United States presidential election, 1820

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United States presidential election, 1820
United States
1816 ←
November 1 – December 6, 1820
→ 1824

All 229/232 electoral votes of the Electoral College
115/117 electoral votes needed to win
  James Monroe Portrait.jpg


Nominee James Monroe
Party Democratic-Republican
Home state Virginia
Running mate Daniel D. Tompkins
Electoral vote 227/230
States carried 24
Popular vote 87,343
Percentage 80.6%

ElectoralCollege1820.svg

Presidential election results map. Green denotes states won by Monroe, light yellow denotes New Hampshire elector William Plumer's vote for John Quincy Adams. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Missouri's statehood status and subsequent electoral votes disputed.

The United States presidential election of 1820 was the 9th quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Wednesday, November 1 to Wednesday, December 6, 1820. It was the third and last presidential election in United States history in which a candidate ran effectively unopposed, although some votes were cast for the Federalists in New England (the previous two were the presidential elections of 1789 and 1792, in which George Washington ran without serious opposition). President James Monroe and Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins were re-elected without needing to run any type of rigorous campaign, capturing all but one Electoral vote. This was the last presidential election where the Federalist Party participated. They remained a party until 1829, but did not have sufficient support to nominate a major candidate. They were replaced by the Whig Party in 1833.

Background[edit]

Despite the continuation of single party politics (known in this case as the Era of Good Feelings), serious issues emerged during the election in 1820. The nation had endured a widespread depression following the Panic of 1819 and momentous disagreement about the extension of slavery into the territories was taking center stage. Nevertheless, James Monroe faced no opposition party or candidate in his reelection bid, although he did not receive all the electoral votes (see below).

Massachusetts was entitled to 22 electoral votes four years earlier, but cast only 15 in 1820. The decrease was brought about by the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which made the region of Maine—long part of Massachusetts—a free state to balance the pending admission of slave state Missouri.

Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Mississippi each cast one fewer electoral vote than they were entitled to, on account of one elector dying before the electoral meeting. This explains the anomaly of Mississippi casting only two votes, when any state is always entitled to a minimum of three.

Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama and Missouri participated in their first presidential election in 1820, Missouri with controversy, since it was not yet officially a state (see below). No new states would participate in American presidential elections until 1836, after the admission to the Union of Arkansas in 1836 and Michigan in 1837 (after the main voting, but before the counting of the electoral vote in Congress).[1]

Nominations[edit]

Democratic-Republican Party nomination[edit]

Democratic-Republican candidates

Since President Monroe's renomination was never in doubt, few Republicans bothered to attend the nominating caucus in April 1820. Only 40 delegates attended, with few or no delegates from the large states of Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. Rather than name the president with only a handful of votes, the caucus declined to make a formal nomination. Richard M. Johnson offered the following resolution: "It is inexpedient, at this time, to proceed to the nomination of persons for the offices of President and Vice President of the United States." After debate, the resolution was unanimously adopted, and the meeting adjourned. President Monroe and Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins thus became de facto candidates for reelection.

Informal Ballot
Presidential Ballot Vice Presidential Ballot
James Monroe 40 Daniel D. Tompkins 40

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Effectively there was no campaign, since there was no serious opposition to Monroe and Tompkins.

Disputes[edit]

On March 9, 1820, Congress had passed a law directing Missouri to hold a convention to form a constitution and a state government. This law stated that "…the said state, when formed, shall be admitted into the Union, upon an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatsoever."[2] However, when Congress reconvened in November 1820, the admission of Missouri became an issue of contention. Proponents claimed that Missouri had fulfilled the conditions of the law and therefore it was a state; detractors contended that certain provisions of the Missouri constitution violated the United States Constitution.

By the time Congress was due to meet to count the electoral votes from the election, this dispute had lasted over two months. The counting raised a ticklish problem: if Congress counted Missouri's votes, that would count as recognition that Missouri was a state; on the other hand, if Congress failed to count Missouri's vote, that would count as recognition that Missouri was not a state. Knowing ahead of time that Monroe had won in a landslide and that Missouri's vote would therefore make no difference in the final result, the Senate passed a resolution on February 13, 1821 stating that if a protest were made, there would be no consideration of the matter unless the vote of Missouri would change who would become President. Instead, the President of the Senate would announce the final tally twice, once with Missouri included and once with it excluded.[3]

The next day this resolution was introduced in the full House. After a lively debate, it was passed. Nonetheless, during the counting of the electoral votes on February 14, 1821, an objection was raised to the votes from Missouri by Representative Arthur Livermore of New Hampshire. He argued that since Missouri had not yet officially become a state, it had no right to cast any electoral votes. Immediately, Representative John Floyd of Virginia argued that Missouri's votes must be counted. Chaos ensued, and order was only restored with the counting of the vote as per the resolution and then adjournment for the day.[4]

Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of blue are for Monroe (Democratic-Republican), shades of yellow are for the Federalist Party, shades of green are for alternative Democratic-Republican candidates, and shades of reds are for various other candidates.

