Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing (United States)

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Sir Barton, the first Triple Crown winner, at the 1919 Preakness Stakes
The seventh winner, Assault in 1946 with Eddie Arcaro, jockey

In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the "Triple Crown", is a series of three Thoroughbred horse races for three-year-old horses run in May and early June of each year consisting of the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes.

While Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is commonly credited with originating the term to reference these races in 1930, they were referred to by that name at least as early as 1923.[1] The Triple Crown Trophy, commissioned in 1950, is awarded to a Triple Crown winner.

Only eleven horses have ever won the Triple Crown, none since 1978. Of the trainers of those eleven horses, "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons won the Triple Crown twice (the only trainer to do so), and another trainer, D. Wayne Lukas, scored a Triple Crown as a trainer in sweeping the 1995 races with different horses, the only individual to do so.

The eleven Triple Crown winners are Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930), Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirlaway (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault (1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973), Seattle Slew (1977), and Affirmed (1978).

Individual races[edit]

Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes, and then the Belmont Stakes.[2] Prior to 1931, the Preakness Stakes was run before the Kentucky Derby eleven times. On May 12, 1917, and again on May 13, 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.

Triple Crown races
Race Date Current Track Location Distance Inaugurated Trophy
Kentucky Derby First Saturday in May Churchill Downs Louisville, Kentucky 1 14 miles (2,000 m) 1875 Ky Derby Trophy.jpg
The Kentucky Derby Trophy
Preakness Stakes Third Saturday in May Pimlico Race Course Baltimore, Maryland 1 316 miles (1,900 m) 1873 Woodlawn Vase Preakness Stakes.jpg
The Woodlawn Vase
Belmont Stakes Third Saturday following the Preakness
(first or second Saturday in June)
Belmont Park Elmont, New York 1 12 miles (2,400 m) 1867 Belmont Cup.png
The August Belmont Trophy

While there is a similar series of races specifically for fillies, the "Triple Tiara", each Triple Crown race is open to both colts and fillies. Unlike the British and all but one of the French Classics, the races are also open to geldings. All the races are held on dirt tracks, rather than the turf commonly used for important races in Europe.

Winners of the Triple Crown[edit]

Original "devil's red and blue" silks of Calumet Farm, two-time winner of the Triple Crown with Whirlaway and Citation

At completion of the 2014 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 4,144 entrants. Of these, 289 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 52 horses have won two of the races (23 the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, and 11 the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes), and 11 horses have won all three races. Pillory won both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown because the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.

Triple Crown winners
Year Winner Jockey Trainer Owner Breeder
1919 Sir Barton Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross John E. Madden
1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud
1935 Omaha Willie "Smokey" Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud
1937 War Admiral Charley Kurtsinger George H. Conway Samuel D. Riddle Samuel D. Riddle
1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm
1943 Count Fleet Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz Fannie Hertz
1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch King Ranch
1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Horace A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm
1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable Meadow Stud
1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William H. Turner, Jr. Karen L. Taylor Ben S. Castleman
1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm Harbor View Farm

Jim Fitzsimmons is the only trainer to have two horses win the Triple Crown, training the sire/son combination of 1930 winner Gallant Fox and 1935 winner Omaha. This also marked the first time that an owner and the first time that a breeder, Belair Stud holding both duties, would have a repeat win of the Triple Crown.

Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown, 1941 winner Whirlaway and 1948 winner Citation.


Secretariat holds the time record for each of the Triple Crown races, the Kentucky Derby (1:59 2/5), the Preakness Stakes (1:53), and the Belmont Stakes (2:24)[3][4]

Individual Triple Crown achievements[edit]

In 1995, D. Wayne Lukas became the first and only major figure (owner, jockey, or trainer) to sweep the Triple Crown races with different horses, Thunder Gulch in the Derby and Belmont, Timber Country in the Preakness.

