United States presidential election, 1924

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United States presidential election, 1924
United States
1920 ←
November 4, 1924
→ 1928

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
  John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg John William Davis.jpg Robert M La Follette, Sr.jpg
Nominee Calvin Coolidge John W. Davis Robert M. La Follette
Party Republican Democratic Progressive
Home state Massachusetts West Virginia Wisconsin
Running mate Charles G. Dawes Charles W. Bryan Burton K. Wheeler
Electoral vote 382 136 13
States carried 35 12 1
Popular vote 15,723,789 8,386,242 4,831,706
Percentage 54.0% 28.8% 16.6%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1924 United States presidential election in Arizona, 1924 United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1924 United States presidential election in California, 1924 United States presidential election in Colorado, 1924 United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1924 United States presidential election in Delaware, 1924 United States presidential election in Florida, 1924 United States presidential election in Georgia, 1924 United States presidential election in Idaho, 1924 United States presidential election in Illinois, 1924 United States presidential election in Indiana, 1924 United States presidential election in Iowa, 1924 United States presidential election in Kansas, 1924 United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1924 United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1924 United States presidential election in Maine, 1924 United States presidential election in Maryland, 1924 United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1924 United States presidential election in Michigan, 1924 United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1924 United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1924 United States presidential election in Missouri, 1924 United States presidential election in Montana, 1924 United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1924 United States presidential election in Nevada, 1924 United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1924 United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1924 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1924 United States presidential election in New York, 1924 United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1924 United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1924 United States presidential election in Ohio, 1924 United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1924 United States presidential election in Oregon, 1924 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1924 United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1924 United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1924 United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1924 United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1924 United States presidential election in Texas, 1924 United States presidential election in Utah, 1924 United States presidential election in Vermont, 1924 United States presidential election in Virginia, 1924 United States presidential election in Washington, 1924 United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1924 United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1924 United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1924 United States presidential election in Delaware, 1924 United States presidential election in Maryland, 1924 United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1924 United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1924 United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1924 United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1924 United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1924 United States presidential election in Vermont, 1924 United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1924ElectoralCollege1924.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Coolidge/Dawes, Blue denotes those won by Davis/Bryan, Green denotes those won by La Follette/Wheeler. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

Elected President

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

The United States presidential election of 1924 was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924. Incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate, was elected to a second, full term.

Coolidge was vice-president under Warren G. Harding and became president in 1923 when Harding died in office. Coolidge was given credit for a booming economy at home and no visible crises abroad. His candidacy was aided by a split within the Democratic Party. The regular Democratic candidate was John W. Davis, a little-known former congressman and diplomat from West Virginia. Since Davis was a conservative, many liberal Democrats bolted the party and backed the third-party campaign of Senator Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, who ran as the candidate of the Progressive Party.

Garland S. Tucker, in a 2010 book, argues that the election marked the "high tide of American conservatism," as both major candidates campaigned for limited government, reduced taxes, and less regulation.[1] The third place candidate, Robert La Follette, however, campaigned on a contrary platform.

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican Candidates

The Republican Convention was held in Cleveland, Ohio, from June 10 to 12, with the easy choice of nominating incumbent President Coolidge for a full term of his own. Former Illinois Governor Frank Orren Lowden was nominated as Coolidge's running mate, but he declined the honor, a unique event in 20th-century American political history. Charles G. Dawes, a prominent Republican businessman, was nominated for vice-president instead.

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidates:

The 1924 Democratic National Convention was held in New York City from June 24 to July 9. The two leading candidates were William Gibbs McAdoo of California, former Secretary of the Treasury and son-in-law of former President Woodrow Wilson, and Governor Al Smith of New York. The balloting revealed a clear geographic and cultural split in the party, as McAdoo was supported mostly by rural, Protestant delegates from the South, West, and small-town Midwest who were supporters of Prohibition (called "drys"). In some cases, McAdoo's delegates were also supporters of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), which was at its peak of nationwide popularity in the 1920s, with chapters in all 48 states and 4 to 5 million members. Governor Smith was supported by the anti-Prohibition forces (called "wets"), many Roman Catholics and other ethnic minorities, big-city delegates in the Northeast and urban Midwest, and by liberal delegates opposed to the influence of the Ku Klux Klan.

An example of the deep split within the party came in a brutal floor fight over a proposal to publicly condemn the Klan. Most of McAdoo's delegates in the South and West opposed the motion, while most of Smith's big-city delegates supported it. In the end the motion failed to carry by a single vote. William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate, argued against condemning the Klan for fear that it would permanently split the party. Wendell Willkie, who would go on to become the Republican Party's 1940 presidential candidate, was a Democratic delegate in 1924, and he supported the proposal to condemn the KKK. The bitter fight between the McAdoo and Smith delegates over the KKK set the stage for the nominating ballots to come.

