United States presidential election, 1964

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United States presidential election, 1964
United States
1960 ←
November 3, 1964 → 1968

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout 61.9%[1]
  37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg BarryGoldwater.png
Nominee Lyndon B. Johnson Barry Goldwater
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Texas Arizona
Running mate Hubert Humphrey William E. Miller
Electoral vote 486 52
States carried 44 + DC 6
Popular vote 43,127,041 27,175,754
Percentage 61.1% 38.5%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Goldwater/Miller, Blue denotes those won by Johnson/Humphrey. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Lyndon B. Johnson
Democratic

Elected President

Lyndon B. Johnson
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 1964 was the 45th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964. Democratic candidate and incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's popularity, won 61.1% of the popular vote, the highest won by a candidate since James Monroe's re-election in 1820. It was the sixth-most lopsided presidential election in the history of the United States[2] in terms of electoral votes; in terms of popular vote, it is first. No candidate for president since has equaled or surpassed Johnson's percentage of the popular vote, and only Richard Nixon in 1972 has won by a greater popular vote margin.

The Republican candidate, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, suffered from a lack of support from his own party and his deeply unpopular conservative political positions. Johnson's campaign advocated social programs and further federal efforts to curb racial segregation, collectively known as the Great Society, and successfully portrayed Goldwater as being a dangerous extremist. Johnson easily won the Presidency, carrying 44 of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Goldwater's unsuccessful bid influenced the modern conservative movement and the long-time realignment within the Republican Party, which culminated in the 1980 presidential victory of Ronald Reagan. His campaign received considerable support from former Democratic strongholds in the Deep South and was the first Republican campaign to win Georgia in a presidential election. Conversely, Johnson won Alaska for the Democrats for the first (and only) time, as well as Maine (for the first time since 1912) and Vermont (for the first time since the Democratic Party was founded). Since the 1990s, Vermont and Maine have rested solidly in the Democratic column and Georgia in the Republican fold for presidential elections.

No post-1964 Democratic presidential candidate has been able to match or better Johnson's performance in the electoral college (The only Republicans to do so since have been Nixon in 1972 and Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984), or Johnson’s performance in the Mountain and Midwestern regions of the United States.

Assassination of President John F. Kennedy[edit]

President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Supporters were shocked and saddened by the loss of the charismatic Kennedy, while opposition candidates were put in the awkward position of running against the policies of a slain president.[3]

During the following period of mourning, Republican leaders called for a political moratorium, so as not to appear disrespectful.[4] As such, little politicking was done by the candidates of either major party until January 1964, when the primary season officially began. At the time, most political pundits saw Kennedy's assassination as leaving the nation politically unsettled.[3]

Nominations[edit]

Democratic Party[edit]

Democratic candidates

Candidates gallery[edit]

The nomination of Johnson was assured, but he wanted to control the convention and to avoid a public fight over civil rights. Nonetheless, Johnson faced challenges from two sides over civil rights issues over the course of the nomination season.

The segregationist Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, ran in a number of northern primaries against Johnson, and did surprisingly well in primaries in Maryland, Indiana, and Wisconsin against favorite son candidates who were stalking horses for Johnson. All favorite-sons, however, won their primaries. In California Yorty lost to Brown.

Democratic primary results by state.

Total popular vote:

At the national convention the integrated Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) claimed the seats for delegates for Mississippi, not on the grounds of the Party rules, but because the official Mississippi delegation had been elected by a white primary system. The party's liberal leaders supported an even division of the seats between the two delegations; Johnson was concerned that, while the regular Democrats of Mississippi would probably vote for Goldwater anyway, rejecting them would lose him the South. Eventually, Hubert Humphrey, Walter Reuther and the black civil rights leaders including Roy Wilkins, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Bayard Rustin worked out a compromise: the MFDP took two seats; the regular Mississippi delegation was required to pledge to support the party ticket; and no future Democratic convention would accept a delegation chosen by a discriminatory poll. Joseph L. Rauh, Jr., the MFDP's lawyer, initially refused this deal, but they eventually took their seats. Many white delegates from Mississippi and Alabama refused to sign any pledge, and left the convention; and many young civil rights workers were offended by any compromise.[5] Johnson carried the South as a whole in the election, but lost Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina.

