United States intelligence budget
The United States intelligence budget comprises all the funding for the 16 agencies of the United States Intelligence Community. These agencies and other programs fit into one of the intelligence budget’s two components, the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and the Military Intelligence Program (MIP). As with other parts of the federal budget, the US intelligence budget runs according to the Fiscal year (FY), not the calendar year. Before government finances are spent on intelligence, the funds must first be authorized and appropriated by committees in both the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. Pursuant to a suggestion by 9/11 Commission, the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) released the top line amount given to the NIP for fiscal year 2009 as 49.8 billion USD. In FY2010, the NIP budget was 53.1 billion USD, and the MIP budget 27 billion USD, amounting to a total of 80 billion USD.
Experts estimate that total spending on American military and non-military intelligence during the Cold War peaked at $71 billion (in 2013 dollars) in the late 1980s. By 1994 spending for the non-military National Intelligence Program (NIP) had declined to $43.4 billion. Fiscal 2013 intelligence spending exceeded the Cold War peak, at $52.6 billion for NIP and $23 billion for military intelligence programs. In constant dollars it is about double the estimated 2001 budget and 25% greater than the 2006 budget. From the September 11 attacks on the United States in 2001 to 2013, the government has spent more than $500 billion on intelligence.
National Intelligence Program (NIP)
The National Intelligence Program, under budgetary control of the DNI, comprises the agencies and programs formerly under the National Foreign Intelligence Program. This adjustment was made to better include domestic intelligence programs and intelligence arms of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the classified budget documents leaked by Edward Snowden in 2013, the NIP is distributed among agencies in the following manner:
|Administrating agencies by NIP funds ONLY||Management
|Data collection||Data processing
|Central Intelligence Agency Program||1,8||11,5||0,387||1,1||14,787|
|Consolidated Cryptologic Program||5,2||2,5||1,6||1,5||10,8|
|National Reconnaissance Program||1,8||6,0||2,5||-||10,3|
|National Geospatial-Intelligence Program||2,0||0,537||1,4||0,973||4,91|
|Defense Intelligence Program||1,7||1,3||0,228||1,2||4,428|
Military Intelligence Program (MIP)
In September 2005, the Military Intelligence Program was established by combining all of the agencies formerly under the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) and most of the program from the former Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) group.
List of some of the Agencies and Programs
|National Intelligence Program (NIP)||Military Intelligence Program (MIP)||Both NIP/MIP|
|Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)||Army Military Intelligence (MI)||National Security Agency (NSA)|
|Counterintelligence - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)||Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency (AF ISR)||Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)|
|Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) - Department of State (DoS)||Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA)||National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)|
|Office of Intelligence Support - Department of Treasury||Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)|
|Defense Cryptologic Program (DCP)||Special Operations Command (SOCOM)|
It takes just over three years for a budget to complete a full cycle from development to execution.
|1||Planning: Guidance||Broad guidelines of planning, programming, and budgeting are established.|
|2||Programming: Request and Review||Program resources are projected for future year requirements for dollar and manpower resources.|
|3||Budgeting: Build and Submit||Money or authority available to purchase goods and services or hire people is set.|
|4||Execution: Obligate and Spend||Money on authorized programs is committed and spent.|
See The United States Budget Process for more information regarding the budget process and cycle.
The U.S. Congress derives its oversight powers of the intelligence budget from Article I, Section 9, paragraph 7, of the U.S. Constitution that states, "No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law." Congress's authorization and appropriation functions consist of approving programs and activities, and allocating precise dollar amounts to be authorized programs respectively.
Congressional Entities Responsible for Intelligence Budget Oversight
|Senate||House of Representatives|
|Authorization||Senate Select Committee on Intelligence||House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence|
|Appropriation||Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense||House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense*|
- *The House Select Intelligence Oversight Panel provides budgetary and oversight recommendations.
See United States Intelligence Community Oversight for more general information on the oversight of the Intelligence Community.
On 30 October 2009, DNI Dennis Blair released information regarding the FY2009 budget for the National Intelligence Program. It stated:
Director of National Intelligence Dennis C. Blair released today the fiscal year 2009 budget figure for the National Intelligence Program (NIP). The Director disclosed that the aggregate amount appropriated to the NIP for fiscal year 2009 was $49.8 Billion.
As required by Public Law 110-53, the Director of National Intelligence disclosed the aggregate amount of funds appropriated by Congress to the NIP for fiscal year 2009 within 30 days after the end of the fiscal year.
- DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2009 National Intelligence Program
- "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2010 National Intelligence Program". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-01-07.
- "DOD Releases Military Intelligence Program 2010 Topline Budget". Department of Defense. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-01-07.
- Dilanian, Ken (2010-10-28). "Overall U.S. intelligence budget tops $80 billion". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- Gellman, Barton; Miller, Greg (2013-08-29). "U.S. spy network’s successes, failures and objectives detailed in ‘black budget’ summary". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Lowenthal, Mark. Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. CQ Press: Washington D.C. 2006, p. 31.
- The actual agency budgets will vary substantially based on how much additional funding they receive from the Military Intelligence Program (MIP) - $21.5 billion in 2012 - in exchange for their direct support of the military.
- Accessed 24 April 2008.
- Lowenthal, Mark. Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. CQ Press: Washington D.C. 2006, p. 49.
- Lowenthal, Mark. Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. CQ Press: Washington D.C. 2003, p. 156.
- Lowenthal, Mark. Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. CQ Press: Washington D.C. 2006, p. 196.
- Accessed 28 April 2008.
- DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2008 National Intelligence Program
- DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2007 National Intelligence Program
- Hacket, John F. (2010-10-28). "FY2006 National Intelligence Program Budget, 10-28-10". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved 2011-01-08.