United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 2008

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United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 2008
Pennsylvania
2004 ←
November 4, 2008
→ 2012

  Obama portrait crop.jpg John McCain official portrait with alternative background.jpg
Nominee Barack Obama John McCain
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Illinois Arizona
Running mate Joe Biden Sarah Palin
Electoral vote 21 0
Popular vote 3,276,363 2,655,885
Percentage 54.47% 44.15%

Pennsylvania presidential election results 2008.svg

County Results
  Obama—80-90%
  Obama—60-70%
  Obama—50-60%
  Obama—<50%
  McCain—<50%
  McCain—50-60%
  McCain—60-70%
  McCain—70-80%

President before election

George W. Bush
Republican

Elected President

Barack Obama
Democratic

The 2008 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania was part of the 2008 United States presidential election, which took place on November 4, 2008 throughout all 50 states and D.C. Voters chose 21 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

Pennsylvania was won by Democratic nominee Barack Obama by a 10.3% margin of victory. Prior to the election, all 17 news organizations considered this a state Obama would win, or otherwise considered as a safe blue state. Although the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since 1992, the margins of victory have become smaller over the past elections, as was highlighted in 2004 when John Kerry won the Keystone State by a slim margin of 2.50 percent. Since George W. Bush came so close to winning the state in 2004 and because Barack Obama lost the Pennsylvania Democratic Primary to Hillary Rodham Clinton by nearly 10 percentage points in April 2008, many analysts believed that Republican John McCain had a decent shot at winning Pennsylvania in the general election.[1] Nevertheless, Pennsylvania remained blue and gave Obama 54.47% of the vote to McCain's 44.15%, a margin of 10.32%. Normally a close state, 2008 marked the first time since 1972 that Pennsylvania was decided by a double-digit margin and was the strongest Democratic showing in the state since 1964.


Democratic primary[edit]

Pennsylvania Democratic Primary, 2008
Pennsylvania
2004 ←
April 22, 2008 (2008-04-22)

  Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg
Nominee Hillary Rodham Clinton Barack Obama
Party Democratic Democratic
Home state New York Illinois
Popular vote 1,273,764 1,059,698
Percentage 54.59% 45.41%

The Democratic primary was held on April 22. Voters also chose the Pennsylvania Democratic Party's candidates for various state and local offices.

The Democratic primary was open to registered Democrats only. Polls opened at 7am and closed at 8pm. Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton were the only candidates on the ballot for President of the United States.[2] The primary was considered to be a "must win" for Clinton, who defeated Obama, but by a smaller margin than hoped for.

Hillary Clinton won the primary by 9.28 percentage points, a wider margin than expected than recent polls suggested, but smaller than most January and February polls. Despite her victory, she gained only nine delegates on Obama. In particular superdelegates were not swinging in her direction after her win; the Clintons had been trying to secure the support of Congressman Jason Altmire but he remained uncommitted after she won his district by 31 percentage points during the primary.[3]

Delegates[edit]

The Pennsylvania Democratic Party sent 187 delegates to the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Of those delegates, 158 were pledged, and 29 were unpledged. All of the 158 pledged delegates were allocated (pledged) to vote for a particular candidate at the National Convention according to the results of the Pennsylvania Presidential Primary. The 29 unpledged delegates were popularly called "superdelegates" because their vote represented their personal decisions, whereas the regular delegates' votes represented the collective decision of many voters. The superdelegates were free to vote for any candidate at the National Convention and were selected by the Pennsylvania Democratic Party's officials.[4][5]

The 158 pledged delegates were further divided into 103 district delegates and 55 state-wide delegates. The 103 district delegates were divided among Pennsylvania's 19 Congressional Districts and were allocated to the presidential candidates based on the primary results in each District. The 55 state-wide delegates were divided into 35 at-large delegates and 20 Party Leaders and Elected Officials (abbreviated PLEOs). They were allocated to the presidential candidates based on the preference of the delegates at the State Committee meeting on June 7.[4][5]

Of the 29 unpledged delegates, 26 were selected in advance and 3 were selected at the State Committee meeting. The delegates selected in advance were 13 Democratic National Committee members, the 11 Democratic U.S. Representatives from Pennsylvania, Democratic U.S. Senator Bob Casey, Jr., and Democratic Governor Ed Rendell.[4][5]