Johnson also faced trouble from Robert F. Kennedy, President Kennedy's younger brother and the U.S. Attorney General. Kennedy and Johnson's relationship was troubled from the time Robert Kennedy was a Senate staffer. Then-Majority Leader Johnson surmised that Kennedy's hostility was the direct result of the fact that Johnson frequently recounted a story that embarrassed Kennedy's father, Joseph P. Kennedy, the ambassador to the United Kingdom. According to his recounting, Johnson and President Franklin D. Roosevelt misled the ambassador, upon a return visit to the United States, to believe that Roosevelt wished to meet in Washington for friendly purposes; in fact Roosevelt planned to—and did—fire the ambassador, due to the ambassador's well publicized views.[6] The Johnson–Kennedy hostility was rendered mutual in the 1960 primaries and the 1960 Democratic National Convention, when Robert Kennedy had tried to prevent Johnson from becoming his brother's running mate, a move that deeply embittered both men. Hours after John Kennedy's assassination, Johnson opted to call Robert Kennedy to ask the bereaved brother to remind him the exact language of the constitutional oath of office.

In early 1964, despite his personal animosity for the president, Kennedy had tried to force Johnson to accept him as his running mate. Johnson eliminated this threat by announcing that none of his cabinet members would be considered for second place on the Democratic ticket. Johnson also became concerned that Kennedy might use his scheduled speech at the 1964 Democratic Convention to create a groundswell of emotion among the delegates to make him Johnson's running mate; he prevented this by deliberately scheduling Kennedy's speech on the last day of the convention, after his running mate had already been chosen. Shortly after the 1964 Democratic Convention, Kennedy decided to leave Johnson's cabinet and run for the U.S. Senate in New York; he won the general election in November. Johnson chose Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, a liberal and civil rights activist, as his running mate. (It was noted that the need for a vice-presidential candidate, in the aftermath of John Kennedy's assassination, provided some suspense for the convention.)

Republican Party[edit]

Republican candidates

Candidates gallery[edit]

The primaries[edit]

Republican primaries results by state Technically in South Dakota and Florida, Goldwater finished in second to "Unpledged Delegates," but he finished before all other candidates.

The Republican Party (GOP) was badly divided in 1964 between its conservative and moderate-liberal factions. Former Vice-President Richard Nixon, who had been beaten by Kennedy in the extremely close 1960 presidential election, decided not to run. Nixon, a moderate with ties to both wings of the GOP, had been able to unite the factions in 1960; in his absence the way was clear for the two factions to engage in an all-out political civil war for the nomination. Barry Goldwater, a Senator from Arizona, was the champion of the conservatives. The conservatives had historically been based in the American Midwest, but beginning in the 1950s the conservatives had been gaining in power in the South and West. The conservatives favored a low-tax, small federal government which supported individual rights and business interests and opposed social welfare programs. The conservatives also resented the dominance of the GOP's moderate wing, which was based in the Northeastern United States. Since 1940, the Eastern moderates had successfully defeated conservative presidential candidates at the GOP's national conventions. The conservatives believed the Eastern moderates were little different from liberal Democrats in their philosophy and approach to government. Goldwater's chief opponent for the Republican nomination was Nelson Rockefeller, the Governor of New York and the longtime leader of the GOP's liberal-moderate faction.

Initially, Rockefeller was considered the front-runner, ahead of Goldwater. However, in 1963, two years after Rockefeller's divorce from his first wife, he married Margarita "Happy" Murphy, who was 15 years younger than he and had just divorced her husband and surrendered her four children to his custody.[7] The fact that Murphy had suddenly divorced her husband before marrying Rockefeller led to rumors that Rockefeller had been having an extramarital affair with her. This angered many social conservatives and female voters within the GOP, many of whom called Rockefeller a "wife stealer".[7] After his remarriage, Rockefeller's lead among Republicans lost 20 points overnight.[7] Senator Prescott Bush of Connecticut, the father of President George H.W. Bush and grandfather of President George W. Bush, was among Rockefeller's critics on this issue: "Have we come to the point in our life as a nation where the governor of a great state—one who perhaps aspires to the nomination for president of the United States—can desert a good wife, mother of his grown children, divorce her, then persuade a young mother of four youngsters to abandon her husband and their four children and marry the governor?"[7]

In the first primary, in New Hampshire, both Rockefeller and Goldwater were considered to be the favorites, but the voters instead gave a surprising victory to the U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., Nixon's running mate in 1960 and a former Massachusetts senator. Lodge was a write-in candidate. Lodge went on to win the Massachusetts and New Jersey primaries before finally deciding that he didn't want the Republican nomination, he then withdrew his candidacy.

