Flag of the United States

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United States of America
Flag of the United States of America
Names The American flag, The Stars and Stripes; Red, White and Blue; Old Glory; The Star-Spangled Banner
Use National flag and ensign
Proportion 10:19
Adopted June 14, 1777 (original 13-star version)

July 4, 1960 (current 50-star version)

Design Thirteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white; in the canton, 50 white stars of alternating numbers of six and five per row on a blue field

The national flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton (referred to specifically as the "union") bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars. The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain and became the first states in the Union.[1] Nicknames for the flag include the "Stars and Stripes", "Old Glory",[2] and "The Star-Spangled Banner".

History[edit]

The design of the flag has been modified 26 times officially since 1777. The 48-star flag was in effect for 47 years until the 49-star version became official on July 4, 1959. The 50-star flag was ordered by President Eisenhower on August 21, 1959.[3]

First flag[edit]

At the time of the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress would not legally adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year. The flag contemporaneously known as "the Continental Colors" has historically been referred to as the first national flag.[4]

The Continental Navy raised the Colors as the ensign of the fledgling nation in the American War for Independence—likely with the expedient of transforming their previous British red ensigns by adding white stripes—and would use this flag until 1777, when it would form the basis for the subsequent de jure designs.[4][5]

The name "Grand Union" was first applied to the Continental Colors by George Preble in his 1872 history of the American flag.[5]

The flag closely resembles the British East India Company flag of the era, and Sir Charles Fawcett argued in 1937 that the Company flag inspired the design.[6] Both flags could have been easily constructed by adding white stripes to a British Red Ensign, the maritime flag used throughout the British Empire. However, an East India Company flag could have from nine to 13 stripes, and was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean.[7]

In any case, both the stripes (barry) and the stars (mullets) have precedents in classical heraldry. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the U.S. flag are those in the coat of arms of Valais of 1618, where seven mullets stood for seven districts.

The first American flags were made out of hemp.[8]

The Flag Resolution of 1777[edit]

On June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution which stated: "Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation."[9] Flag Day is now observed on June 14 of each year. While scholars still argue about this, tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June 1777 by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment.[10]

The first official U.S. flag flown during battle was on August 3, 1777 at Fort Schuyler (Fort Stanwix) during the Siege of Fort Stanwix. Massachusetts reinforcements brought news of the adoption by Congress of the official flag to Fort Schuyler. Soldiers cut up their shirts to make the white stripes; scarlet material to form the red was secured from red flannel petticoats of officers' wives, while material for the blue union was secured from Capt. Abraham Swartwout's blue cloth coat. A voucher is extant that Capt. Swartwout of Dutchess County was paid by Congress for his coat for the flag.[11]

Francis Hopkinson's design for a U.S. flag, featuring six-pointed stars arranged in rows.
FIAV historical.svg 13-star "Betsy Ross" variant

The 1777 resolution was most probably meant to define a naval ensign. In the late 18th century, the notion of national flag did not yet exist, or was only nascent. The flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. On May 10, 1779, Secretary of the Board of War Richard Peters expressed concern "it is not yet settled what is the Standard of the United States."[12]

The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement, number of points, nor orientation for the stars and the arrangement and appearance was up to the maker of the flag. Some flag makers arranged the stars into one big star, in a circle or in rows and some replaced a state's star with its initial.[13] One famous arrangement features 13 outwardly-oriented five-pointed stars arranged in a circle, the so-called Betsy Ross flag. Although the Betsy Ross legend is controversial, the design is among the earliest 13-star flags. Popular designs at the time were varied and most were individually crafted rather than mass-produced. Examples of 13-star arrangements can be found on other flags attributed to Francis Hopkinson, the Cowpens flag, and the Brandywine flag.

Despite the 1777 resolution, a number of flags only loosely based on the prescribed design were used in the early years of American independence. One example may have been the Guilford Court House Flag, traditionally believed to have been carried by the American troops at the Battle of Guilford Court House in 1781. Other evidence suggests it dates only to the nineteenth century.[14] The original flag is at the North Carolina Historical Museum.

The origin of the stars and stripes design is inadequately documented. The apocryphal story credits Betsy Ross for sewing the first flag from a pencil sketch handed to her by George Washington. No evidence for this exists; indeed, nearly a century had passed before Ross' grandson, William Canby, first publicly suggested it.[15] Another woman, Rebecca Young, has also been credited as having made the first flag by later generations of her family. Young's daughter was Mary Pickersgill, who made the Star Spangled Banner Flag.[16][17] According to rumor, the Washington family coat of arms, shown in a 15th-century window of Selby Abbey, was the origin of the stars and stripes.[18]

Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, designed the 1777 flag[19] while he was the Chairman of the Continental Navy Board's Middle Department, sometime between his appointment to that position in November 1776 and the time that the flag resolution was adopted in June 1777. Hopkinson was the only person to have made such a claim during his own lifetime, when he sent a bill to Congress for his work. He asked for a "Quarter Cask of the Public Wine" as payment initially. The payment was not made, however, because it was determined he had already received a salary as a member of Congress.[20] This contradicts the legend of the Betsy Ross flag, which suggests that she sewed the first Stars and Stripes flag by request of the government in the Spring of 1776.[21][22]

Later flag acts[edit]

FIAV historical.svg 15-star, 15-stripe Star Spangled Banner Flag
FIAV historical.svg The 48-star flag was in use 1912–1959, second longest only to the current one.

