The 1789 United States general election elected the members of the 1st United States Congress. Formal political parties did not exist, as the leading politicians of the day largely distrusted the idea of "factions." However, Congress would become broadly divided by the economic policies of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, with the Pro-Administration faction supporting those policies. Opposing them was the Anti-Administration faction, which saw a smaller role for the federal government.
In the first election since the ratification of the Constitution, George Washington won the Presidency without any major opposition. The Pro-Administration faction won majorities in both houses of Congress.