Despite his defeat in New Hampshire, Goldwater pressed on, winning the Illinois, Texas, and Indiana primaries with little opposition, and Nebraska's primary after a stiff challenge from a draft-Nixon movement. Goldwater also won a number of state caucuses and gathered even more delegates. Meanwhile, Nelson Rockefeller won the West Virginia and Oregon primaries against Goldwater, and William Scranton won in his home state of Pennsylvania. Both Rockefeller and Scranton also won several state caucuses, mostly in the Northeast.

The final showdown between Goldwater and Rockefeller was in the California primary. In spite of the previous accusations regarding his marriage, Rockefeller led Goldwater in most opinion polls in California, and he appeared headed for victory when his new wife gave birth to a son, Nelson Rockefeller, Jr., three days before the primary.[7] His son's birth brought the issue of adultery front and center, and Rockefeller suddenly lost ground in the polls.[7] Goldwater won the primary by a narrow 51–49% margin, thus eliminating Rockefeller as a serious contender and all but clinching the nomination. With Rockefeller's elimination, the party's moderates and liberals turned to William Scranton, the Governor of Pennsylvania, in the hopes that he could stop Goldwater. However, as the Republican Convention began Goldwater was seen as the heavy favorite to win the nomination.

Total popular vote

Convention[edit]

The 1964 Republican National Convention at Daly City, California's Cow Palace arena was one of the most bitter on record, as the party's moderates and conservatives openly expressed their contempt for each other. Rockefeller was loudly booed when he came to the podium for his speech; in his speech he roundly criticized the party's conservatives, which led many conservatives in the galleries to yell and scream at him. A group of moderates tried to rally behind Scranton to stop Goldwater, but Goldwater's forces easily brushed his challenge aside, and Goldwater was nominated on the first ballot. The presidential tally was as follows:

The vice-presidential nomination went to little-known Republican Party Chairman William E. Miller, a Congressman from upstate New York. Goldwater stated that he chose Miller simply because "he drives [President] Johnson nuts".

In accepting his nomination, Goldwater uttered his most famous phrase (a quote from Cicero suggested by speechwriter Harry Jaffa): "I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice. And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue." For many GOP moderates, Goldwater's speech was seen as a deliberate insult, and many of these moderates would defect to the Democrats in the fall election.

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Civilrightsact1964.jpg

Although Goldwater had been successful in rallying conservatives, he was unable to broaden his base of support for the general election. Shortly before the Republican Convention, he had alienated most moderate Republicans[citation needed] by his vote against the Civil Rights Act of 1964,[8] which Johnson championed and signed into law. Goldwater's campaign manager, Denison Kitchel, a Phoenix lawyer and friend of nearly three decades, wrote Goldwater's speech explaining his opposition to the Civil Rights Act.[9] The Johnson camp used the vote against the legislation to paint Goldwater as a racist, even though Goldwater supported the civil rights cause in general, and voted in favor of the 1957 and 1960 Civil Rights acts. Goldwater considered desegregation a matter for the individual states, rather than a national policy. Goldwater was famous for speaking "off-the-cuff" at times, and many of his former statements were given wide publicity by the Democrats. In the early 1960s, Goldwater had called the Eisenhower administration "a dime store New Deal", and the former president never fully forgave him or offered him his full support in the election.

In December 1961, he told a news conference that "sometimes I think this country would be better off if we could just saw off the Eastern Seaboard and let it float out to sea", a remark which indicated his dislike of the liberal economic and social policies that were often associated with that part of the nation. That comment came back to haunt him, in the form of a Johnson television commercial,[10] as did remarks about making Social Security voluntary[11] and selling the Tennessee Valley Authority. In his most famous verbal gaffe, Goldwater once joked that the U.S. military should "lob one [a nuclear bomb] into the men's room of the Kremlin" in the Soviet Union.