Due to the two-thirds rule governing nominations, neither McAdoo, who briefly got a majority of the votes halfway through the balloting, nor Smith were able to get the two-thirds majority necessary to win. However, neither candidate would back down, and so the deadlock continued for days on end, as ballot after ballot was taken with neither McAdoo or Smith getting close to enough delegates to win the nomination. Eventually the convention would go to over 100 ballots, becoming the longest-running political convention in American history. Humorist Will Rogers joked that New York had invited the Democratic delegates to visit the city, not to live there.

Due to the great divide in the Democratic Party, the convention could have gone on for a great deal longer. However, with some state delegations running low on money and unable to stay in the city any longer, on the 100th ballot both Smith and McAdoo mutually withdrew as candidates. This allowed the convention's delegates to search for a compromise candidate acceptable to both Smith and McAdoo supporters.[2] Finally, on the 103rd ballot, the exhausted convention turned to John W. Davis, a former Congressman from West Virginia, former Solicitor General of the United States, and former United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, as the presidential nominee. The Democrats' disarray prompted Will Rogers's famous quip: "I'm not a member of any organized political party, I'm a Democrat!"

Governor of Nebraska Charles W. Bryan, William Jennings Bryan's brother, was nominated for vice-president in order to gain the support of the party's rural voters, many of whom still saw Bryan as their leader.

Source: US President - D Convention. Our Campaigns. (March 10, 2011).

Progressive Party[edit]

Progressive candidate:

Senator Robert M. La Follette, who had left the Republican Party and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, in Wisconsin, was so upset over both political parties choosing conservative candidates that he decided to run as a third-party candidate to give liberals from both parties an alternative. He thus accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party. A longtime champion of labor unions, and an ardent foe of Big Business, La Follette was a fiery orator who had dominated Wisconsin's political scene for more than two decades. Backed by radical farmers, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) labor unions, and Socialists, La Follette ran on a platform of nationalizing cigarette factories and other large industries. He also strongly supported increased taxation on the wealthy and the right of collective bargaining for factory workers. Despite a strong showing in labor strongholds and winning over 16% of the national popular vote, he carried only his home state of Wisconsin in the electoral college.

General election[edit]

The Fall Campaign[edit]

With the disastrous Democratic Convention having badly divided the Democrats, and with the economy booming, there was little doubt that Coolidge would win the election. His campaign slogan, "Keep Cool with Coolidge", was highly popular. Davis carried only the traditionally Democratic Solid South and Oklahoma; due to liberal Democrats voting for La Follette, Davis lost the popular vote to Coolidge by 25.2 percentage points. Only Warren Harding, who finished 26.2 points ahead of his nearest competitor in the previous election, did better in this category in competition between multiple candidates (incumbent James Monroe was the only candidate in 1820 and thus took every vote). The Republicans did so well that they carried New York City, a feat they have not repeated since then.

Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Coolidge (Republican), shades of blue are for Davis (Democratic), and shades of green are for "Other(s)" (Non-Democratic/Non-Republican).

This was the first presidential election in which all American Indians were recognized as citizens and allowed to vote.

The total vote increased 2,300,000 but, because of the great drawing power of the La Follette candidacy, both Republican and Democratic totals were less. Largely because of the deep inroads made by La Follette in the Democratic vote, Davis polled 750,000 fewer votes than were cast for Cox in 1920. Coolidge polled 425,000 votes less than Harding had in 1920. Nonetheless, La Follette's appeal among liberal Democrats allowed Coolidge to achieve a 25.2% margin of victory over Davis in the popular vote (the second largest since 1824).

The "other" vote mounted to nearly 5,000,000, owing in largest part to the 4,832,614 votes cast for La Follette. This candidacy, like that of Roosevelt in 1912, altered the distribution of the vote throughout the country and particularly in 18 states in the Middle and Far West. Unlike the Roosevelt vote of 1912, the La Follette vote included most of the Socialist strength.

The La Follette vote was distributed over the nation, and in every state, but its greatest strength lay in the East North Central and West North Central sections. But La Follette carried no section, and he was second in only 2 sections, the Mountain and Pacific areas. In 12 states, the La Follette vote was greater than that cast for Davis. In one of these states, Wisconsin, La Follette defeated the Republican ticket also, thus winning one state in the electoral college. The "other" vote led the poll in 235 counties, and practically all of these (225) gave La Follette a plurality.