Two trainers, John Vietch and Bob Baffert, have had horses place second in all three legs of the Triple Crown. Veitch in 1978 with Alydar, who in a famous rivalry with Affirmed (Affirmed won the Triple Crown that year) is the only horse to have placed second in all three races. In 2012 Bob Baffert followed suit with two different horses. Bodemeister finished second in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness stakes, then opted out of the Belmont Stakes. Instead other Baffert trainee Paynter was entered and finished second to Union Rags.[5]

Individual race winners[edit]

Key for full list of race winners
dagger Denotes winners of the Triple Crown
* Denotes winners of the first 2 of the 3 Triple Crown races
# Denotes winners of any other 2 of the 3 Triple Crown races
Full list of race winners
Year Kentucky Derby Preakness Stakes Belmont Stakes
1867 Ruthless[Fy]
1868 General Duke
1869 Fenian
1870 Kingfisher
1871 Harry Bassett
1872 Joe Daniels
1873 Survivor Springbok
1874 Culpepper Saxon
1875 Aristides Tom Ochiltree Calvin
1876 Vagrant Shirley Algerine
1877 Baden-Baden # Cloverbrook # Cloverbrook
1878 Day Star # Duke of Magenta # Duke of Magenta
1879 Lord Murphy Harold Spendthrift
1880 Fonso # Grenada # Grenada
1881 Hindoo # Saunterer # Saunterer
1882 Apollo Vanguard Forester
1883 Leonatus Jacobus George Kinney
1884 Buchanan Knight of Ellerslie Panique
1885 Joe Cotton Tecumseh Tyrant
1886 Ben Ali The Bard Inspector B
1887 Montrose Dunboyne Hanover
1888 Macbeth II Refund Sir Dixon
1889 Spokane Buddhist Eric
1890 Riley Montague[a] Burlington
1891 Kingman RNR Foxford
1892 Azra RNR Patron
1893 Lookout RNR Commanche
1894 Chant Assignee[b] Henry of Navarre
1895 Halma # Belmar[b] # Belmar
1896 Ben Brush Margrave[b] Hastings
1897 Typhoon II Paul Kauvar[b] Scottish Chieftain
1898 Plaudit Sly Fox[b] Bowling Brook
1899 Manuel Half Time[b] Jean Bereaud
1900 Lieut. Gibson Hindus[b] Ildrim
1901 His Eminence The Parader[b] Commando
1902 Alan-a-Dale Old England[b] Masterman
1903 Judge Himes Flocarline[Fy][b] Africander
1904 Elwood Bryn Mawr[b] Delhi
1905 Agile Cairngorm[b] Tanya[Fy]
1906 Sir Huon Whimsical[Fy][b] Burgomaster
1907 Pink Star Don Enrique[b] Peter Pan I
1908 Stone Street Royal Tourist[b] Colin
1909 Wintergreen Effendi Joe Madden
1910 Donau Layminster Sweep
1911 Meridian Watervale RNR
1912 Worth Colonel Holloway RNR
1913 Donerail Buskin Prince Eugene
1914 Old Rosebud Holiday Luke McLuke
1915 Regret[Fy] Rhine Maiden[Fy] The Finn
1916 George Smith Damrosch Friar Rock
1917 Omar Khayyam[c] Kalitan[c] Hourless
1918 Exterminator War Cloud[d]
Jack Hare, Jr.[d]
1919 winner of the Triple Crown Sir Barton winner of the Triple Crown Sir Barton winner of the Triple Crown Sir Barton
1920 Paul Jones # Man o' War # Man o' War
1921 Behave Yourself Broomspun Grey Lag
1922 Morvich[c] # Pillory[c] # Pillory
1923 # Zev Vigil # Zev
1924 Black Gold Nellie Morse[Fy] Mad Play
1925 Flying Ebony Coventry American Flag
1926 Bubbling Over Display Crusader
1927 Whiskery Bostonian Chance Shot
1928 Reigh Count Victorian Vito
1929 Clyde Van Dusen Dr. Freeland Blue Larkspur
1930 winner of the Triple Crown Gallant Fox winner of the Triple Crown Gallant Fox winner of the Triple Crown Gallant Fox
1931 # Twenty Grand Mate # Twenty Grand
1932 * Burgoo King * Burgoo King Faireno
1933 Brokers Tip Head Play Hurryoff
1934 Cavalcade High Quest Peace Chance
1935 winner of the Triple Crown Omaha winner of the Triple Crown Omaha winner of the Triple Crown Omaha
1936 * Bold Venture * Bold Venture Granville
1937 winner of the Triple Crown War Admiral winner of the Triple Crown War Admiral winner of the Triple Crown War Admiral
1938 Lawrin Dauber Pasteurized
1939 # Johnstown Challedon # Johnstown