Importance of Pennsylvania[edit]

The primary was the first time since 1976 that Pennsylvania played a major role in a presidential nomination.[6]

Importance of Pennsylvania for Clinton[edit]

Bill Clinton at a "Solutions for America" rally at the Henry Memorial Center at Washington & Jefferson College on March 11, 2008[7]

As the race continued to Pennsylvania, Indiana, and North Carolina, many observers had concluded that Clinton had little chance to overcome Obama's lead in pledged delegates.[8]

Former President Bill Clinton highlighted the importance of the state for the Clinton campaign saying on March 11 at an event in Western Pennsylvania that "If she wins a big, big victory in Pennsylvania, I think it’ll give her a real big boost going into the next primaries... I think she’s got to win a big victory in Pennsylvania. I think if she does, she can be nominated, but it’s up to you."[9] This was a repetition of his tactic before March 4, warning supporters that his wife might not be able to continue if she did not win Ohio and Texas.[10] Hillary Clinton emphasized that Pennsylvania was something of a home state for her, as her father came from Scranton, Pennsylvania, she and her brothers were christened there and had vacationed near there each summer, and her brothers still maintained the family cottage near there.[11]

Importance of Pennsylvania to Obama[edit]

On March 18, 2008 Barack Obama chose Philadelphia as the site to deliver his much-anticipated "A More Perfect Union" speech dealing with the race and the controversy surrounding his pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright.

Campaign[edit]

Obama's "Road to Change" Bus Tour[edit]

Obama speaking at a Rally in Pittsburgh to kick off his state-wide bus tour.

Obama started a 6-day "Road to Change" bus tour across Pennsylvania, with stops in Pittsburgh, Johnstown, Altoona, State College, Harrisburg

On March 28, Obama started the bus tour with a rally in Pittsburgh's Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall.[12] Obama was introduced and endorsed by Senator Bob Casey, Jr., who had indicated earlier that he would remain neutral in the democratic primary.[13]

Casey traveled to Florida over the Easter holiday, where he said rain forced him to stay inside and think about the election. Obama's ability to "transcend" the racial divide and his ability to engage younger voters proved decisive to his decision. According to sources, Casey's four daughters lobbied their dad to endorse Obama.[14]

On March 29, the Obama bus tour stopped at the Pleasant Valley Recreation Center in Altoona, where he famously bowled a 37.[15] Both Obama and Senator Casey (who rolled a score of 71) lost to local homemaker Roxanne Hart, who rolled a score of 82.[16] On April Fool's Day, Senator Clinton jokingly challenged Obama to a "bowl-off," with the winner taking all the delegates.[17]

Controversy[edit]

On April 11, 2008, Huffington Post blogger Mayhill Fowler, a self-admitted Barack Obama supporter, reported that during an April 6 "closed press" fundraising event in San Francisco, California, Obama recounted the obstacles facing his campaign in the Pennsylvania primary as it pertained to rural, white voters.[18] Fowler wrote that during the speech, Obama said the following:

You go into these small towns in Pennsylvania and, like a lot of small towns in the Midwest, the jobs have been gone now for 25 years and nothing's replaced them... And they fell through the Clinton Administration, and the Bush Administration, and each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate and they have not. And it's not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations.

Fowler later posted a three minute 30 second audio snippet confirming the accuracy of the remark. Senators Clinton and John McCain both issued statements condemning the remarks.[19] Obama later defended his comments, but conceded: "I didn't say it as well as I should have."[20] However, he also added: "I said something that everybody knows is true."[21] Obama had addressed similar themes of guns, religion, and economics in 2004 during an interview with Charlie Rose.[22]

Final week[edit]

On the last Friday before the primary, Senator Obama spoke on Independence Mall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to a crowd of more than 35,000, the largest audience yet drawn by either candidate during the campaign[citation needed]. The crowd was nearly twice what had been projected[23] and spilled over into nearby streets.[24] The next day, Obama conducted a whistle stop train tour from Philadelphia to Harrisburg, drawing a crowd of 6,000 at a stop in Wynnewood and 3,000 at a stop in Paoli. On Monday, Sen. Obama held the final events of his Pennsylvania campaign in Scranton, McKeesport and at the University of Pittsburgh's Petersen Events Center.[25]