In 1795, the number of stars and stripes was increased from 13 to 15 (to reflect the entry of Vermont and Kentucky as states of the Union). For a time the flag was not changed when subsequent states were admitted, probably because it was thought that this would cause too much clutter. It was the 15-star, 15-stripe flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write "Defence of Fort M'Henry", later known as "The Star Spangled Banner", which is now the American national anthem. The flag is currently on display in the exhibition, "The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem" at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History in a two-story display chamber that protects the flag while it is on view.[23]

Oil painting depicting the 39 historical U.S. flags

On April 4, 1818, a plan was passed by Congress at the suggestion of U.S. Naval Captain Samuel C. Reid[24] in which the flag was changed to have 20 stars, with a new star to be added when each new state was admitted, but the number of stripes would be reduced to 13 so as to honor the original colonies. The act specified that new flag designs should become official on the first July 4 (Independence Day) following admission of one or more new states. The most recent change, from 49 stars to 50, occurred in 1960 when the present design was chosen, after Hawaii gained statehood in August 1959. Before that, the admission of Alaska in January 1959 prompted the debut of a short-lived 49-star flag.[25]

Prior to the adoption of the 48-star flag in 1912, there was no official arrangement of the stars in the canton, although the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy used standardized designs. Throughout the 19th century there were a plethora of star patterns, rectangular and circular.

On July 4, 2007, the 50-star flag became the version of the flag in longest use.

The "Flower Flag" arrives in Asia[edit]

The U.S. flag was brought to the city of Canton (Guǎngzhōu) in China in 1785 by the merchant ship Empress of China, which carried a cargo of ginseng.[26] There it gained the designation "Flower Flag" (Chinese: 花旗; pinyin: huāqí; Cantonese Yale: fākeì).[27] According to a pseudonymous account first published in the Boston Courier and later retold by author and U.S. Naval officer George H. Preble:

When the thirteen stripes and stars first appeared at Canton, much curiosity was excited among the people. News was circulated that a strange ship had arrived from the further end of the world, bearing a flag "as beautiful as a flower." Every body went to see the kwa kee chuen [花旗船; Fākeìsyùhn], or "flower flag ship." This name at once established itself in the language, and America is now called the kwa kee kwoh [花旗國; Fākeìgwok], the "flower flag country"—and an American, kwa kee kwoh yin [花旗國人; Fākeìgwokyàhn]—"flower flag countryman"—a more complimentary designation than that of "red headed barbarian"—the name first bestowed upon the Dutch.[28][29]

In the above quote, the Chinese words are written phonetically based on spoken Cantonese. The names given were common usage in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[30] Other Asian nations have equivalent terms for America, for example Vietnamese: Hoa Kỳ ("Flower Flag"). Chinese now refer to the United States as simplified Chinese: 美国; traditional Chinese: 美國; pinyin: Měiguó. Měi is short for Měilìjiān (a Chinese pronunciation of "America") and "guó" means "country", so this name is unrelated to the flag. However, the "flower flag" terminology persists in some places today; for example, American Ginseng is called simplified Chinese: 花旗参; traditional Chinese: 花旗參; literally: "flower flag ginseng" in Chinese.

The U.S. flag took its first trip around the world in 1787–90 on board the Columbia.[27] William Driver, who coined the phrase "Old Glory", took the U.S. flag around the world in 1831–32.[27] The flag attracted the notice of Japanese when an oversized version was carried to Yokohama by the steamer Great Republic as part of a round-the-world journey in 1871.[31]

Historical progression of designs[edit]

In the following table depicting the 28 various designs of the United States flag, the star patterns for the flags are merely the usual patterns, often associated with the United States Navy. Canton designs, prior to the proclamation of the 48-star flag, had no official arrangement of the stars. Furthermore, the exact colors of the flag were not standardized until 1934.[32]

Number of
stars
Number of
stripes
Design(s) States represented
by new stars
Dates in use Duration
0 13 Grand Union Flag.svg N/A December 3, 1775[33] – June 14, 1777 1 12 years
13 13 US flag 13 stars.svg
US flag 13 stars – Betsy Ross.svg
Cowpens Flag.svg
Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia June 14, 1777 – May 1, 1795 18 years
15 15 US flag 15 stars.svg Vermont, Kentucky May 1, 1795 – July 3, 1818 23 years
20 13 US flag 20 stars.svg
US 20 Star GreatStar Flag.svg
Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee July 4, 1818 – July 3, 1819 1 year
21 13 US flag 21 stars.svg Illinois July 4, 1819 – July 3, 1820 1 year
23 13 US flag 23 stars.svg Alabama, Maine July 4, 1820 – July 3, 1822 2 years
24 13 US flag 24 stars.svg Missouri July 4, 1822 – July 3, 1836
1831 term "Old Glory" coined
14 years
25 13 US flag 25 stars.svg Arkansas July 4, 1836 – July 3, 1837 1 year
26 13 US flag 26 stars.svg
US 26 Star GreatStar Flag.svg
Michigan July 4, 1837 – July 3, 1845 8 years
27 13 US flag 27 stars.svg Florida July 4, 1845 – July 3, 1846 1 year
28 13 US flag 28 stars.svg Texas July 4, 1846 – July 3, 1847 1 year
29 13 US flag 29 stars.svg
US 29 Star Diamond Pattern Flag.svg
Iowa July 4, 1847 – July 3, 1848 1 year
30 13 US flag 30 stars.svg Wisconsin July 4, 1848 – July 3, 1851 3 years
31 13 US flag 31 stars.svg California July 4, 1851 – July 3, 1858 7 years
32 13 US flag 32 stars.svg Minnesota July 4, 1858 – July 3, 1859 1 year
33 13 US flag 33 stars.svg
US 33 Star Fort Sumter Flag.svg
US 33 Star GreatStar Flag.svg
US 33 Star Flag 2.svg
Oregon July 4, 1859 – July 3, 1861 2 years
34 13 US flag 34 stars.svg Kansas July 4, 1861 – July 3, 1863 2 years
35 13 US flag 35 stars.svg West Virginia July 4, 1863 – July 3, 1865 2 years
36 13 US flag 36 stars.svg
US 36 Star Wagon Wheel Flag.svg
Nevada July 4, 1865 – July 3, 1867 2 years
37 13 US flag 37 stars.svg
US 37 Star Medallion Centennial Flag.svg
Nebraska July 4, 1867 – July 3, 1877 10 years
38 13 US flag 38 stars.svg
US 38 Star Flag concentric circles.svg
Colorado July 4, 1877 – July 3, 1890 13 years
43 13 US flag 43 stars.svg Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington July 4, 1890 – July 3, 1891 1 year
44 13 US flag 44 stars.svg Wyoming July 4, 1891 – July 3, 1896 5 years
45 13 US flag 45 stars.svg Utah July 4, 1896 – July 3, 1908 12 years
46 13 US flag 46 stars.svg Oklahoma July 4, 1908 – July 3, 1912 4 years
48 13 US flag 48 stars.svg Arizona, New Mexico July 4, 1912 – July 3, 1959 47 years
49 13 US flag 49 stars.svg Alaska July 4, 1959 – July 3, 1960 1 year
50 13 Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg Hawaii July 4, 1960 – present 54 years