1940 Gallahadion # Bimelech # Bimelech
1941 winner of the Triple Crown Whirlaway winner of the Triple Crown Whirlaway winner of the Triple Crown Whirlaway
1942 # Shut Out Alsab # Shut Out
1943 winner of the Triple Crown Count Fleet winner of the Triple Crown Count Fleet winner of the Triple Crown Count Fleet
1944 * Pensive * Pensive Bounding Home
1945 Hoop Jr. Polynesian Pavot
1946 winner of the Triple Crown Assault winner of the Triple Crown Assault winner of the Triple Crown Assault
1947 Jet Pilot Faultless Phalanx
1948 winner of the Triple Crown Citation winner of the Triple Crown Citation winner of the Triple Crown Citation
1949 Ponder # Capot # Capot
1950 # Middleground Hill Prince # Middleground
1951 Count Turf Bold Counterpoint
1952 Hill Gail Blue Man One Count
1953 Dark Star # Native Dancer # Native Dancer
1954 Determine Hasty Road High Gun
1955 Swaps # Nashua # Nashua
1956 # Needles Fabius # Needles
1957 Iron Liege Bold Ruler Gallant Man
1958 * Tim Tam * Tim Tam Cavan
1959 Tomy Lee Royal Orbit Sword Dancer
1960 Venetian Way Bally Ache Celtic Ash
1961 * Carry Back * Carry Back Sherluck
1962 Decidedly Greek Money Jaipur
1963 # Chateaugay Candy Spots # Chateaugay[e]
1964 * Northern Dancer * Northern Dancer Quadrangle[e]
1965 Lucky Debonair Tom Rolfe Hail To All[e]
1966 * Kauai King * Kauai King Amberoid[e]
1967 Proud Clarion # Damascus # Damascus[e]
1968 * Forward Pass[f] * Forward Pass Stage Door Johnny
1969 * Majestic Prince * Majestic Prince Arts and Letters
1970 Dust Commander Personality High Echelon
1971 * Canonero II * Canonero II Pass Catcher
1972 # Riva Ridge Bee Bee Bee # Riva Ridge
1973 winner of the Triple Crown Secretariat winner of the Triple Crown Secretariat winner of the Triple Crown Secretariat
1974 Cannonade # Little Current # Little Current
1975 Foolish Pleasure Master Derby Avatar
1976 # Bold Forbes Elocutionist # Bold Forbes
1977 winner of the Triple Crown Seattle Slew winner of the Triple Crown Seattle Slew winner of the Triple Crown Seattle Slew
1978 winner of the Triple Crown Affirmed winner of the Triple Crown Affirmed winner of the Triple Crown Affirmed
1979 * Spectacular Bid * Spectacular Bid Coastal
1980 Genuine Risk[Fy] Codex Temperence Hill
1981 * Pleasant Colony * Pleasant Colony Summing
1982 Gato Del Sol Aloma's Ruler Conquistador Cielo
1983 Sunny's Halo Deputed Testamony Caveat
1984 # Swale Gate Dancer # Swale
1985 Spend A Buck Tank's Prospect Creme Fraiche
1986 Ferdinand Snow Chief Danzig Connection
1987 * Alysheba * Alysheba Bet Twice
1988 Winning Colors[Fy] # Risen Star # Risen Star
1989 * Sunday Silence * Sunday Silence Easy Goer
1990 Unbridled Summer Squall Go And Go
1991 Strike the Gold # Hansel # Hansel
1992 Lil E. Tee Pine Bluff A.P. Indy
1993 Sea Hero Prairie Bayou Colonial Affair
1994 Go for Gin # Tabasco Cat # Tabasco Cat
1995 # Thunder Gulch Timber Country # Thunder Gulch
1996 Grindstone Louis Quatorze Editor's Note
1997 * Silver Charm * Silver Charm Touch Gold
1998 * Real Quiet * Real Quiet Victory Gallop
1999 * Charismatic * Charismatic Lemon Drop Kid
2000 Fusaichi Pegasus Red Bullet Commendable
2001 Monarchos # Point Given # Point Given
2002 * War Emblem * War Emblem Sarava
2003 * Funny Cide * Funny Cide Empire Maker
2004 * Smarty Jones * Smarty Jones Birdstone
2005 Giacomo # Afleet Alex # Afleet Alex
2006 Barbaro Bernardini Jazil
2007 Street Sense Curlin Rags to Riches[Fy]
2008 * Big Brown * Big Brown Da' Tara
2009 Mine That Bird Rachel Alexandra[Fy] Summer Bird
2010 Super Saver Lookin at Lucky Drosselmeyer
2011 Animal Kingdom Shackleford Ruler on Ice
2012 * I'll Have Another * I'll Have Another Union Rags[g]
2013 Orb Oxbow Palace Malice
2014 * California Chrome * California Chrome Tonalist
2015 * American Pharoah * American Pharoah