The Saturday before the primary, Senator Clinton spoke in five Pennsylvania cities, including West Chester and York, Pennsylvania. More than 300 people showed up at the West Chester firehouse to hear the New York Senator speak.[26] At the Wilson high gymnasium in West Lawn, Pennsylvania, Clinton told several hundred more supporters: "The job of a leader is to bring people together to solve problems . . . to understand that sometimes we have to fight to get the political will and the votes to make that happen". On Monday, April 21, Senator Clinton along with husband Bill Clinton spoke to a crowd of 6,000 in Downtown Pittsburgh. Other events were held Monday in Scranton, Harrisburg, and Philadelphia.[27] Both candidates refused to participate in the political custom of street money.[28]

Polls[edit]

Public opinion polling from early January 2007 through mid-February 2008 consistently gave Hillary Clinton a double digit lead over Barack Obama.[29] By the beginning of April, polls of Pennsylvanians showed Obama trailing Clinton by an average of 5 points.[30] According to 2 polls taken one day before the primary, Hillary Clinton was leading Barack Obama by 49%-42% and 51%-41%. Other polls showed Clinton leading by an average of about 6%.[31]

Some superdelegates also announced their preferred candidates before the primary. As of April 30, 16 superdelegates had announced support for Senator Clinton and 5 had announced support for Senator Obama.[32]

Results[edit]

Pennsylvania Primary 2008.PNG

Primary date: April 22, 2008

National pledged delegates determined: 158

Pennsylvania Democratic presidential primary, 2008
Official Results[33]
Candidate Votes Percentage Estimated national delegates[5]
Hillary Clinton 1,273,764 54.59% 85
Barack Obama 1,059,698 45.41% 73
Totals 2,333,462 100.0% 158

Republican primary[edit]

Pennsylvania Republican primary, 2008
Pennsylvania
2004 ←
April 22, 2008 (2008-04-22)
→ 2012

  John McCain official photo portrait.JPG Ron Paul, official Congressional photo portrait, 2007.jpg Huckabee-SF-CC-024.jpg
Candidate John McCain Ron Paul Mike Huckabee
Party Republican Republican Republican
Home state Arizona Texas Arkansas
Delegate count 74 0 0
Popular vote 594,061 129,246 92,057
Percentage 72.86% 15.85% 11.29%

The Republican primary was also held on April 22 and voters also chose the Pennsylvania Republican Party's candidates for various state and local offices.

Polls opened at 7:00 am and closed at 8:00 pm. John McCain was the winner. He had already been declared the presumptive Republican Presidential nominee, having secured enough delegate votes in earlier primary contests to win the nomination at the 2008 Republican National Convention.

Ron Paul delivers a speech at the University of Pittsburgh on April 3, 2008.

Unlike on the Democratic side, little campaigning took place as John McCain had already clinched the nomination. Outsider candidate Ron Paul made several stops in the state, including his birthplace of Pittsburgh.

Official Results
Candidate Votes Percentage Delegates
John McCain 594,061 72.86% 74*
Ron Paul 129,246 15.85% 0
Mike Huckabee* 92,057 11.29% 0
Total 815,364 100% 74

*Delegates are essentially unpledged in the Pennsylvania Republican primary.

Some media sources noted that Ron Paul and Mike Huckabee combined took in around 220,000 votes (about 27% of the vote), despite McCain's status as presumptive nominee and the statistical irrelevance of Pennsylvania, as a possible sign of continuing social conservative or libertarian unease with McCain's nomination and have speculated about whether these results could potentially affect McCain in the November general election. Although some strategists disputed this theory, pointing to low turnout among McCain supporters and arguing that primary results would not necessarily have an impact on November. [1] [2] [3]

Campaign[edit]

Predictions[edit]

There were 17 news organizations who made state by state predictions of the election. Here are their last predictions before election day:

  1. D.C. Political Report: Democrat[34]
  2. Cook Political Report: Leaning Democrat[35]
  3. Takeaway: Leaning Obama[36]
  4. Election Projection: Leaning Obama[37]
  5. Electoral-vote.com: Leaning Democrat[38]
  6. Washington Post: Leaning Obama[39]
  7. Politico: Leaning Obama[40]
  8. Real Clear Politics: Leaning Obama[41]
  9. FiveThirtyEight.com: Leaning Obama[39]
  10. CQ Politics: Leaning Democrat[42]
  11. New York Times: Leaning Democrat[43]
  12. CNN: Leaning Democrat[44]
  13. NPR: Leaning Obama[39]
  14. MSNBC: Leaning Obama[39]
  15. Fox News: Democrat[45]
  16. Associated Press: Democrat[46]
  17. Rasmussen Reports: Safe Democrat[47]

