The 1882 United States general election occurred in the middle of Republican President Chester A. Arthur's term, during the Third Party System. Members of the 48th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Democrats won control of the House, while Republicans won control of the Senate.
Following the 1880 census, the size of the House increased by 32 seats. Democrats won major gains, taking control of the chamber.
In the Senate, Republicans picked up one seat, giving them half of the seats in the chamber. With the office of Vice President vacant, neither party controlled a majority, but Republican George F. Edmunds won re-election as President pro tempore.