Popular vote[edit]

The Federalists received a small amount of the popular vote despite having no electoral candidates. Even in Massachusetts where the Federalists' slate was victorious, their votes were cast for Monroe.

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a) Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
James Monroe Democratic-Republican Virginia 87,343 80.61% 228
No candidate Federalist N/A 17,465 16.12% 0
DeWitt Clinton Independent New York 1,893 1.75% 0
Total 108,359 100.0% 231
Needed to win 115/117(b)

Source (Popular Vote): U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 9, 2006).
Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005).

(a) Only 15 of the 24 states chose electors by popular vote.
(b) There was a dispute as to whether Missouri's electoral votes were valid, due to the timing of its assumption of statehood. The first figure excludes Missouri's votes and the second figure includes them.

Electoral vote[edit]

The sole electoral vote against Monroe came from William Plumer, an elector from New Hampshire and former United States senator and New Hampshire governor. Plumer cast his electoral ballot for Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. While some accounts claim incorrectly that this was to ensure that George Washington would remain the only American president unanimously chosen by the Electoral College, that was not Plumer's goal. In fact, Plumer simply thought that Monroe was a mediocre president and that Adams would be a better one.[5] Plumer also refused to vote for Tompkins for Vice President as "grossly intemperate", not having "that weight of character which his office requires," and "because he grossly neglected his duty" in his "only" official role as President of the Senate by being "absent nearly three-fourths of the time";[6] Plumer instead voted for Richard Rush.

Even though every member of the Electoral College was pledged to James Monroe, there were still a number of Federalist electors who voted for a Federalist vice president. The votes for Richard Stockton came from Massachusetts. The entire Delaware delegation voted for Daniel Rodney for Vice President. Finally, Robert Goodloe Harper's vice presidential vote was cast by an elector from his home state of Maryland.

Vice Presidential Candidate Party State Electoral Vote
Daniel D. Tompkins Democratic-Republican New York 215/218(a)
Richard Stockton Federalist New Jersey 8
Daniel Rodney Federalist Delaware 4
Robert Goodloe Harper Federalist Maryland 1
Richard Rush Federalist Pennsylvania 1
Total 229/232(a)
Needed to win 115/117(a)

Source: Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005).

(a) There was a dispute over the validity of Missouri's electoral votes, due to the timing of its assumption of statehood. The first figure excludes Missouri's votes and the second figure includes them.

Breakdown by ticket[edit]

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Electoral Vote
James Monroe Daniel D Tompkins 215/218(a)
James Monroe Richard Stockton 8
James Monroe Daniel Rodney 4
James Monroe Robert Goodloe Harper 1
John Quincy Adams Richard Rush 1

(a) There was a dispute over the validity of Missouri's electoral votes, due to the timing of its assumption of statehood. The first figure excludes Missouri's votes and the second figure includes them.

Note that all of these tickets except Monroe/Tompkins are split tickets, with a Democratic-Republican presidential candidate and a Federalist vice presidential candidate. Note also that these split tickets represent only 5.6% of the electoral vote.

Electoral college selection[edit]

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
Each Elector appointed by state legislature Alabama
Delaware
Georgia
Indiana
Louisiana
Missouri
New York
South Carolina
Vermont
Each Elector chosen by voters statewide Connecticut
Mississippi
New Hampshire
New Jersey
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Virginia
State divided into electoral districts, with one Elector
chosen per district by the voters of that district
Illinois
Kentucky
Maryland
Tennessee
Two Electors chosen by voters statewide and one Elector
chosen per Congressional district by the voters of that district
Maine
Massachusetts

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Election of 1820
  2. ^ United States Congress (1820). United States Statutes at Large. Act of March 6, ch. 23, vol. 3. pp. 545–548. Retrieved August 9, 2006. 
  3. ^ United States Congress (1821). Senate Journal. 16th Congress, 2nd Session, February 13. pp. 187–188. Retrieved July 29, 2006. 
  4. ^ Annals of Congress. 16th Congress, 2nd Session, February 14, 1821. Gales and Seaton. 1856. pp. 1147–1165. Retrieved July 29, 2006. 
  5. ^ Turner (1955) p 253
  6. ^ "Daniel D. Tompkins, 6th Vice President (1817-1825)" United States Senate web site.

References[edit]

External links[edit]