United States embargoes
As of 2014[update], there are several United States embargoes and sanctions in force by the United States against several countries and activities, the most notable of which are against countries the federal government of the United States considers State Sponsors of Terrorism.
Some sanctions imposed by the United States government are:
- No arms-related exports
- Controls over dual-use exports
- Restrictions on economic assistance
- Financial restrictions
- Requiring the United States to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions.
- Diplomatic immunity waived to allow families of terrorist victims to file for civil damages in U.S. courts.
- Tax credits for companies and individuals denied for income earned in listed countries.
- Duty-free goods exemption suspended for imports from those countries.
- Authority to prohibit a U.S. citizen from engaging in financial transactions with the government on the list without a license from the U.S. government.
- Prohibition of Defense Department contracts above $100,000 with companies controlled by countries on the list.
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection - United States Department of Homeland Security (border crossings)
- Office of Foreign Assets Control - United States Department of the Treasury
- Bureau of Industry and Security - United States Department of Commerce (EAR)
- Directorate of Defense Trade Controls - United States Department of State (ITAR)
- United States Department of Defense
- United States Department of Justice
- United States Department of Energy (nuclear technology)
As of June 2014, the United States has sanctions against:
|Burma||1997||Sanctions severely restricting trade between Burma and the United States, although thanks to the recent democratization of Burma's political system these sanctions are beginning to be lifted|
|Cuba||1962||A very long running series of sanctions that restrict almost all trade and travel between the two countries dating from the Cold War and the Cuban Missile Crisis.|
|Iran||1979||Near total economic embargo on all economic activities, including a ban on all Iranian imports, sanctions on Iranian financial institutions as well as restriction on the sale of aircraft and repair parts as well as arms embargoes. This policy began in 1979 as a response to the Iranian Revolution, but has been rapidly expanded over recent years due to the Iranian Nuclear Program On May 30, 2013, OFAC issued Iranian General License D, authorizing the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, from the United States or by U.S. persons, wherever located, to persons in Iran of "certain services, software, and hardware incident to personal communications". General License D enumerates certain categories allowed to be exported to Iran. For scope and further details, see General License D and the Annex to General License D, available from OFAC's Iran Sanctions Resource Center at http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/iran.aspx.|
|North Korea||1950||Severe sanctions due to human rights abuses by North Korea and the North Korean Nuclear Program. North Korea and the US have no diplomatic relations.|
|Sudan||2002||Sanctions due to criticism of Sudan's human Rights record as well as Sudanese support for the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait and accusations that Sudan has harbored Islamic Extremists has led to a series of economic sanctions.|
|Syria||1986||Reasons for sanctions include Syria's poor human rights record, the present Civil War as well as Syria's classification by the US as a State sponsor of terrorism|
|Belarus||Certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus (including President Alexander Lukashenko and other officials)|
|Ivory Coast||Certain persons contributing to the conflict in Ivory Coast|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Certain persons contributing to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Iraq||Specific individuals and entities associated with the former Saddam Hussein regime, as well as parties determined to have committed, or to pose a significant risk of committing an act of violence that threatens the peace or stability of Iraq or the Government of Iraq or undermining efforts to promote economic reconstruction and political reform in Iraq or to provide humanitarian assistance to the Iraqi people|
|Lebanon||Persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes and institutions|
|Liberia||The former Charles Taylor administration in Liberia; prohibits importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia|
|Russia||Persons responsible for the detention, abuse, and death of Sergei Magnitsky and other gross violations of human rights in Russia (see Magnitsky Act)|
|Somalia||Certain persons contributing to the conflict in Somalia|
||Persons who threaten international stabilization in the Western Balkans and former Yugoslavia|
|Yemen||Persons threatening the peace, security, or stability of Yemen|
|Zimbabwe||Persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, including a number of Government Officials|
|Persons undermining the peace, security, stability, territorial integrity and the democratic processes and institutions of Ukraine. Also persons administering areas of Ukraine without central government consent, also a number of senior Russian Officials close to President Putin.|
|Central African Republic||Persons contributing to the conflict in the Central African Republic|
|South Sudan||Persons contributing to the conflict in South Sudan and those who have committed human rights abuses|
|/ Libya||Persons associated with the Gaddafi Regime|
There are also list-based sanctions related to countering terrorism, rough diamond trade controls (see Kimberley Process), counter narcotics, nuclear proliferation and transnational criminal organizations.
Some countries listed are members of the World Trade Organization, but WTO rules allow trade restrictions for non-economic purposes.
- State Sponsors of Terrorism - placement on the list puts severe restrictions on trade with that nation
- United States steel tariff 2002
- Permanent Normal Trade Relations
- Arms Export Control Act
- "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". State.gov. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- U.S. Treasury - Sanctions Program Summaries Links to overviews, details, and legal authorities for each party are given.