In addition to its documentation of the new boundary, the survey report was notable for its natural history content, including paleontology, botany, ichthyology, ornithology, and mammalogy. Twenty-five hand-colored lithographic plates of birds were included in the volume Zoology of the Boundary, edited by Spencer Fullerton Baird. These illustrations were prepared by J.T. Bowen and Company of Philadelphia, the same firm that had produced the octavo edition of Audubon'sBirds of America. Numerous illustrations of plants, reptiles, and amphibians were included, colored in some editions. The hand-colored lithographs of scenery and ethnography are important historical records.
As a result of the boundary survey and subsequent treaties, the U.S. and Mexico established the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) in 1889 to maintain the border, allocate river waters between the two nations, and provide for flood control and water sanitation. Once viewed as a model of international cooperation, in recent decades the IBWC has been heavily criticized as an institutional anachronism.