Symbolism[edit]

Astronaut Buzz Aldrin salutes the United States flag on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission.
U.S. flag on Mars (Curiosity Rover, September 19, 2012).

The modern meaning of the flag was forged in December 1860, when Major Robert Anderson moved the U.S. garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Adam Goodheart argues this was the opening move of the Civil War, and the flag was used throughout the North to symbolize American nationalism and rejection of secessionism.

Before that day, the flag had served mostly as a military ensign or a convenient marking of American territory, flown from forts, embassies, and ships, and displayed on special occasions like American Independence day. But in the weeks after Major Anderson's surprising stand, it became something different. Suddenly the Stars and Stripes flew—as it does today, and especially as it did after the September 11 attacks in 2001—from houses, from storefronts, from churches; above the village greens and college quads. For the first time American flags were mass-produced rather than individually stitched and even so, manufacturers could not keep up with demand. As the long winter of 1861 turned into spring, that old flag meant something new. The abstraction of the Union cause was transfigured into a physical thing: strips of cloth that millions of people would fight for, and many thousands die for.

—Adam Goodheart, Prologue of 1861: The Civil War Awakening (2011).

The flag of the United States is one of the nation's most widely recognized symbols. Within the United States, flags are frequently displayed not only on public buildings but on private residences. The flag is a common motif on decals for car windows, and clothing ornaments such as badges and lapel pins. Throughout the world the flag has been used in public discourse to refer to the United States.[citation needed]

The flag has become a powerful symbol of Americanism, and is proudly flown on many occasions, with giant outdoor flags used by retail outlets to draw customers. Desecration of the flag is considered a public outrage, but remains protected as freedom of speech. In worldwide comparison, Testi (2010) notes that the United States is not unique in adoring its banner, for in Scandinavian countries their flags are also "beloved, domesticated, commercialized and sacralized objects".[34]

Design[edit]

Creation[edit]

The man credited with designing the current 50 star American flag is Robert G. Heft. He was 17 years old at the time and created the flag design in 1958 as a high school class project while living with his grandparents in Ohio.[35]

Specifications[edit]

Diagram of the flag's design

The basic design of the current flag is specified by 4 U.S.C. § 1; 4 U.S.C. § 2 outlines the addition of new stars to represent new states. The specification gives the following values:

  • Hoist (height) of the flag: A = 1.0
  • Fly (width) of the flag: B = 1.9[36]
  • Hoist (height) of the canton ("union"): C = 0.5385 (A × 7/13, spanning seven stripes)
  • Fly (width) of the canton: D = 0.76 (B × 2/5, two-fifths of the flag width)
  • E = F = 0.0538 (C/10, One-tenth of the height of the canton)
  • G = H = 0.0633 (D/12, One twelfth of the width of the canton)
  • Diameter of star: K = 0.0616 (L × 4/5, four-fifths of the stripe width, the calculation only gives 0.0616 if L is first rounded to 0.077)
  • Width of stripe: L = 0.0769 (A/13, One thirteenth of the flag height)

These specifications are contained in an executive order which, strictly speaking, governs only flags made for or by the U.S. federal government.[37] In practice, most U.S. national flags available for sale to the public have a different width-to-height ratio; common sizes are 2 × 3 ft. or 4 × 6 ft. (flag ratio 1.5), 2.5 × 4 ft. or 5 × 8 ft. (1.6), or 3 × 5 ft. or 6 × 10 ft. (1.667). Even flags flown over the U.S. Capitol for sale to the public through Representatives or Senators are provided in these sizes.[38] Flags that are made to the prescribed 1.9 ratio are often referred to as "G-spec" (for "government specification") flags.

Colors[edit]

The exact red, white, and blue colors to be used in the flag are specified with reference to the CAUS Standard Color Reference of America, 10th edition. Specifically, the colors are "White", "Old Glory Red", and "Old Glory Blue".[39] The CIE coordinates for the colors of the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card were formally specified in JOSA in 1946.[40] These colors form the standard for cloth, and there is no perfect way to convert them to RGB for display on screen or CMYK for printing. The "relative" coordinates in the following table were found by scaling the luminous reflectance relative to the flag’s "white".

Official colors[41]
Name Absolute Relative
CIELAB D65 Munsell CIELAB D50 sRGB GRACoL 2006
L* a* b* H V/C L* a* b* R G B 8-bit hex C M Y K
White 88.7 −0.2 5.4 2.5Y 8.8/0.7 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 1.000 #FFFFFF .000 .000 .000 .000
Old Glory Red 33.9 51.2 24.7 5.5R 3.3/11.1 39.9 57.3 28.7 .698 .132 .203 #B22234 .196 1.000 .757 .118
Old Glory Blue 23.2 13.1 −26.4 8.2PB 2.3/6.1 26.9 11.5 −30.3 .234 .233 .430 #3C3B6E .886 .851 .243 .122
A subdued-color flag patch, similar to style worn on the United States Army's ACU uniform. The patch is normally worn reversed on the right upper sleeve. See explanation in "Display on uniforms" section below.