On the basis of number of counties carried, the Republican Party was weaker than in 1920, and the Democratic Party, despite its heavy losses in numerous states, was stronger than in 1920. Davis led the poll in 1,279 counties. This was a gain of 183. Republican strength in the Middle West and Far West was undermined by La Follette. It is important to note that La Follette ran second in 566 counties.

The result of a three-party contest is also reflected in party majorities. Coolidge had a majority in 1,217 counties and Davis in 1,193 counties while La Follette had a majority in 137 counties. The fact that in this election only 540 counties gave no party a majority clearly shows that it was not the kind of division of sentiment which was brought to light in the election of 1912.

The relative position of the Democratic Party may be seen by glancing at the maps for 1904, 1920, and 1924. The similarities in the distribution are striking. The inroads of the La Follette candidacy upon the Democratic Party were in areas where Democratic county majorities had been infrequent in the Fourth Party System. At the same time, the inroads of La Follette's candidacy upon the Republican Party were in areas where in this national contest their candidate could afford to be second or third in the poll.[3]

The combined vote for Davis and La Follette over the nation was exceeded by Coolidge by 2,500,000. But in 13 states (4 border and 9 western), Coolidge had only a plurality. The Coolidge vote topped the poll, however, in 35 states, leaving the electoral vote for Davis in only 12 states.[4] All the states of the former Confederacy voted for Davis (plus Oklahoma), while all of the Union states (except Wisconsin) voted for Coolidge.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Calvin Coolidge Republican Massachusetts 15,723,789 54.04% 382 Charles G. Dawes Illinois 382
John W. Davis Democratic West Virginia 8,386,242 28.82% 136 Charles W. Bryan Nebraska 136
Robert M. La Follette Progressive Wisconsin 4,831,706 16.61% 13 Burton K. Wheeler Montana 13
Herman P. Faris Prohibition Missouri 55,951 0.19% 0 Marie C. Brehm California 0
William Z. Foster Communist Massachusetts 38,669 0.13% 0 Benjamin Gitlow New York 0
Frank T. Johns Socialist Labor Oregon 28,633 0.10% 0 Verne L. Reynolds New York 0
Gilbert Nations American District of Columbia 24,325 0.08% 0 Charles Hiram Randall California 0
Other 7,792 0.03% Other
Total 29,097,107 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1924 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (September 12, 2012).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Coolidge
  
54.04%
Davis
  
28.82%
La Follette
  
16.61%
Others
  
0.53%
Electoral vote
Coolidge
  
71.94%
Davis
  
25.61%
La Follette
  
2.45%

Results by state[edit]

[5]