Goldwater was also hurt by the reluctance of many prominent moderate Republicans to support him. Governors Nelson Rockefeller of New York and George Romney of Michigan refused to endorse Goldwater and did not campaign for him. On the other hand, former Vice-President Richard Nixon and Governor Scranton of Pennsylvania loyally supported the GOP ticket and campaigned for Goldwater, although Nixon did not entirely agree with Goldwater's political stances and said that it would "be a tragedy" if Goldwater's platform were not "challenged and repudiated" by the Republicans.[12] The New York Herald-Tribune, a voice for eastern Republicans (and a target for Goldwater activists during the primaries), supported Johnson in the general election. Some moderates even formed a "Republicans for Johnson" organization, although most prominent GOP politicians avoided being associated with it.

Shortly before the Republican convention, CBS reporter Daniel Schorr wrote from Germany that "It looks as though Senator Goldwater, if nominated, will be starting his campaign here in Bavaria, center of Germany's right wing" and "Hitler's stomping ground" and finding that Goldwater would be speaking to a gathering of "right-wing Germans" uniting the extremists in both countries. In fact, there was no such meeting nor trip planned.[13]

Fact magazine published an article polling psychiatrists around the country as to Goldwater's sanity. 1,189 psychiatrists appeared to agree that Goldwater was "emotionally unstable" and unfit for office, though none of the members had actually interviewed Goldwater. The article received heavy publicity. In a libel suit, Goldwater was ultimately awarded $75 000 in compensation.[14][15][16][17][18]

Eisenhower's strong backing could have been an asset to the Goldwater campaign, but instead its absence was clearly noticed. When questioned about the presidential capabilities of the former President's younger brother, university administrator Milton S. Eisenhower, in July 1964, Goldwater replied, "One Eisenhower in a generation is enough." However, Eisenhower did not openly repudiate Goldwater and made one television commercial for Goldwater's campaign.[19] A prominent Hollywood celebrity who vigorously supported Goldwater was Ronald Reagan. Reagan gave a well-received televised speech supporting Goldwater; it was so popular that Goldwater's advisors had it played on local television stations around the nation. Many historians consider this speech to mark the beginning of Reagan's transformation from an actor to a political leader. In 1966, Reagan would be elected Governor of California in a landslide.

Full "Daisy" advertisement

Johnson positioned himself as a moderate and succeeded in portraying Goldwater as an extremist. Goldwater had a habit of making blunt statements about war, nuclear weapons, and economics that could be turned against him. Most famously, the Johnson campaign broadcast a television commercial on September 7 dubbed the "Daisy Girl" ad, which featured a little girl picking petals from a daisy in a field, counting the petals, which then segues into a launch countdown and a nuclear explosion.[20] The ads were in response to Goldwater's advocacy of "tactical" nuclear weapons use in Vietnam[citation needed]. "Confessions of a Republican", another Johnson ad, features a monologue from a man who tells us that he had previously voted for Eisenhower and Nixon, but now worries about the "men with strange ideas", "weird groups" and "the head of the Ku Klux Klan" who were supporting Goldwater: he concludes that "either they're not Republicans, or I'm not".[21] Voters increasingly viewed Goldwater as a right wing fringe candidate—his slogan "In your heart, you know he's right" was successfully parodied by the Johnson campaign into "In your guts, you know he's nuts", or "In your heart, you know he might" (as in push the nuclear button), or even "In your heart, he's too far right" (some cynics wore buttons saying "Even Johnson is better than Goldwater!")

Election results by county.
1964 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District

The Johnson campaign's greatest concern may have been voter complacency leading to low turnout in key states. To counter this, all of Johnson's broadcast ads concluded with the line: "Vote for President Johnson on November 3. The stakes are too high for you to stay home." The Democratic campaign used two other slogans, "All the way with LBJ" and "LBJ for the USA".

The election campaign was disrupted for a week by the death of former president Herbert Hoover on October 20, 1964, because it was considered disrespectful to be campaigning during a time of mourning. Hoover died of natural causes. He had been President of the United States from 1929 to 1933. Both major candidates attended his funeral.

Johnson led in all opinion polls by huge margins throughout the entire campaign.

Results[edit]

The election was held on November 3, 1964. Johnson beat Goldwater in the general election, winning over 61 percent of the popular vote, the highest percentage since the popular vote first became widespread in 1824. In the end, Goldwater won only his native state of Arizona and five Deep South states--Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina--that had been increasingly alienated by Democratic civil rights policies. This was the best showing in the South for a GOP candidate since Reconstruction.