As with the design, the official colors are only officially required for flags produced for the U.S. federal government, and other colors are often used for mass-market flags, printed reproductions, and other products intended to evoke flag colors. The practice of using more saturated colors than the official cloth is not new. As Taylor, Knoche, and Granville wrote in 1950: "The color of the official wool bunting [of the blue field] is a very dark blue, but printed reproductions of the flag, as well as merchandise supposed to match the flag, present the color as a deep blue much brighter than the official wool."[42]

Sometimes, Pantone Matching System (PMS) approximations to the flag colors are used. One set was given on the website of the U.S. embassy in London as early as 1998; the website of the U.S. embassy in Stockholm claimed in 2001 that those had been suggested by Pantone, and that the U.S. Government Printing Office preferred a different set. A third red was suggested by a California Military Department document in 2002.[43] In 2001, the Texas legislature specified that the colors of the Texas flag should be "(1) the same colors used in the United States flag; and (2) defined as numbers 193 (red) and 281 (dark blue) of the Pantone Matching System."[44]

Pantone approximations[45]
Source PMS CIELAB D50 sRGB GRACoL 2006
L* a* b* R G B 8-bit hex C M Y K
Safe 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 1.000 #FFFFFF .000 .000 .000 .000
U.S. Emb.,
London
193 C 42.1 64.4 26.7 .756 .076 .238 #C1133D .165 1.000 .678 .063
281 C 15.4 7.0 −41.8 .000 .149 .388 #002663 1.000 .906 .388 .231
U.S. Emb.,
Stockholm
186 C 44.1 67.8 37.9 .800 .048 .185 #CC0C2F .122 1.000 .796 .035
288 C 18.0 7.6 −50.3 .000 .172 .466 #002C77 1.000 .863 .357 .141
CA Mil. Dept. 200 C 41.1 64.2 30.8 .745 .051 .203 #BE0D34 .169 1.000 .749 .074

The 49- and 50-star unions[edit]

A U.S. flag with gold fringe and a gold eagle on top of the flag pole.

When Alaska and Hawaii were being considered for statehood in the 1950s, more than 1,500 designs were submitted to President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Although some of them were 49-star versions, the vast majority were 50-star proposals. At least three of these designs were identical to the present design of the 50-star flag.[46] At the time, credit was given by the executive department to the United States Army Institute of Heraldry for the design.

Of these proposals, one created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft in 1958 as a school project received the most publicity. His mother was a seamstress, but refused to do any of the work for him. He originally received a B– for the project. After discussing the grade with his teacher, it was agreed (somewhat jokingly) that if the flag was accepted by Congress, the grade would be reconsidered. Heft's flag design was chosen and adopted by presidential proclamation after Alaska and before Hawaii was admitted into the Union in 1959.[47] According to Heft, his teacher did keep to their agreement and changed his grade to an A for the project.[48] Both the 49- and 50-star flags were each flown for the first time ever at Fort McHenry on Independence Day one year apart, 1959 and 1960 respectively.[48]

Decoration[edit]

Traditionally, the flag may be decorated with golden fringe surrounding the perimeter of the flag as long as it does not deface the flag proper. Ceremonial displays of the flag, such as those in parades or on indoor posts, often use fringe to enhance the beauty of the flag.

The first recorded use of fringe on a flag dates from 1835, and the Army used it officially in 1895. No specific law governs the legality of fringe, but a 1925 opinion of the attorney general addresses the use of fringe (and the number of stars) "... is at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy ..." as quoted from footnote in previous volumes of Title 4 of the United States Code law books and is a source for claims that such a flag is a military ensign not civilian. However, according to the Army Institute of Heraldry, which has official custody of the flag designs and makes any change ordered, there are no implications of symbolism in the use of fringe.[49] Several federal courts have upheld this conclusion,[50][51] most recently and forcefully in Colorado v Drew, a Colorado Court of Appeals judgment that was released in May 2010.[52] Traditionally, the Army and Air Force use a fringed National Color for parade, color guard and indoor display, while the Sea Services (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard) use a fringeless National Color for all uses.

Display and use[edit]

A boy holds an American flag during the 2009 National Memorial Day Concert in Washington, D.C.

The flag is customarily flown all year-round at most public buildings, and it is not unusual to find private houses flying full-size (3 by 5 feet (0.91 by 1.52 m)) flags. Some private use is year-round, but becomes widespread on civic holidays like Memorial Day, Veterans Day, Presidents' Day, Flag Day, and on Independence Day. On Memorial Day it is common to place small flags by war memorials and next to the graves of U.S. war veterans. Also on Memorial Day it is common to fly the flag at half staff, until noon, in remembrance of those who lost their lives fighting in U.S. wars.

Flag etiquette[edit]

Proper stationary vertical display (the blue field of stars (canton) should always be in the upper left)

The United States Flag Code outlines certain guidelines for the use, display, and disposal of the flag. For example, the flag should never be dipped to any person or thing, unless it is the ensign responding to a salute from a ship of a foreign nation. This tradition may come from the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, where countries were asked to dip their flag to King Edward VII: the American flag bearer did not. Team captain Martin Sheridan is famously quoted as saying "this flag dips to no earthly king", though the true provenance of this quotation is unclear.[53][54]

A tattered flag at Spokane Valley Police Headquarters, Spokane, Washington

The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and, if flown at night, must be illuminated. If the edges become tattered through wear, the flag should be repaired or replaced. When a flag is so tattered that it can no longer serve as a symbol of the United States, it should be destroyed in a dignified manner, preferably by burning. The American Legion and other organizations regularly conduct flag retirement ceremonies, often on Flag Day, June 14. (The Boy Scouts of America recommends that modern nylon or polyester flags be recycled instead of burned, due to hazardous gases being produced when such materials are burned.)[55]

The Flag Code prohibits using the flag "for any advertising purpose" and also states that the flag "should not be embroidered, printed, or otherwise impressed on such articles as cushions, handkerchiefs, napkins, boxes, or anything intended to be discarded after temporary use".[56] Both of these codes are generally ignored, almost always without comment.