  1. ^ The 1890 Preakness Stakes was held at Morris Park Racecourse in The Bronx, New York.[6]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o From 1894 to 1908, the Preakness Stakes were held at Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, New York.[6]
  3. ^ a b c d In 1917 and 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were held on the same day.
  4. ^ a b The 1918 Preakness Stakes was held in two divisions due to a large field. War Cloud won one and Jack Hare, Jr. the other.
  5. ^ a b c d e Due to reconstruction at Belmont Park, the Belmont Stakes were held at Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, New York from 1963 to 1967.
  6. ^ Dancer's Image was disqualified as the winner of the 1968 Kentucky Derby due to a post-race failed drug test.
  7. ^ I'll Have Another was scratched the afternoon prior to the Belmont due to tendonitis and was unable to attempt to win the race.
  • [Fy] Denotes a filly. Fillies won the Kentucky Derby in 1915, 1980, and 1988, Preakness Stakes in 1903, 1906, 1915, 1924, and 2009, and Belmont Stakes in 1867, 1905, and 2007.
  • RNR Race not run. The Belmont was not run in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-betting legislation passed in New York State. The Preakness did not run 1891–1893.

Gaps between wins[edit]

Big Brown, the winner of the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, at the 2008 Belmont Stakes, where he was pulled up and did not finish.
Horses leaving the Belmont Park starting gate at the beginning of a horse race
California Chrome (second from right) was stepped on by the number 3 horse while leaving the starting gate at the 2014 Belmont Stakes

After the first Triple Crown winner, Sir Barton, in 1919, there was not another winner until Gallant Fox in 1930, a gap of 11 years. Between 1930 and 1948, seven horses won the Triple Crown, with five years being the longest gap between winners. However, following the 1948 win of Citation, a considerable gap occurred; 25 years before Secretariat ended the drought of Triple Crown champions in 1973.

The longest drought in Triple Crown history began in 1979 with Spectacular Bid's failed Triple Crown attempt at the Belmont Stakes, and as of 2014 remains that way. There had not been a Triple Crown winner since Affirmed's Belmont victory on June 10, 1978. Since then, thirteen horses won both the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, but not the Belmont. Of those, Real Quiet came the closest to winning the Triple Crown, losing the Belmont Stakes by a nose in 1998. Charismatic led the Belmont Stakes in the final furlong in 1999, but fractured his left front leg in the final stretch and fell back to third. The seven most recent horses to win the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes but either lost or withdrew from the Belmont Stakes were War Emblem in 2002, Funny Cide in 2003, Smarty Jones in 2004, Big Brown in 2008, I'll Have Another in 2012, and California Chrome in 2014. As of 16 May 2015, American Pharoah has won the first two legs of the Triple Crown, and will become the fourteenth horse to attempt to end the drought on June 6, 2015.

As far back as 1986, reporters noted that horses who were fresh for the Belmont had an advantage.[7] In 2003, Gary Stevens stated in an interview with Charlie Rose that he did not believe there would be another Triple Crown winner because of the tendency for owners to put fresh horses in the Preakness and Belmont Stakes.[8] California Chrome co-owner Steve Coburn was particularly critical of the Triple Crown system during post-race remarks made on NBC in 2014; he considered the system to be unfair, arguing that there would never be another Triple Crown winner in his lifetime unless only horses that competed in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness competed at the Belmont. Including Tonalist, six of the previous eight Belmont winners had not competed in either of the first two legs of the Triple Crown.[9] Additionally, from 2005 to 2014, the Belmont winner has been a horse who had not competed in the Preakness.[10]

Several horses have won two of the three races since the last Triple Crown win, including 13 that won both the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness but lost the Belmont. In 2012, I'll Have Another, who won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes, was scratched from the Belmont Stakes, due to concerns about a possible foot injury. Unusual situations occurred in 1995, when Thunder Gulch won the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes, but stablemate Timber Country won the Preakness Stakes. Both horses were trained by D. Wayne Lukas, making him the only Triple Crown-winning trainer without a Triple Crown-winning horse. In 2009, jockey Calvin Borel had the opportunity to win a Triple Crown on two different horses. Borel won the Kentucky Derby on Mine that Bird, and the Preakness aboard filly Rachel Alexandra. Borel finished third aboard Mine that Bird in the Belmont.

