania James Ross Federalist 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. James Ross (Federalist)
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Federalist 1790
1791
Incumbent re-elected. Theodore Foster (Federalist)
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1796 Legislature failed to elect.
Term began with a vacancy.
Incumbent later appointed (April 22, 1797) to continue term.[1]
None
Vermont Moses Robinson Federalist 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
Winner elected October 18, 1796 to the next term
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist)
Virginia Stevens Mason Democratic-
Republican
1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Stevens Mason (Democratic-Republican)

Special elections during the 5th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated after March 4, 1797, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Special: Class 2)
William Blount Democratic-
Republican
1796 Incumbent expelled July 8, 1797.[2]
Winner elected July 8, 1797 to finish term ending March 4, 1799.
Democratic-Republican hold
Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican)
Tennessee
(Special: Class 1)
William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1796
1797 (Appointed)
Appointee did not stand for election.
Winner elected September 26, 1797 to finish term ending March 4, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold
Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican)
Vermont
(Special: Class 1)
Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 17, 1797 to become Governor of Vermont.
Winner elected October 17, 1797 to finish term ending March 3, 1803.
Federalist hold
Nathaniel Chipman (Federalist)
Rhode Island
(Special: Class 2)
William Bradford Federalist 1793 Incumbent resigned in October 1797.
Winner elected November 13, 1797 to finish term ending March 3, 1799.
Federalist hold
Ray Greene (Federalist)
Maryland
(Special: Class 3)
John Henry Federalist 1789
1795
Incumbent resigned July 10, 1797 to become Governor of Maryland.
Winner elected December 8, 1797 to finish term ending March 3, 1801.
Federalist hold
James Lloyd (Federalist)

See also[edit]

References[edit]