Section 8, entitled Respect For Flag states in part: "The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery", and "No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform". Section 3 of the Flag Code[57] defines "the flag" as anything "by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation may believe the same to represent the flag of the United States of America".

An additional part of Section 8 Respect For Flag, that is frequently violated at sporting events is part (c) "The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free."

Although the Flag Code is U.S. federal law, there is no penalty for a private citizen or group failing to comply with the Flag Code and it is not widely enforced—indeed, punitive enforcement would conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech.[58] Passage of the proposed Flag Desecration Amendment would overrule legal precedent that has been established.

Display on vehicles[edit]

When the flag is affixed to the right side of a vehicle of any kind (e.g.: cars, boats, planes, anything that moves), it should be oriented so that the canton is towards the front of the vehicle, as if the flag were streaming backwards from its hoist as the vehicle moves forward. Therefore, U.S. flag decals on the right sides of vehicles may appear to be reversed, with the union to the observer's right instead of left as more commonly seen.

The flag has been displayed on every US spacecraft designed for manned flight, including Mercury, Gemini, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, and the Space Shuttle. The flag also appeared on the S-IC first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle used for Apollo. But since Mercury, Gemini and Apollo were launched and landed vertically and were not capable of horizontal atmospheric flight like an airplane, the "streaming" convention was not followed and these flags were oriented with the stripes running horizontally, perpendicular to the direction of flight.

Display on uniforms[edit]

The crew of Apollo 1 wore their flags on the right shoulder, unlike all other US astronaut flight crews
Flag of the United States on American astronaut Neil Armstrong's space suit

On some U.S. military uniforms, flag patches are worn on the right shoulder, following the vehicle convention with the union toward the front. This rule dates back to the Army's early history, when both mounted cavalry and infantry units would designate a standard bearer, who carried the Colors into battle. As he charged, his forward motion caused the flag to stream back. Since the Stars and Stripes are mounted with the canton closest to the pole, that section stayed to the right, while the stripes flew to the left.[59] Several US military uniforms, such as flight suits worn by members of the United States Navy, have the flag patch on the left shoulder.[60]

Other organizations that wear flag patches on their uniforms can have the flag facing in either direction. The uniform of the Boy Scouts of America, for example, has the stripes facing front, the reverse of the military style. Law enforcement officers often wear a small flag patch, either on a shoulder, or above a shirt pocket.

Every US astronaut since the crew of Gemini 4 has worn the flag on the left shoulder of his or her space suit, with the exception of the crew of Apollo 1, whose flags were worn on the right shoulder. In this case, the canton was on the left.

Postage stamps[edit]

Flags depicted on U.S. postage stamp issues

The flag did not appear on U.S. postal stamp issues until the Battle of White Plains Issue was released in 1926, depicting the flag with a circle of 13 stars. The 48-star flag first appeared on the General Casimir Pulaski issue of 1931, though in a small monochrome depiction. The first U.S. postage stamp to feature the flag as the sole subject was issued July 4, 1957, Scott catalog number 1094.[61] Since that time the flag has frequently appeared on U.S. stamps.

Display in museums[edit]

Flag displayed at the Flint Hills Discovery Center in Manhattan, Kansas

In 1907 Eben Appleton, New York stockbroker and grandson of Lieutenant Colonel George Armistead (the commander of Fort McHenry during the 1814 bombardment) lent the Star Spangled Banner Flag to the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1912 he converted the loan to a gift. Appleton donated the flag with the wish that it would always be on view to the public. In 1994, the National Museum of American History determined that the Star Spangled Banner Flag required further conservation treatment to remain on public display. In 1998 teams of museum conservators, curators, and other specialists helped move the flag from its home in the Museum’s Flag Hall into a new conservation laboratory. Following the reopening of the National Museum of American History on November 21, 2008, the flag is now on display in a special exhibition, "The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem," where it rests at a 10 degree angle in dim light for conservation purposes.[23]

Places of continuous display[edit]

By presidential proclamation, acts of Congress, and custom, U.S. flags are displayed continuously at certain locations.

Iwo Jima Memorial, Arlington, Virginia

Particular days for display[edit]

Flags covering the National Mall
The New York Stock Exchange at Christmas time.

The flag should especially be displayed at full staff on the following days:

Display at half-staff[edit]

An American flag now flies over Gate 17 of Terminal A at Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey, departure gate of United Airlines Flight 93 on 9/11.

The flag is displayed at half-staff (half-mast in naval usage) as a sign of respect or mourning. Nationwide, this action is proclaimed by the president; state-wide or territory-wide, the proclamation is made by the governor. In addition, there is no prohibition against municipal governments, private businesses or citizens flying the flag at half-staff as a local sign of respect and mourning. However, many flag enthusiasts feel this type of practice has somewhat diminished the meaning of the original intent of lowering the flag to honor those who held high positions in federal or state offices. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued the first proclamation on March 1, 1954, standardizing the dates and time periods for flying the flag at half-staff from all federal buildings, grounds, and naval vessels; other congressional resolutions and presidential proclamations ensued. However, they are only guidelines to all other entities: typically followed at state and local government facilities, and encouraged of private businesses and citizens.