Only one horse, Alydar, has placed (finished second) in all three races. He was defeated by Affirmed in all three races in 1978 by a combined margin of two lengths. In addition, Mane Minister finished third in each race in 1991, and Hawkster finished fifth in each race in 1989.

Gallant Fox is the only triple crown winner to sire another US triple crown winner, Omaha. Affirmed sired Peteski, winner of the 1993 Canadian Triple Crown.[11]

Unsuccessful bids[edit]

Since all three races were inaugurated, 23 horses As of 2014 have won the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont:

  • 1932: Burgoo King did not enter the Belmont due to lameness.[12]:78, 182
  • 1936: Bold Venture did not enter the Belmont due to lameness.[12]:78, 182
  • 1944: Pensive was the first horse to contest but lose the Belmont after winning the first two legs. He placed 2nd to Bounding Home.[12]:78
  • 1958: Tim Tam
  • 1961: Carry Back
  • 1964: Northern Dancer
  • 1966: Kauai King
  • 1968: Forward Pass
  • 1969: Majestic Prince
  • 1971 Canonero II
  • 1979: Spectacular Bid 3rd in Belmont 3 14 lengths behind Coastal, a neck behind the second-place horse, Golden Act.
  • 1981: Pleasant Colony 3rd in Belmont 1 12 lengths behind Summing and the second-place horse, Highland Blade.
  • 1987: Alysheba finishes fourth in Belmont behind Bet Twice, Cryptoclearance, and Gulch.
  • 1989: Sunday Silence 2nd in Belmont, 8 lengths behind Easy Goer.
  • 1997: Silver Charm 2nd in Belmont, 34 length behind Touch Gold.
  • 1998: Real Quiet 2nd in Belmont after a photo finish, a nose behind Victory Gallop.
  • 1999: Charismatic 3rd in Belmont, 1 12 lengths behind Lemon Drop Kid and second-place Vision and Verse. Charismatic was pulled up soon after the finish and vanned off with a career-ending injury.
  • 2002: War Emblem stumbles at gate in Belmont, finishes eighth out of 11. Winner Sarava scored upset at record odds of 70-1.
  • 2003: Funny Cide 3rd in Belmont, 5 lengths behind Empire Maker, and 4 14 lengths behind second-place horse, Ten Most Wanted.
  • 2004: Smarty Jones 2nd in Belmont, one length behind Birdstone.
  • 2008:Big Brown, with a cracked hoof, is pulled up in the home stretch of the Belmont, eased to a last-place finish. Recorded as a DNF. Winner was Da' Tara.
  • 2012:I'll Have Another was scratched from the Belmont the day before the race due to a potential foot injury.
  • 2014: California Chrome finished in a dead heat for 4th in the Belmont after being stepped on by another horse leaving the gate and running the race with an injury to his heel and a scrape on his tendon.[13]

Sponsorship and broadcasting[edit]

Originally, the three races largely organized their own nominations procedure, marketing and television broadcast rights. In 1985, Triple Crown Productions was created when the owner of Spend a Buck chose not to run in the other two Triple Crown races because of a financial incentive offered to any Kentucky Derby winner who could win a set of competing races in New Jersey. The organizers of the three races realized that they needed to work together.[14]

Efforts to unify the sponsorship and marketing of all three Triple Crown races began in 1987 when ABC Sports negotiated a deal with Chrysler to pay $5 million to any horse that swept all three races, and $1 million each year there was no Triple Crown sweep to the horse with the highest combined Triple Crown finish.[15] This sponsorship lasted until 1993. The end of the $1 million participation bonus was linked to the breakdown of Prairie Bayou at the Belmont Stakes that year and the uncomfortable situation that arose when the Kentucky Derby winner, Sea Hero, was given the bonus following a seventh-place finish.[14]