States won by Coolidge/Dawes
States won by Davis/Bryan
States won by La Follette/Wheeler
Calvin Coolidge
Republican
John W. Davis
Democratic
Robert La Follette
Progressive
Herman Faris
Prohibition
William Foster
Communist
Frank Johns
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 12 45,005 27.01 - 112,966 67.81 12 8,084 4.85 - 538 0.32 - - - - - - - -67,961 -40.79 166,593 AL
Arizona 3 30,516 41.26 3 26,235 35.47 - 17,210 23.27 - - - - - - - - - - 4,281 5.79 73,961 AZ
Arkansas 9 40,564 29.28 - 84,795 61.21 9 13,173 9.51 - - - - - - - - - - -44,231 -31.93 138,532 AR
California 13 733,250 57.20 13 105,514 8.23 - 424,649 33.13 - 18,365 1.43 - - - - - - - 308,601 24.07 1,281,900 CA
Colorado 6 195,171 57.02 6 75,238 21.98 - 69,945 20.44 - 966 0.28 - 562 0.16 - 378 0.11 - 119,933 35.04 342,260 CO
Connecticut 7 246,322 61.54 7 110,184 27.53 - 42,416 10.60 - - - - - - - 1,373 0.34 - 136,138 34.01 400,295 CT
Delaware 3 52,441 57.70 3 33,445 36.80 - 4,979 5.48 - - - - - - - - - - 18,996 20.90 90,885 DE
Florida 6 30,633 28.06 - 62,083 56.88 6 8,625 7.90 - 5,498 5.04 - - - - - - - -31,450 -28.81 109,154 FL
Georgia 14 30,300 18.19 - 123,200 73.96 14 12,691 7.62 - 231 0.14 - - - - - - - -92,900 -55.77 166,577 GA
Idaho 4 69,879 47.12 4 24,256 16.36 - 54,160 36.52 - - - - - - - - - - 15,719 10.60 148,295 ID
Illinois 29 1,453,321 58.84 29 576,975 23.36 - 432,027 17.49 - 2,367 0.10 - 2,622 0.11 - 2,334 0.09 - 876,346 35.48 2,470,067 IL
Indiana 15 703,042 55.25 15 492,245 38.69 - 71,700 5.64 - 4,416 0.35 - 987 0.08 - - - - 210,797 16.57 1,272,390 IN
Iowa 13 537,635 55.03 13 162,600 16.64 - 272,243 27.87 - - - - 4,037 0.41 - - - - 265,392 27.17 976,960 IA
Kansas 10 407,671 61.54 10 156,319 23.60 - 98,461 14.86 - - - - - - - - - - 251,352 37.94 662,454 KS
Kentucky 13 398,966 48.93 13 374,855 45.98 - 38,465 4.72 - - - - - - - 1,499 0.18 - 24,111 2.96 815,332 KY
Louisiana 10 24,670 20.23 - 93,218 76.44 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -68,548 -56.21 121,951 LA
Maine 6 138,440 72.03 6 41,964 21.83 - 11,382 5.92 - - - - - - - 406 0.21 - 96,476 50.20 192,192 ME
Maryland 8 162,414 45.29 8 148,072 41.29 - 47,157 13.15 - - - - - - - 987 0.28 - 14,342 4.00 358,630 MD
Massachusetts 18 703,476 62.26 18 280,831 24.86 - 141,225 12.50 - - - - 2,635 0.23 - 1,668 0.15 - 422,645 37.41 1,129,837 MA
Michigan 15 874,631 75.37 15 152,359 13.13 - 122,014 10.51 - 6,085 0.52 - 5,330 0.46 - - - - 722,272 62.24 1,160,419 MI
Minnesota 12 420,759 51.18 12 55,913 6.80 - 339,192 41.26 - - - - 4,427 0.54 - 1,855 0.23 - 81,567 9.92 822,146 MN
Mississippi 10 8,494 7.55 - 100,474 89.34 10 3,494 3.11 - - - - - - - - - - -91,980 -81.79 112,462 MS
Missouri 18 648,486 49.58 18 572,753 43.79 - 84,160 6.43 - 1,418 0.11 - - - - 883 0.07 - 75,733 5.79 1,307,958 MO
Montana 4 74,138 42.50 4 33,805 19.38 - 66,123 37.91 - - - - 357 0.20 - - - - 8,015 4.60 174,423 MT
Nebraska 8 218,585 47.09 8 137,289 29.58 - 106,701 22.99 - 1,594 0.34 - - - - - - - 81,296 17.51 464,173 NE
Nevada 3 11,243 41.76 3 5,909 21.95 - 9,769 36.29 - - - - - - - - - - 1,474 5.48 26,921 NV
New Hampshire 4 98,575 59.83 4 57,201 34.72 - 8,993 5.46 - - - - - - - - - - 41,374 25.11 164,769 NH
New Jersey 14 675,162 62.17 14 297,743 27.41 - 108,901 10.03 - 1,337 0.12 - 1,540 0.14 - 819 0.08 - 377,419 34.75 1,086,079 NJ
New Mexico 3 54,745 48.52 3 48,542 43.02 - 9,543 8.46 - - - - - - - - - - 6,203 5.50 112,830 NM
New York 45 1,820,058 55.76 45 950,796 29.13 - 474,913 14.55 - - - - 8,244 0.25 - 9,928 0.30 - 869,262 26.63 3,263,939 NY
North Carolina 12 191,753 39.73 - 284,270 58.89 12 6,651 1.38 - 13 0.00 - - - - - - - -92,517 -19.17 482,687 NC
North Dakota 5 94,931 47.68 5 13,858 6.96 - 89,922 45.17 - - - - 370 0.19 - - - - 5,009 2.52 199,081 ND
Ohio 24 1,176,130 58.33 24 477,888 23.70 - 357,948 17.75 - - - - - - - 3,025 0.15 - 698,242 34.63 2,016,237 OH
Oklahoma 10 226,242 42.82 - 255,798 48.41 10 46,375 8.78 - - - - - - - - - - -29,556 -5.59 528,415 OK
Oregon 5 142,579 51.01 5 67,589 24.18 - 68,403 24.47 - - - - - - - 917 0.33 - 74,176 26.54 279,488 OR
Pennsylvania 38 1,401,481 65.34 38 409,192 19.08 - 307,567 14.34 - 9,779 0.46 - 2,735 0.13 - 634 0.03 - 992,289 46.26 2,144,850 PA
Rhode Island 5 125,286 59.63 5 76,606 36.46 - 7,628 3.63 - - - - 289 0.14 - 268 0.13 - 48,680 23.17 210,115 RI
South Carolina 9 1,123 2.21 - 49,008 96.56 9 620 1.22 - - - - - - - - - - -47,885 -94.35 50,752 SC
South Dakota 5 101,299 49.69 5 27,214 13.35 - 75,355 36.96 - - - - - - - - - - 25,944 12.73 203,868 SD
Tennessee 12 130,882 43.59 - 158,537 52.80 12 10,656 3.55 - 100 0.03 - - - - - - - -27,655 -9.21 300,275 TN
Texas 20 130,023 19.78 - 484,605 73.70 20 42,881 6.52 - - - - - - - - - - -354,582 -53.93 657,509 TX
Utah 4 77,327 49.26 4 47,001 29.94 - 32,662 20.81 - - - - - - - - - - 30,326 19.32 156,990 UT
Vermont 4 80,498 78.22 4 16,124 15.67 - 5,964 5.79 - 326 0.32 - - - - - - - 64,374 62.55 102,917 VT
Virginia 12 73,312 32.79 - 139,716 62.48 12 10,377 4.64 - - - - - - - 197 0.09 - -66,404 -29.70 223,602 VA
Washington 7 220,224 52.24 7 42,842 10.16 - 150,727 35.76 - - - - 761 0.18 - 1,004 0.24 - 69,497 16.49 421,549 WA
West Virginia 8 288,635 49.45 8 257,232 44.07 - 36,723 6.29 - - - - - - - - - - 31,403 5.38 583,662 WV
Wisconsin 13 311,614 37.06 - 68,115 8.10 - 453,678 53.96 13 2,918 0.35 - 3,773 0.45 - 458 0.05 - -142,064 -16.90 840,826 WI
Wyoming 3 41,858 52.39 3 12,868 16.11 - 25,174 31.51 - - - - - - - - - - 16,684 20.88 79,900 WY
TOTALS: 531 15,723,789 54.04 382 8,386,242 28.82 136 4,831,706 16.61 13 55,951 0.19 - 38,669 0.13 - 28,633 0.10 - 7,337,547 25.22 29,097,107 US