To properly fly the flag at half-staff, one should first briefly hoist it top of the staff, then lower it to the half-staff position, halfway between the top and bottom of the staff. Similarly, when the flag is to be lowered from half-staff, it should be first briefly hoisted to the top of the staff.[78]

Federal statutes provide that the flag should be flown at half-staff on the following dates:

  • May 15: Peace Officers Memorial Day (unless it is the third Saturday in May, Armed Forces Day, then full-staff)[79]
  • Last Monday in May: Memorial Day (until noon)
  • September 11: Patriot Day[80]
  • First Sunday in October: Start of Fire Prevention Week, in honor of the National Fallen Firefighters Memorial Service.[81][82]
  • December 7: National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day[83]
  • For 30 days: Death of a president or former president
  • For 10 days: Death of a vice president, Supreme Court chief justice/retired chief justice, or speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • From death until the day of interment: Supreme Court associate justice, member of the Cabinet, former vice president, president pro tempore of the Senate, or the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House of Representatives. Also for federal facilities within a state or territory, for the governor.
  • On the day after the death: Senators, members of Congress, territorial delegates or the resident commissioner of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Further, the flag is always flown at half-staff at four locations in the United States. These locations are The Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery; Arlington House at Arlington National Cemetery; the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, and Mackinac Island, Michigan (Fort Mackinac Post Cemetery).[84]

National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, on July 27, was formerly a day of half-staff observance until the law expired in 2003. Upon its re-enactment in 2009, it became a day of full-staff observance. [76][85]

Folding for storage[edit]

Folding the U.S. flag

Though not part of the official Flag Code, according to military custom, flags should be folded into a triangular shape when not in use. To properly fold the flag:

  1. Begin by holding it waist-high with another person so that its surface is parallel to the ground.
  2. Fold the lower half of the stripe section lengthwise over the field of stars, holding the bottom and top edges securely.
  3. Fold the flag again lengthwise with the blue field on the outside.
  4. Make a rectangular fold then a triangular fold by bringing the striped corner of the folded edge to meet the open top edge of the flag, starting the fold from the left side over to the right.
  5. Turn the outer end point inward, parallel to the open edge, to form a second triangle.
  6. The triangular folding is continued until the entire length of the flag is folded in this manner (usually thirteen triangular folds, as shown at right). On the final fold, any remnant that does not neatly fold into a triangle (or in the case of exactly even folds, the last triangle) is tucked into the previous fold.
  7. When the flag is completely folded, only a triangular blue field of stars should be visible.

There is also no specific meaning for each fold of the flag. However, there are scripts read by non-government organizations and also by the Air Force that are used during the flag folding ceremony. These scripts range from historical timelines of the flag to religious themes.[86][87][88]

Use in funerals[edit]

A flag prepared for presentation to the next of kin

Traditionally, the flag of the United States plays a role in military funerals,[89] and occasionally in funerals of other civil servants (such as law enforcement officers, fire fighters, and U.S. presidents). A burial flag is draped over the deceased's casket as a pall during services. Just prior to the casket being lowered into the ground, the flag is ceremonially folded and presented to the deceased's next of kin as a token of respect.[90]

Similar national flags[edit]

  • The flag of Bikini Atoll is symbolic of the islanders' belief that a great debt is still owed to the people of Bikini because in 1954 the United States government detonated a thermonuclear bomb on the island as part of the Castle Bravo test.[91]
  • The flag of Liberia bears a close resemblance, showing the ex-American-slave origin of the country.[92] The Liberian flag has 11 similar red and white stripes, which stand for the 11 signers of the Liberian Declaration of Independence, as well as a blue square with only a single large white star for the canton.
  • The Flag of the Republic of Texas is very similar as well and flew for seven years from 1839-1846 as the Country flag and for over 150 years from 1846–present day as the State flag.
  • The flag of Togo resembles a Liberian flag with five stripes, though the colors are Pan-African colors.
  • The very short lived first flag of the Republic of Brazil (November 15–19, 1889) resembles the U.S. flag, but uses green, yellow, and blue, the colors of the royal houses of Portugal and the Habsburgs.
  • The flag of El Salvador from 1865 to 1912. A different flag was in use, based on the flag of the United States, with a field of alternating blue and white stripes and a red canton containing white stars.
  • Despite Malaysia having no historical connections with the U.S., the flag of Malaysia greatly resembles the U.S. flag. It is possible that the flag of the British East India Company influenced both the Malaysian and U.S. flag.[6]

See also[edit]

Article sections[edit]