The five Southern states that voted for Goldwater swung over dramatically to support him. For instance, in Mississippi, where Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt had won 98% of the popular vote in 1936, Goldwater won 87% of the vote.[22] Of these states, Louisiana had been the only state where a Republican had won even once since Reconstruction. Mississippi, Alabama and South Carolina had not voted Republican in any presidential election since Reconstruction, and Georgia had never voted Republican even during Reconstruction (indeed, Goldwater was the first Republican ever to carry Georgia). Due to this, the 1964 election was a major transition point for the South, and an important step in the process by which the Democrats' former "Solid South" became a Republican bastion. Nonetheless, Johnson still managed to eke out a bare popular majority of 51–49% (6.307 to 5.993 million) in the eleven former Confederate states. Conversely, Johnson was the first Democrat ever to carry the state of Vermont in a Presidential election, and only the second Democrat to carry Maine in the 20th century. Maine and Vermont had been the only states that FDR had failed to carry during any of his four successful presidential bids.

The Johnson landslide defeated many conservative Republican congressmen, giving him a majority that could overcome the conservative coalition.

This is the first election to have participation of the District of Columbia under the 23rd Amendment to the US Constitution.

The Johnson campaign broke two American election records previously held by Franklin Roosevelt: the most number of Electoral Collegiate votes won by a major-party candidate running for the White House for the first time (with 486 to the 472 won by Roosevelt in 1932) and the largest share of the popular vote under the current Democratic/Republican competition (Roosevelt won 60.8% nationwide, Johnson 61.1%). This first-time electoral count was exceeded when Ronald Reagan won 489 votes in 1980. Johnson retains the highest percentage of the popular vote as of the 2012 election.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Lyndon Baines Johnson Democratic Texas 43,127,041 61.05% 486 Hubert Horatio Humphrey Minnesota 486
Barry Morris Goldwater Republican Arizona 27,175,754 38.47% 52 William Edward Miller New York 52
Eric Hass Socialist Labor New York 45,189 0.06% 0 Henning A. Blomen Massachusetts 0
Clifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Illinois 32,706 0.05% 0 Ed Shaw Michigan 0
Earle Harold Munn Prohibition Michigan 23,267 0.03% 0 Mark R. Shaw Massachusetts 0
John Kasper States' Rights New York 6,953 0.01% 0 J. B. Stoner Georgia 0
Joseph B. Lightburn Constitution West Virginia 5,061 0.01% 0 Theodore Billings Colorado 0
(Unpledged Electors) Democratic (n/a) 210,732 0.30% 0 (n/a) (n/a) 0
Other 12,581 0.02% Other
Total 70,639,284 100% 538 538
Needed to win 270 270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1964 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (May 8, 2013).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005).

Popular vote
Johnson
  
61.05%
Goldwater
  
38.47%
Others
  
0.48%
Electoral vote
Johnson
  
90.33%
Goldwater
  
9.67%

Results by state[edit]

[23]