Polling[edit]

Both McCain and Obama lead in various state polls taken from February until the end of April, when Obama took a steady, moderate lead in the state polling. Obama's lead was temporarily reduced to within margins of error and ties when Governor Sarah Palin of Alaska was announced as McCain's running mate in late August, but when the financial crisis of 2008 became a more potent election issue near the end of September, Obama then took a double-digit lead in the state polls, causing many analysts to no longer consider Pennsylvania a swing state in 2008.[48] Nevertheless, John McCain campaigned heavily in the state near Election Day and some polls showed Obama's lead narrowing down to single digits. McCain hoped that Pennsylvania might be the swing state that ensured him a narrow victory. However, the economic crisis weighed heavily on the minds of voters across the country and in Pennsylvania it was no different where many voters blamed the Republicans for the collapse, ultimately helping Obama who ended up carrying Pennsylvania by a strong margin of 10.31%.

Fundraising[edit]

Obama raised $14,043,740. McCain raised $5,188,757.[49]

Advertising and visits[edit]

Obama spent almost $42 million, while McCain spent almost $30 million.[50] The Obama campaign visited the state 16 times. The McCain campaign visited here 31 times.[51]

Analysis[edit]

McCain did win more counties than Obama, but the counties carried by Obama were by far the most populated of the state, including Philadelphia, Allegheny and Lehigh counties, home to the state's three largest cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Allentown respectively.[52]

Obama did extremely well throughout eastern Pennsylvania. He won more than 80% of voters in the city of Philadelphia, and two of its suburban counties gave him three-to-two margins (the other suburban counties also voted for Obama).[53] Democratic margins from Philadelphia and its suburbs were more than enough to ensure Obama's victory even if he had lost all the rest of the state. North of Philadelphia, the heavily industrialized, pro-union counties characterized by cities such as Scranton (birthplace of Obama's running mate, Joe Biden), Wilkes-Barre and Allentown strongly backed Obama as well. African-American and Latino voters, as well as younger college-age voters, in Monroe County and even in very Republican Pike and Wayne counties gave Obama a much greater share of the vote than Kerry received in 2004. He also managed to win two traditionally Republican counties in the eastern part of the state, Dauphin (home to the state capital, Harrisburg) and Berks (home to Reading); the last Democrat to carry these counties was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. In addition, Obama remained competitive in the two most Republican counties in the eastern region: Lancaster (which gave George W. Bush his largest margin of victory in the entire state) and York. While John Kerry lost Lancaster by 32 percentage points, Obama lost the county by only 12%, a substantial improvement.[53]

John McCain, however, did best in Southwestern Pennsylvania (around Pittsburgh), a part of Appalachia and the central, rural "T". Central Pennsylvania is a Republican stronghold; John McCain won the vast majority of its counties, often by substantial margins. However, Southwestern Pennsylvania, until recently, was the most Democratic region of the state (except for Philadelphia). Historically, when a Democrat carries Pennsylvania, the entire lower-left corner of the state from Pittsburgh to Johnstown is coated blue. The heavily unionized, Appalachian counties in and around Pittsburgh strongly voted against Ronald Reagan in 1984; in that election the only other county in the state to vote Democratic was Philadelphia.[54] In 2008, however, the Republicans won every single county in Southwestern Pennsylvania except for Allegheny County, home to Pittsburgh (which voted Democratic by 15%). It was one of the few regions in which Obama did worse than John Kerry. This largely mirrored Obama's struggles throughout Appalachia throughout the course of the Democratic primary, when voters in this region strongly backed Hillary Clinton.

The 2008 election confirmed Pennsylvania's status as a Democratic-leaning state. As Kerry showed in 2004, under most circumstances a Democrat can lose everywhere else in the state and still run up enough of a margin in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh to win.

During the same election at the state level, Democrats picked up two seats in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives but Republicans picked up one seat in the Pennsylvania Senate. Democrats also picked up a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in Pennsylvania's 3rd Congressional District as Democrat Kathy Dahlkemper defeated seven-term incumbent Republican Phil English by a 2.48-percent margin of victory. Dahlkemper received 51.24% of the vote while English took in 48.76%.