Associated people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John Warner (1998). "Senate Concurrent Resolution 61". U.S Government Printing Office. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  2. ^ Coined by Captain William Driver, a nineteenth-century shipmaster.
  3. ^ Duane Streufert. "A website dedicated to the Flag of the United States of America – The 50 Star Flag". USFlag.org. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  4. ^ a b Leepson, Marc (2004). Flag: An American Biography. 
  5. ^ a b Ansoff, Peter (2006). "The Flag on Prospect Hill". Raven, a Journal of Vexillology 13: 91–98. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b The Striped Flag of the East India Company, and its Connexion with the American "Stars and Stripes" at Flags of the World
  7. ^ East India Company (United Kingdom) at Flags of the World
  8. ^ "Hemp American Flag To Be Flown Over U.S. Capitol". WAMU. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  9. ^ "Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, 8:464". 
  10. ^ Guenter (1990)
  11. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=wvKiBiWKrzMC&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=first+flag+abraham+swartwout&source=bl&ots=sk-bKp21Up&sig=Jaro0xjjyes6ZtveiJL7xmIBLUU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=t_SCUqHCJ8mGkQfsrIFI&ved=0CFUQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=first%20flag%20abraham%20swartwout&f=false
  12. ^ Mastai, 60
  13. ^ Lane, Megan (14 November 2011). "Five hidden messages in the American flag". BBC News. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Edward W. Richardson, Standards and Colors of the American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982, p. 109-110.
  15. ^ Crews, Ed. "The Truth About Betsy Ross". Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  16. ^ Furlong, William Rea; McCandless, Byron (1981). So Proudly We Hail : The History of the United States Flag. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-87474-448-2. 
  17. ^ "The Star-Spangled Banner: Making the Flag". National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  18. ^ "Washington Window". Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  19. ^ Hess, Debra (2008). The American Flag. Benchmark Books. p. 21. ISBN 0761433899. 
  20. ^ "Journals of the Continental Congress – Friday, October 27, 1780". Library of Congress. Retrieved September 3, 2010. 
  21. ^ Federal Citizen Information Center: The History of the Stars and Stripes. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
  22. ^ Embassy of the United States of America [1]. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
  23. ^ a b "The Star-Spangled Banner Online Exhibition". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  24. ^ United States Government (1861). Our Flag (PDF). Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. S. Doc 105-013. 
  25. ^ "United States Flag History". United States Embassy. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  26. ^ Preble, George Henry (1880). History of the Flag of the United States of America (second revised ed.). Boston: A. Williams and Co. p. 298. 
  27. ^ a b c Tappan, Eva March (1917). The Little Book of the Flag. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 92. 
  28. ^ Kwoh, Choong (June 15, 1843). "Curiosa Sinica". Boston Courier. 
  29. ^ "Chinese Etymologies". Kendall's Expositor 3 (14) (Washington, D.C.: William Greer). June 27, 1843. p. 222 – via Google Books. 
  30. ^ See Chinese English Dictionary
    Citibank, which founded a branch in China in 1902, is known as "Flower Flag Bank" (花旗銀行).
    Olsen, Kay Melchisedech, Chinese Immigrants: 1850–1900 (2001), p. 7.
    "Philadelphia's Chinatown: An Overview[dead link]", The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
    Leonard, Dr. George, "The Beginnings of Chinese Literature in America: the Angel Island Poems[dead link]".
  31. ^ "American Flag Raised Over Buddhist Temple in Japan on July 4, 1872[dead link]"
  32. ^ (For alternate versions of the flag of the United States, see the Stars of the U.S. Flag page at the Flags of the World website.)
  33. ^ Leepson, Marc. (2005). Flag: An American Biography. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  34. ^ Arnaldo Testi, Capture the Flag: The Stars and Stripes in American History (New York University Press, 2010), p. 2, ISBN 978-0-8147-8322-1.
  35. ^ "50 Star Flag | A half-century ago, new 50-star American flag debuted in Baltimore - Baltimore Sun". Articles.baltimoresun.com. 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  36. ^ Note that the flag ratio (B/A in the diagram) is not absolutely fixed. Although the diagram in Executive Order 10834 gives a ratio of 1.9, earlier in the order is a list of flag sizes authorized for executive agencies. This list permits eleven specific flag sizes (specified by height and width) for such agencies: 20.00 × 38.00; 10.00 × 19.00; 8.95 × 17.00; 7.00 × 11.00; 5.00 × 9.50; 4.33 × 5.50; 3.50 × 6.65; 3.00 × 4.00; 3.00 × 5.70; 2.37 × 4.50; and 1.32 × 2.50. Eight of these sizes conform to the 1.9 ratio, within a small rounding error (less than 0.01). However, three of the authorized sizes vary significantly: 1.57 (for 7.00 × 11.00), 1.27 (for 4.33 × 5.50) and 1.33 (for 3.00 × 4.00).
  37. ^ Ex. Ord. No. 10834, August 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6865 (governing flags "manufactured or purchased for the use of executive agencies", Section 22). Section 32 explains that, "As used in this order, the term 'executive agencies' means the executive departments and independent establishments in the executive branch of the Government, including wholly owned Government corporations."
  38. ^ Architect of the Capitol: "Flag Request Form", retrieved on 2009-06-25
  39. ^ General Services Administration "Federal Specification DDD-F-416F: Flag, National, United States of America and Flag, Union Jack". March 31, 2005.
  40. ^ Genevieve Reimann, Deane B. Judd, and Harry J. Keegan (1946). "Spectrophotometric and Colorimetric Determination of the Colors of the TCCA Standard Color Cards". JOSA 36(3), 128–159.
  41. ^ In the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card of America, "White", "Old Glory Red", and "Old Glory Blue" were, respectively, Cable No. 70001, Cable No. 70180, and Cable No. 70075. The Munsell renotation coordinates for these were taken directly from the Reimann et al. paper, the CIELAB D65 coordinates were found by converting the xyY values in that paper to be relative to CIE Illuminant D65 from Illuminant C using the CAT02 chromatic adaptation transform, and relative to a perfect diffuse reflector as white. The "relative" values in the table were found by taking Cable No. 70001’s luminosity to be that of the white point, and were converted to D65 or D50 also using the CAT02 transformation. The values for CMYK were found by converting from the CIELAB D50 values using the Adobe CMM and the GRACoL 2006 ICC profile in Adobe Photoshop.
  42. ^ Helen Taylor, Lucille Knoche, and Walter Granville, eds. (1950), Descriptive Color Names Dictionary. Container Corporation of America.
  43. ^ In 1998, "U.S. Flag Facts" at the website of the U.S. embassy in London listed the colors red PMS 193 and blue PMS 282 (presumably PMS solid coated colors). By October 2002, these had changed to red PMS 193 and blue PMS 281. These latter PMS equivalents are listed on many websites including various other U.S. Government organizations, such as the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s website. See also "United States of America", Flags of the World.
    The website of the U.S. Embassy in Stockholm instead lists PMS 186 and PMS 288 as the colors specified by the U.S. Government Printing Office: "Colors of the U.S. Flag". United States Embassy Stockholm. November 2001.
    The Military Department of the State of California suggested PMS 200 for red in a 2002 document, "Flags over California, a history and guide".