Close States[edit]

Margin of victory less than 5% (30 electoral votes):

  1. North Dakota, 2.52%
  2. Kentucky, 2.96%
  3. Maryland, 4.00%
  4. Montana, 4.60%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (69 electoral votes):

  1. West Virginia, 5.38%
  2. Nevada, 5.48%
  3. New Mexico, 5.50%
  4. Oklahoma, 5.59%
  5. Arizona, 5.79%
  6. Missouri, 5.79%
  7. Tennessee, 9.21%
  8. Minnesota, 9.92%


Geography of Results[edit]

Cartographic Gallery[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Johnson County, Tennessee 91.32%
  2. Keweenaw County, Michigan 91.15%
  3. Shannon County, South Dakota 88.89%
  4. Leslie County, Kentucky 88.83%
  5. Windsor County, Vermont 88.43%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Edgefield County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Marlboro County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Kershaw County, South Carolina 99.86%
  4. Horry County, South Carolina 99.70%
  5. Marion County, South Carolina 99.68%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Comal County, Texas 73.96%
  2. Shawano County, Wisconsin 71.73%
  3. Mercer County, North Dakota 71.62%
  4. Hutchinson County, South Dakota 70.38%
  5. Calumet County, Wisconsin 70.13%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Garland S. Tucker III, The High Tide of American Conservatism: Davis, Coolidge and the 1924 Election (Emerald, 2010)
  2. ^ Prude, James (1972). "William Gibbs McAdoo and the Democratic National Convention of 1924". The Journal of Southern History (Southern Historical Association) 38 (4): 621–628. doi:10.2307/2206152. JSTOR 2206152. 
  3. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 24
  4. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 23
  5. ^ "1924 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved March 18, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hicks, John Donald (1955). Republican Ascendancy 1921-1933. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-011885-7. 
  • MacKay, K. C. (1947). The Progressive Movement of 1924. New York: Octagon Books. ISBN 0-374-95244-2. 
  • McCoy, Donald R. (1967). Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-7006-0350-6. 
  • Murray, Robert K. (1976). The 103rd Ballot: Democrats and Disaster in Madison Square Garden. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-013124-1. 
  • Ranson, Edward. The Role of Radio in the American Presidential Election of 1924: How a New Communications Technology Shapes the Political Process (Edwin Mellen Press; 2010) 165 pages. Looks at Coolidge as a radio personality, and how radio figured in the campaign, the national conventions, and the election result.
  • Unger, Nancy C. (2000). Fighting Bob La Follette: The Righteous Reformer. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2545-X. 

External links[edit]