States/districts won by Johnson/Humphrey
States/districts won by Goldwater/Miller
Lyndon B. Johnson
Democratic
Barry Goldwater
Republican
Unpledged Electors
Unpledged Democratic
Eric Hass
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 10 - - - 479,085 69.45 10 210,732 30.55 - - - - -268,353 -38.90 689,817 AL
Alaska 3 44,329 65.91 3 22,930 34.09 - - - - - - - 21,399 31.82 67,259 AK
Arizona 5 237,753 49.45 - 242,535 50.45 5 - - - 482 0.10 - -4,782 -0.99 480,770 AZ
Arkansas 6 314,197 56.06 6 243,264 43.41 - - - - - - - 70,933 12.66 560,426 AR
California 40 4,171,877 59.11 40 2,879,108 40.79 - - - - 489 0.01 - 1,292,769 18.32 7,057,586 CA
Colorado 6 476,024 61.27 6 296,767 38.19 - - - - 302 0.04 - 179,257 23.07 776,986 CO
Connecticut 8 826,269 67.81 8 390,996 32.09 - - - - - - - 435,273 35.72 1,218,578 CT
Delaware 3 122,704 60.95 3 78,078 38.78 - - - - 113 0.06 - 44,626 22.17 201,320 DE
D.C. 3 169,796 85.50 3 28,801 14.50 - - - - - - - 140,995 71.00 198,597 DC
Florida 14 948,540 51.15 14 905,941 48.85 - - - - - - - 42,599 2.30 1,854,481 FL
Georgia 12 522,557 45.87 - 616,584 54.12 12 - - - - - - -94,027 -8.25 1,139,336 GA
Hawaii 4 163,249 78.76 4 44,022 21.24 - - - - - - - 119,227 57.52 207,271 HI
Idaho 4 148,920 50.92 4 143,557 49.08 - - - - - - - 5,363 1.83 292,477 ID
Illinois 26 2,796,833 59.47 26 1,905,946 40.53 - - - - - - - 890,887 18.94 4,702,841 IL
Indiana 13 1,170,848 55.98 13 911,118 43.56 - - - - 1,374 0.07 - 259,730 12.42 2,091,606 IN
Iowa 9 733,030 61.88 9 449,148 37.92 - - - - 182 0.02 - 283,882 23.97 1,184,539 IA
Kansas 7 464,028 54.09 7 386,579 45.06 - - - - 1,901 0.22 - 77,449 9.03 857,901 KS
Kentucky 9 669,659 64.01 9 372,977 35.65 - - - - - - - 296,682 28.36 1,046,105 KY
Louisiana 10 387,068 43.19 - 509,225 56.81 10 - - - - - - -122,157 -13.63 896,293 LA
Maine 4 262,264 68.84 4 118,701 31.16 - - - - - - - 143,563 37.68 380,965 ME
Maryland 10 730,912 65.47 10 385,495 34.53 - - - - 1 0.00 - 345,417 30.94 1,116,457 MD
Massachusetts 14 1,786,422 76.19 14 549,727 23.44 - - - - 4,755 0.20 - 1,236,695 52.74 2,344,798 MA
Michigan 21 2,136,615 66.70 21 1,060,152 33.10 - - - - 1,704 0.05 - 1,076,463 33.61 3,203,102 MI
Minnesota 10 991,117 63.76 10 559,624 36.00 - - - - 2,544 0.16 - 431,493 27.76 1,554,462 MN
Mississippi 7 52,618 12.86 - 356,528 87.14 7 - - - - - - -303,910 -74.28 409,146 MS
Missouri 12 1,164,344 64.05 12 653,535 35.95 - - - - - - - 510,809 28.10 1,817,879 MO
Montana 4 164,246 58.95 4 113,032 40.57 - - - - - - - 51,214 18.38 278,628 MT
Nebraska 5 307,307 52.61 5 276,847 47.39 - - - - - - - 30,460 5.21 584,154 NE
Nevada 3 79,339 58.58 3 56,094 41.42 - - - - - - - 23,245 17.16 135,433 NV
New Hampshire 4 184,064 63.89 4 104,029 36.11 - - - - - - - 78,036 27.78 286,094 NH
New Jersey 17 1,867,671 65.61 17 963,843 33.86 - - - - 7,075 0.25 - 903,828 31.75 2,846,770 NJ
New Mexico 4 194,017 59.22 4 131,838 40.24 - - - - 1,217 0.37 - 62,179 18.98 327,615 NM
New York 43 4,913,156 68.56 43 2,243,559 31.31 - - - - 6,085 0.08 - 2,669,597 37.25 7,166,015 NY
North Carolina 13 800,139 56.15 13 624,844 43.85 - - - - - - - 175,295 12.30 1,424,983 NC
North Dakota 4 149,784 57.97 4 108,207 41.88 - - - - - - - 41,577 16.09 258,389 ND
Ohio 26 2,498,331 62.94 26 1,470,865 37.06 - - - - - - - 1,027,466 25.89 3,969,196 OH
Oklahoma 8 519,834 55.75 8 412,665 44.25 - - - - - - - 107,169 11.49 932,499 OK
Oregon 6 501,017 63.72 6 282,779 35.96 - - - - - - - 218,238 27.75 786,305 OR
Pennsylvania 29 3,130,954 64.92 29 1,673,657 34.70 - - - - 5,092 0.11 - 1,457,297 30.22 4,822,690 PA
Rhode Island 4 315,463 80.87 4 74,615 19.13 - - - - 2 0.00 - 240,848 61.74 390,091 RI
South Carolina 8 215,700 41.10 - 309,048 58.89 8 - - - - - - -93,348 -17.79 524,756 SC
South Dakota 4 163,010 55.61 4 130,108 44.39 - - - - - - - 32,902 11.22 293,118 SD
Tennessee 11 634,947 55.50 11 508,965 44.49 - - - - - - - 125,982 11.01 1,143,946 TN
Texas 25 1,663,185 63.32 25 958,566 36.49 - - - - - - - 704,619 26.82 2,626,811 TX
Utah 4 219,628 54.86 4 180,682 45.14 - - - - - - - 38,946 9.73 400,310 UT
Vermont 3 108,127 66.30 3 54,942 33.69 - - - - - - - 53,185 32.61 163,089 VT
Virginia 12 558,038 53.54 12 481,334 46.18 - - - - 2,895 0.28 - 76,704 7.36 1,042,267 VA
Washington 9 779,881 61.97 9 470,366 37.37 - - - - 7,772 0.62 - 309,515 24.59 1,258,556 WA
West Virginia 7 538,087 67.94 7 253,953 32.06 - - - - - - - 284,134 35.87 792,040 WV
Wisconsin 12 1,050,424 62.09 12 638,495 37.74 - - - - 1,204 0.07 - 411,929 24.35 1,691,815 WI
Wyoming 3 80,718 56.56 3 61,998 43.44 - - - - - - - 18,720 13.12 142,716 WY
TOTALS: 538 43,127,041 61.05 486 27,175,754 38.47 52 210,732 0.30 - 45,189 0.06 - 15,951,287 22.58 70,639,284 US