Results[edit]

United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 2008
Party Candidate Running mate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Barack Obama Joe Biden 3,276,363 54.47% 21
Republican John McCain Sarah Palin 2,655,885 44.15% 0
Independent Ralph Nader Matt Gonzalez 42,977 0.71% 0
Libertarian Bob Barr Wayne Allyn Root 19,912 0.33% 0
Write-ins Write-ins 18,921 0.31% 0
Constitution Chuck Baldwin Darrell Castle 1,348 0.02% 0
Green Cynthia McKinney Rosa Clemente 71 0.00% 0
Totals 6,015,477 100.00% 21
Voter turnout (Voting age population) 63.7%

By county[edit]

County Obama% Obama# McCain% McCain# Others% Others#
Adams 39.4% 17,633 58.9% 26,349 1.7% 759
Allegheny 57.1% 373,153 41.6% 272,347 1.3% 8,539
Armstrong 36.8% 11,138 61.3% 18,542 1.9% 583
Beaver 47.6% 40,499 50.4% 42,895 1.9% 1,638
Bedford 27.0% 6,059 71.8% 16,124 1.2% 260
Berks 53.8% 97,047 44.6% 80,513 1.6% 2,951
Blair 37.2% 19,813 61.4% 32,708 1.5% 777
Bradford 39.8% 10,306 58.2% 15,057 2.0% 524
Bucks 53.7% 179,031 45.1% 150,248 1.2% 4,045
Butler 35.5% 32,260 62.9% 57,074 1.6% 1,427
Cambria 49.2% 32,451 48.5% 31,995 2.4% 1,560
Cameron 39.2% 879 58.9% 1,323 1.9% 43
Carbon 49.8% 13,464 47.9% 12,957 2.3% 629
Centre 55.1% 41,950 43.3% 32,992 1.5% 1,169
Chester 54.0% 137,833 44.8% 114,421 1.2% 2,998
Clarion 37.8% 6,756 60.1% 10,737 2.1% 383
Clearfield 42.8% 14,555 54.9% 18,662 2.4% 805
Clinton 48.0% 7,097 50.7% 7,504 1.3% 190
Columbia 46.8% 13,230 51.2% 14,477 2.0% 571
Crawford 43.8% 16,780 54.2% 20,750 2.0% 777
Cumberland 42.5% 48,306 56.0% 63,739 1.5% 1,737
Dauphin 53.9% 69,975 44.9% 58,238 1.3% 1,632
Delaware 60.2% 178,870 38.8% 115,273 1.0% 2,861
Elk 50.8% 7,290 46.5% 6,676 2.8% 396
Erie 59.1% 75,775 39.3% 50,351 1.7% 2,145
Fayette 49.2% 25,866 49.6% 26,081 1.2% 613
Forest 42.1% 1,038 55.3% 1,366 2.6% 64
Franklin 33.1% 21,169 65.6% 41,906 1.3% 842
Fulton 25.0% 1,576 73.6% 4,642 1.4% 88
Greene 48.6% 7,829 49.0% 7,889 2.5% 396
Huntingdon 35.3% 6,621 62.7% 11,745 1.9% 365
Indiana 45.7% 17,065 52.9% 19,727 1.4% 510
Jefferson 34.1% 6,447 63.8% 12,057 2.2% 407
Juniata 31.3% 3,068 66.0% 6,484 2.7% 265
Lackawanna 62.2% 67,520 36.4% 39,488 1.4% 1,531
Lancaster 43.4% 99,586 55.2% 126,568 1.4% 3,095
Lawrence 46.5% 19,711 51.6% 21,851 1.9% 787
Lebanon 39.8% 23,310 58.6% 34,314 1.6% 939
Lehigh 57.1% 87,089 41.6% 63,382 1.3% 2,002
Luzerne 53.3% 72,492 45.0% 61,127 1.7% 2,349
Lycoming 37.2% 18,381 61.2% 30,280 1.6% 786
McKean 40.5% 6,465 57.8% 9,224 1.6% 258
Mercer 48.8% 26,411 49.0% 26,565 2.2% 1,192
Mifflin 32.6% 5,375 66.2% 10,929 1.2% 198
Monroe 57.5% 39,453 41.2% 28,293 1.3% 872
Montgomery 60.0% 253,393 39.2% 165,552 0.8% 3,474
Montour 41.9% 3,364 57.0% 4,574 1.1% 85
Northampton 55.4% 75,255 43.1% 58,551 1.6% 2,148
Northumberland 42.0% 14,329 55.7% 19,018 2.2% 767
Perry 32.2% 6,396 65.8% 13,058 2.0% 394
Philadelphia 83.0% 595,980 16.3% 117,221 0.7% 4,767
Pike 47.3% 11,493 51.5% 12,518 1.1% 273
Potter 30.6% 2,300 68.1% 5,109 1.3% 98
Schuylkill 44.5% 28,300 53.1% 33,767 2.4% 1,538
Snyder 34.6% 5,382 63.6% 9,900 1.8% 284
Somerset 36.4% 12,878 61.3% 21,686 2.3% 804
Sullivan 39.5% 1,233 59.0% 1,841 1.5% 46
Susquehanna 43.2% 8,381 54.8% 10,633 2.1% 401
Tioga 35.5% 6,390 63.0% 11,326 1.5% 268
Union 42.0% 7,333 56.4% 9,859 1.6% 283
Venango 39.4% 9,238 58.5% 13,718 2.1% 504
Warren 46.1% 8,537 52.3% 9,685 1.6% 295
Washington 46.8% 46,122 51.5% 50,752 1.6% 1,597
Wayne 43.3% 9,892 55.6% 12,702 1.1% 241
Westmoreland 41.0% 72,721 57.6% 102,294 1.4% 2,532
Wyoming 45.3% 5,985 52.8% 6,983 1.9% 254
York 42.4% 82,839 56.0% 109,268 1.6% 3,138