In 1995, Visa USA took over the sponsorship with a 10-year contract, naming the series the Visa Triple Crown and offering only the $5 million bonus to a horse that could sweep the Triple Crown.[16] Along with sponsorship by VISA, NBC Sports paid $51.5 million for broadcast rights to all three races, with the revenue split giving 50% of the total to Churchill Downs and 25% each to Pimlico and to the New York Racing Association (NYRA).[14]

The Visa deal—and the cooperative effort—ended after 2005. The NYRA felt that they did not get a fair share of the revenue, particularly when the Belmont had the highest ratings of all three races in the years where a Triple Crown was on the line.[14] From 2001 through 2013, average viewership for the Belmont was 7 million when the Triple Crown was not at stake, whereas viewership averaged 13 million when it was.[17] With the contract term ending, the NYRA went to ESPN on ABC for the 2006 Belmont, while the broadcasts of the Derby and Preakness remained with NBC.[14] Visa chose to remain as a sponsor of only Kentucky Derby for the next five years.[16] As a result of the divided broadcast, Triple Crown Productions was unable to obtain a new sponsor,[14][a] and as of 2015 the Triple Crown series has not had a unified sponsorship since.

Years Sponsor Bonuses
1987–1993 Chrysler Corporation $1 million (best overall record)
$5 million (three wins)
1995–2005 Visa USA $5 million (three wins)
2006–present Triple Crown Productions (none)

In February 2011, ABC/ESPN dropped out of the negotiations to renew broadcast rights to the Belmont rights. NBC obtained the contract through 2015, once again uniting all three races on the same network.[18][19][20] In 2014, NBC extended their contract for the Kentucky Derby through 2025.[21] As of May 2015, The broadcast contracts for the Preakness and Belmont for 2016 forward have yet to be awarded.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ These were 2002 for War Emblem, 2003 for Funny Cide in 2003 and 2004 for Smarty Jones.[14]


  1. ^ Liebman, Bennett (April 24, 2008). "The Rail: The Race for the Triple Crown - Origins of Triple Crown". The New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
  2. ^ "History & Tradition of the Triple Crown". OD Action. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Sham: In the Shadow of a Superhorse". California Thoroughbred. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 
  4. ^ Hegarty, Matt (June 19, 2012). "Secretariat awarded Preakness record at 1:53 after review". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  5. ^ "2012 Kentucky Derby -- I'll Have Another rallies to win at Churchill Downs - ESPN". Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Preakness Stakes - History". Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "The Courier - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  8. ^ Charlie Rose (July 21, 2003). "A rebroadcast of a discussion about the film Seabiscuit". Charlie Rose. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Brennan: Cherry-pick races and Triple Crown extinct". USA Today. Retrieved June 8, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Betting against California Chrome? Fresh horses typically win Belmont Stakes". Newsday. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Canadian Triple Crown Winner Peteski Dies from Colic". April 8, 2001. Retrieved August 11, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c Drape, Joe (2008). To the swift : classic Triple Crown horses and their race for glory (1st ed. ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312357955. 
  13. ^ Claire Novak (June 8, 2014). "'Chrome' Co-Owner Has No Regrets for Comments". Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Paulick, Ray (November 17, 2010). "Selling Triple Crown As A Package Deal". Paulick Report. 
  15. ^ "Chrysler to Sponsor Triple Crown Challenge". Ocala Star-Banner. Associated Press. September 24, 1987. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Staff (May 2, 2005). "VIsa to End Triple Crown Challenge Sponsorship". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 
  17. ^ Sandomir, Richard (May 19, 2014). "Looking for a Sure Thing in the Belmont Stakes? Bet on NBC". New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  18. ^ "NBC reaches deal to keep Kentucky Derby rights through 2015". Daily Hampshire Gazette - Associated Press. October 8, 2010. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 
  19. ^ Sharrow, Ryan (February 22, 2011). "NBC re-ups deal to carry Preakness through 2015". 
  20. ^ "NBC Signs Five Year Deal To Televise Belmont Stakes". Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  21. ^ "New Pact Keeps Kentucky Derby in NBC Stable Through 2025" (PRESS RELEASE). February 26, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 

External links[edit]