  44. ^ The Government Code; Title 11. State Symbols and Honors; Subtitle A; Chapter 3100. Statutes.legis.state.tx.us. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  45. ^ The values in this table were taken by converting the CIELAB D50 coordinates for PMS 193 C, 200 C, and 281 C given in the Pantone color palettes of Adobe Photoshop to sRGB and GRACoL using the Adobe CMM and the GRACoL 2006 and sRGB profiles in Photoshop. Since PMS 281 C (blue) is outside the gamut of sRGB, and both PMS 281 C and PMS 183 C (red) are outside the gamut of GRACoL, the RGB and CMYK values for those in the table below are necessarily less-colorful approximations to the colors of the Pantone swatches.
  46. ^ These designs are in the Eisenhower Presidential Archives in Abilene, Kansas. Only a small fraction of them have ever been published.
  47. ^ "Robert G. Heft: Designer of America's Current National Flag". USFlag.org: A website dedicated to the Flag of the United States of America. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  48. ^ a b Frederick N. Rasmussen (2010-07-02). "A half-century ago, new 50-star American flag debuted in Baltimore". Baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  49. ^ "Fringe on the American Flag". Archived from the original on September 11, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-27. 
  50. ^ See McCann v. Greenway, 952 F. Supp. 647 (W.D. Mo. 1997), which discusses various court opinions denying any significance related to trim used on a flag.
  51. ^ Rebuttal of "martial law flag" claims by tax protesters. Evans-legal.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  52. ^ state.co.us: "COLORADO COURT OF APPEALS - ORDER AFFIRMED: Colorado v Drew" (Munsinger) 13 May 2010
  53. ^ LA84 Foundation. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  54. ^ London Olympics 1908 & 1948. Web.archive.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  55. ^ "Consider Recycling, not Burning, a Retired Flag". Boy Scouts of America. 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-06. 
  56. ^ 4 U.S.Code Sec. 8(i).
  57. ^ 4 U.S.Code Chapter 1 Sec. 3
  58. ^ Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989); United States v. Eichman, 496 U.S. 310 (1990).
  59. ^ About.com. Usmilitary.about.com (October 1, 2005). Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  60. ^ http://www.navytimes.com/news/2011/09/navy-aviators-ditch-new-flight-suit-wear-rules-092611w/
  61. ^ Scott's Specialized Catalogue of United States Postage Stamps
  62. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 2795, July 2, 1948 Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, Title 3 Compilation (1943–1948), HathiTrust, Google Books/University of Michigan scan, pages 212–213.
  63. ^ Public Law 83-319, approved March 26, 1954
  64. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 3418, June 12, 1961
  65. ^ Public Law 89-335, approved November 8, 1965
  66. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 4000, September 4, 1970
  67. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 4064, July 6, 1971, effective July 4, 1971
  68. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 4131, May 5, 1972
  69. ^ Gettysburg College – News Detail. Gettysburg.edu. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  70. ^ Pub.L. 94−53, 89 Stat. 259, S.J.Res. 98, approved July 4, 1975
  71. ^ [2]
  72. ^ With the consent of Congress, Old Glory kept perpetual shine, PE Press Archive.
  73. ^ With the consent of Congress, Slover Mountain[dead link], The Sun, May 14, 2008
  74. ^ By Act of Congress. California Portland Cement Co
  75. ^ Irene Klotz (31 July 2012). "Apollo flags on the Moon still standing". Discovery News. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  76. ^ a b Pub.L. 111-41. 123 Stat. 1962, H.R. 2632, approved July 27, 2009. Retrieved on 2013-10-04.
  77. ^ MDVA: Flag Information. Mdva.state.mn.us. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  78. ^ US Code, Title 4, Chapter 1, §7.
  79. ^ 36 U.S.C. Sec. 136. None. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  80. ^ Patriot Day, 2005. Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  81. ^ Public Law 107-51. Ushistory.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  82. ^ Presidential Proclamation Fire Prevention Week | The White House. Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  83. ^ National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2007. Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  84. ^ What's Hot at Ft. McPherson. Mcpherson.army.mil. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  85. ^ Pub.L. 104-19. 109 Stat. 247, H.R. 1944, approved July 27, 1995. Retrieved on 2013-10-04.
  86. ^ http://www.mortuary.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100317-022.pdf
  87. ^ http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2007/10/ap_flagfold_071026/
  88. ^ "Flag-Folding Procedures | The American Legion". Legion.org. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  89. ^ "Sequence of Events for an Army Honors Funeral At Arlington National Cemetery". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2009-02-06. [dead link]
  90. ^ "Flag Presentation Protocol". Virginia Army National Guard. Retrieved 2009-02-06. [dead link]
  91. ^ "Bikinian Anthem & Flag". Bikiniatoll.com. 1954-03-01. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  92. ^ "President Sirleaf Worships at Abyssinian Baptist Church; Pleads with African Americans to Serve as Ambassadors for Liberia". Ministry of State Presidential Affairs, Executive Mansion, Government of Liberia. 2012-09-23. Retrieved 2014-07-16. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Allentown Art Museum. The American Flag in the Art of Our Country. Allentown Art Museum, 1976.
  • Herbert Ridgeway Collins. Threads of History: Americana Recorded on Cloth 1775 to the Present. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.
  • Grace Rogers Cooper. Thirteen-star Flags: Keys to Identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.
  • David D. Crouthers. Flags of American History. Hammond, 1978.
  • Louise Lawrence Devine. The Story of Our Flag. Rand McNally, 1960.
  • William Rea Furlong, Byron McCandless, and Harold D. Langley. So Proudly We Hail: The History of the United States Flag. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.
  • Scot M. Guenter, The American Flag, 1777–1924: Cultural Shifts from Creation to Codification. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. 1990. online
  • Kevin Keim & Peter Keim. A Grand Old Flag: A History of the United States through its Flags. DK Publishing. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7566-2847-5.
  • Marc Leepson, Flag: An American Biography. Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2005.
  • David Roger Manwaring. Render Unto Caesar: The Flag-Salute Controversy. University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Boleslaw Mastai and Marie-Louise D'Otrange Mastai. The Stars and the Stripes: The American Flag as Art and as History from the Birth of the Republic to the Present. Knopf, 1973.
  • Milo Milton Quaife. The Flag of the United States. 1942.
  • Milo Milton Quaife, Melvin J. Weig, and Roy Applebaum. The History of the United States Flag, from the Revolution to the Present, Including a Guide to Its Use and Display. Harper, 1961.
  • Albert M. Rosenblatt. "Flag Desecration Statutes: History and Analysis," Washington University Law Quarterly 1972: 193–237.
  • Leonard A. Stevens. Salute! The Case of The Bible vs. The Flag. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.
  • Arnaldo Testi. Capture the Flag: The Stars and Stripes in American History (New York University Press; 2010) 192 pages. A European perspective on the symbolism and political, social, and cultural significance of the flag.

Further reading[edit]

  • United States Department of State (June 2012). "Identity and Marking Standards". United States Department of State. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 

External links[edit]