By congressional district[edit]

Although Barack Obama won Pennsylvania, John McCain carried 10 of the commonwealth’s 19 congressional districts, including four districts held by Democrats. One district, PA-03, was extremely close, however, with McCain only winning by less than 20 votes. Obama won 9 districts, including two districts held by Republicans.

District McCain Obama Representative
1st 11.72% 87.82% Bob Brady
2nd 9.52% 90.05% Chaka Fattah
3rd 49.30% 49.30% Phil English (110th Congress)
Kathy Dahlkemper (111th Congress)
4th 54.72% 44.27% Jason Altmire
5th 54.55% 44.05% John E. Peterson (110th Congress)
Glenn "G.T." Thompson (111th Congress)
6th 41.21% 57.81% Jim Gerlach
7th 43.20% 55.84% Joe Sestak
8th 44.99% 53.92% Patrick Murphy
9th 63.36% 35.43% Bill Shuster
10th 53.60% 45.17% Chris Carney
11th 44.99% 53.92% Paul E. Kanjorski
12th 49.43% 49.12% John Murtha
13th 40.51% 58.56% Allyson Schwartz
14th 29.03% 69.99% Michael F. Doyle
15th 43.14% 55.58% Charlie Dent
16th 51.39% 47.74% Joe Pitts
17th 51.10% 47.65% Tim Holden
18th 54.90% 44.15% Tim Murphy
19th 56.25% 42.64% Todd Platts

Electors[edit]

Technically the voters of Pennsylvania cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. Pennsylvania is allocated 21 electors because it has 19 congressional districts and 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 21 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 21 electoral votes. Their chosen electors then vote for President and Vice President. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them.[55] An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector.

The electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 15, 2008 to cast their votes for President and Vice President. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols.

The following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All 20 were pledged to Barack Obama and Joe Biden:[56]

  1. Lynne Abraham
  2. Christopher Lewis
  3. John Brenne
  4. Valerie McDonald-Roberts
  5. Eileen Connell
  6. Thomas McMahon
  7. Kathi Cozzone
  8. Robert Mello
  9. John Fetterman
  10. Michael A. Nutter
  11. William George
  12. Corey O'Brien
  13. Patrick B. Gillespie
  14. Joshua Shapiro
  15. Richard Gray
  16. Jack Wagner
  17. Franco Harris
  18. Michael Washo
  19. George Hartwick
  20. Daylin Leach

