United States embargoes
As of 2012[update], there are several United States embargoes and sanctions in force by the United States against several countries and activities, the most notable of which are against countries the federal government of the United States considers State Sponsors of Terrorism.
Some sanctions imposed by the United States government are:
- No arms-related exports
- Controls over dual-use exports
- Restrictions on economic assistance
- Financial restrictions
- Requiring the United States to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions.
- Diplomatic immunity waived to allow families of terrorist victims to file for civil damages in U.S. courts.
- Tax credits for companies and individuals denied for income earned in listed countries.
- Duty-free goods exemption suspended for imports from those countries.
- Authority to prohibit a U.S. citizen from engaging in financial transactions with the government on the list without a license from the U.S. government.
- Prohibition of Defense Department contracts above $100,000 with companies controlled by countries on the list.
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection - United States Department of Homeland Security (border crossings)
- Office of Foreign Assets Control - United States Department of the Treasury
- Bureau of Industry and Security - United States Department of Commerce (EAR)
- Directorate of Defense Trade Controls - United States Department of State (ITAR)
- United States Department of Defense
- United States Department of Justice
- United States Department of Energy (nuclear technology)
As of May 2013, the United States has sanctions against:
- Burma, since 1997 (see Burma-United States relations)
- Cuba, since 1962 (see United States embargo against Cuba)
- Iran, since 1979 (see Sanctions against Iran)
- Libya, since 2011 (now applied only against parties closely associated with the former Gaddafi regime; see Libya-United States relations)
- North Korea, since 1950 (see North Korea–United States relations)
- Sudan, since 2002 (see Sudan–United States relations)
- Syria, since 1986 (see Syria–United States relations)
- Certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus (including President Alexander Lukashenko and other officials)
- Certain persons contributing to the conflict in Cote d'Ivoire
- Certain persons contributing to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Specific individuals and entities associated with the former Saddam Hussein regime, as well as parties determined to have committed, or to pose a significant risk of committing an act of violence that threatens the peace or stability of Iraq or the Government of Iraq or undermining efforts to promote economic reconstruction and political reform in Iraq or to provide humanitarian assistance to the Iraqi people
- Persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes and institutions
- The former Charles Taylor administration in Liberia; prohibits importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia
- Persons responsible for the detention, abuse, and death of Sergei Magnitsky and other gross violations of human rights in Russia (see Magnitsky Act)
- Certain persons contributing to the conflict in Somalia
- Persons who threaten international stabilization in the Western Balkans
- Persons threatening the peace, security, or stability of Yemen
- Persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe
There are also list-based sanctions related to countering terrorism, rough diamond trade controls (see Kimberley Process), counter narcotics, nuclear proliferation and transnational criminal organizations.
Some countries listed are members of the World Trade Organization, but WTO rules allow trade restrictions for non-economic purposes.
- State Sponsors of Terrorism - placement on the list puts severe restrictions on trade with that nation
- United States steel tariff 2002
- Permanent Normal Trade Relations
- Arms Export Control Act
- "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". State.gov. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- U.S. Treasury - Sanctions Program Summaries Links to overviews, details, and legal authorities for each party are given.
- "Libya: What You Need to Know About Sanctions Relating to Libya". Office of Foreign Assets Control. November 3, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2012.