Close states[edit]

Margin of victory less than 5% (23 electoral votes):

  1. Arizona, 0.99%
  2. Idaho, 1.83%
  3. Florida, 2.30%

Margin of victory over 5%, but less than 10% (40 electoral votes):

  1. Nebraska, 5.21%
  2. Virginia, 7.36%
  3. Georgia, 8.25%
  4. Kansas, 9.03%
  5. Utah, 9.73%

Consequences[edit]

While losing quite badly in the 1964 election, some political pundits and historians believe Goldwater laid the foundation for the conservative revolution to follow. Ronald Reagan's speech on Goldwater's behalf, grassroots organization, and the conservative takeover (although temporary in the 1960s) of the Republican party would all help to bring about the "Reagan Revolution" of the 1980s. Indeed, many[citation needed] of today's leading politicians first entered politics to work for Goldwater, including Hillary Clinton.

Johnson went from his victory in the 1964 election to launch the Great Society program at home, signing the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and starting the War on Poverty. He also escalated the Vietnam War, which eroded his popularity. By 1968, Johnson's popularity had declined and the Democrats became so split over his candidacy that he withdrew as a candidate. Moreover, his support of civil rights for African-Americans helped split union members and Southerners away from Franklin Roosevelt's Democratic New Deal Coalition, which would later lead to the phenomenon of the "Reagan Democrat". Of the twelve presidential elections that followed up to 2012, Democrats would win only five times. Columnist George Will had this to say about the lasting effects of the 1964 election: "It took 16 years to count the votes, and Goldwater won."

The election also furthered the shift of the African-American voting electorate away from the Republican Party, a phenomenon which had begun with the New Deal. Since the 1964 election, Democratic presidential candidates have almost consistently won at least 80-90% of the African-American vote in each presidential election.

Electoral records[edit]

  • This was the first time in United States history that the state of Vermont voted for the Democratic candidate,[24] and the first time that Georgia voted for the Republican candidate.[25]
  • This was the first election in which the District of Columbia received voters in the Electoral College. To date, the District has not once voted Republican in any of the presidential elections in which it has been allotted presidential electors.
  • The 1964 election was the last time to date that any of the following states voted for a Democrat: Alaska, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming. Virginia and Indiana were among these until President Barack Obama won them in the 2008 election in which he also won one electoral vote from Nebraska's second congressional district. It is also the only time in Alaska's history that the state has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate.
  • This would be the last time to date that a Democrat would win a double-digit margin in the popular vote and over four-fifths of the electoral vote. Republicans have won such margins in two elections since: 1972 and 1984.
  • 1964 was the last time that a Democratic presidential candidate received a majority (or plurality) of white voters.[26]
  • This was the first time that a Democratic presidential candidate carried every Northeastern state. Not only did Johnson carry the electoral votes of every Northeastern state, but he also won all of them with over 60% of the popular vote. While the 1964 election effectively marked the beginning of Republican dominance in the South, it also started to mark dominance of the Democrats in the Northeast.
  • The election of 1964 was the first time since 1912 that Maine cast its electoral votes for a Democratic presidential candidate, and the first time since 1852 that Maine gave a Democratic presidential candidate an absolute majority of the popular vote (The Democrats narrowly won Maine in 1912 with only a 39% plurality, in a 3-way race against a split Republican base).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ Behind the elections of 1936, 1984, 1972, 1864, and 1980
  3. ^ a b Weaver Jr., Warren (November 23, 1963). "Parties' Outlook for '64 Confused". The New York Times. p. 1. 
  4. ^ Bigart, Homer (November 26, 1963). "GOP Leaders Ask Halt in Campaign". New York Times. p. 11. 
  5. ^ Unger and Unger; LBJ; a Life (1999) pp. 325-6; Dallek Flawed Giant, p. 164; Evans and Novak (1966) 451-56 claim that the MFDP fell under the influence of "black radicals" and rejected their seats.
  6. ^ Robert A. Caro; "The Lyndon Johnson Years: The Passage of Power" (2012), ch. 3 ("It's about Roosevelt and his father", Johnson said)
  7. ^ a b c d e f Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. pp. 58–59. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. 
  8. ^ Civil Rights Act of 1964
  9. ^ "Denison Kitchel, 94, Chief of Goldwater Campaign". The New York Times. October 20, 2002. Retrieved June 2, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Eastern Seabord" Ad
  11. ^ "Social Security" Ad
  12. ^ Black, Conrad (2007), p. 464.
  13. ^ Will, George (October 3, 2010). "With their hands tied, Democrats pound the table". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. A23. 
  14. ^ Nick Gillespie (July 30, 2006). "The Hard Right". New York Times. 
  15. ^ Sallie Satel (June 30, 2004). "Essay; The Perils of Putting National Leaders on the Couch". New York Times. 
  16. ^ New York Times
  17. ^ New York Times
  18. ^ New York Times
  19. ^ [1][dead link]
  20. ^ "Daisy" Ad
  21. ^ "Confessions of a Republican"
  22. ^ Kornacki, Steve (February 3, 2011) The "Southern Strategy," fulfilled, Salon.com
  23. ^ "1964 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  24. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=50&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state
  25. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=13&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state
  26. ^ Exit polls since 1972

Bibliography[edit]

Books[edit]

  • George H. Gallup (ed.), ed. (1972). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935–1971. 3 vols. Random House. 
  • Steve Fraser and Gary Gerstle (ed.), ed. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930–1980. 
  • Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. (ed.), ed. (2001). History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2000. 
  • Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa (1967). The Almanac of American Politics 1966: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts. 
  • Brennan, Mary C. (1995). Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the G. O. P. University of North Carolina Press. 
  • Dallek, Robert (2004). Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President. 
  • Donaldson, Gary (2003). Liberalism's Last Hurrah: The Presidential Campaign of 1964. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1119-8. 
  • Rowland Evans and Robert Novak; Lyndon B. Johnson: The Exercise of Power (1966) online
  • Goldberg, Robert Alan (1995). Barry Goldwater. 
  • Hamby, Alonzo (1992). Liberalism and Its Challengers: From F.D.R. to Bush. 
  • Hodgson, Godfrey (1996). The World Turned Right Side Up: A History of the Conservative Ascendancy in America. Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Jensen, Richard (1983). Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854–1983. 
  • Kolkey, Jonathan Martin (1983). The New Right, 1960–1968: With Epilogue, 1969–1980. 
  • Ladd, Everett Carll, Jr.; Charles D. Hadley (1978). Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s. 2nd ed. 
  • Lesher, Stephan (1995). George Wallace. 
  • Matthews, Jeffrey J. (1997). "To Defeat a Maverick: The Goldwater Candidacy Revisited, 1963–1964". Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (4): 662+. 
  • McGirr, Lisa (2002). Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right. 
  • Perlstein, Rick (2002). Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus. 
  • Rae, Nicol C. (1994). Southern Democrats. Oxford University Press. 
  • Sundquist, James L. (1983). Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States. 
  • White, Theodore (1965). The Making of the President: 1964. 
  • Burdick, Eugene (1964). The 480.  – a political fiction novel around the Republican campaign.

External links[edit]