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Poll: Obama leads McCain in swing states". CNN. 2008-06-18. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  2. ^ "Unofficial List of Candidates" (PDF). 
  3. ^ Baker, Peter; Rutenberg, Jim (2008-06-08). "The Long Road to a Clinton Exit". The New York Times. 
  4. ^ a b c "Pennsylvania Delegate Selection Plan For The 2008 Democratic National Convention" (PDF). Pennsylvania Democratic Party. 2007-08-25. Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  5. ^ a b c d Berg-Andersson, Richard (2008-05-01). "Pennsylvania Democrat Presidential Nominating Process". The Green Papers. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  6. ^ Infield, Tom (2008-03-24). "The last time a Pa. primary mattered". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-04-16. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Former President Bill Clinton to Speak at W&J on Tuesday". Current Press Releases. Washington & Jefferson College. March 10, 2008. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2012-02-2012. 
  8. ^ Alter, Jonathan (2008-03-05). "Hillary’s New Math Problem: Tuesday's big wins? The delegate calculus just got worse.". Newsweek. 
  9. ^ "Bill: Hill needs 'big, big victory' in PA". MSNBC.com. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  10. ^ Wheaton, Sarah (2008-02-21). "Bill Clinton: Texas and Ohio or Bust". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  11. ^ Seelye, Katherine Q (2008-03-10). "Pennsylvania Ties Could Help Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  12. ^ Obama's Bus Tour Rolls Through Pittsburgh, Johnstown, State College - Politics News Story - WTAE Pittsburgh
  13. ^ "Bob Casey Endorses Barack Obama". The New York Times. 2008-03-28. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  14. ^ Obama wins endorsement from Senator Bob Casey of Pennsylvania - International Herald Tribune
  15. ^ "Obama Bowls for Pennsylvania Voters". Huffington Post. 2008-03-30. 
  16. ^ http://www.mercurynews.com/elections/ci_8750444
  17. ^ Clinton challenges Obama to bowl-off - Hillary Clinton News - MSNBC.com
  18. ^ Fowler, Mayhill (2008-11-17). "Obama: No Surprise That Hard-Pressed Pennsylvanians Turn Bitter". Huffington Post. 
  19. ^ Suarez, Fernando (2008-04-12). "Clinton Says Obama is "Out of Touch" with Middle Class Americans, Calls Comments "Elitist"". CBS News.  See also: "McCain Camp: Barack Obama is an "Elitist"". Fox News. [dead link]
  20. ^ Bohan, Caren (2008-04-12). "Obama says he erred in comments on "bitter" voters". Reuters. 
  21. ^ Finnegan, Michael. “Obama expresses regret for remarks on small towns”, Los Angeles Times (2008-04-13).
  22. ^ Interview by Charlie Rose See also: "Full interview with Charlie Rose". 
  23. ^ "Presidential Candidate Barack Obama Rally". Philadelphia Independent Media Center. 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  24. ^ Anburajan, Aswini (2008-04-18). "OBAMA'S CLOSING ARGUMENT?". msnbc.com. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  25. ^ Sidoti, Liz (2008-04-19). "Obama takes whistle-stop tour through Pennsylvania". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-04-20. [dead link]
  26. ^ Roug, Louise (2008-04-20). "Clinton scrambles to hold onto waning lead in Pennsylvania". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  27. ^ Fitgerald, Thomas (2008-04-19). "Clinton: I have the political will". Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  28. ^ Davies, Dave (2008-04-15). "Word on the street: No election $". Philadelphia Daily News. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
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  30. ^ "Quinnipiac University".  See also: "Time Magazine" (PDF).  "Insider Advantage/Majority Opinion" (PDF).  "Muhlenberg College" (PDF).  "Public Policy Polling" (PDF). 
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  32. ^ "CQ Politics Primary Guide". CQ Politics. Retrieved 2008-02-20. [dead link]
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  34. ^ D.C.'s Political Report: The complete source for campaign summaries
  35. ^ Presidential
  36. ^ Adnaan (2008-09-20). "Track the Electoral College vote predictions". The Takeaway. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  37. ^ Election Projection: 2008 Elections - Polls, Projections, Results
  38. ^ Electoral-vote.com: President, Senate, House Updated Daily
  39. ^ a b c d Based on Takeaway
  40. ^ POLITICO's 2008 Swing State Map - POLITICO.com
  41. ^ RealClearPolitics - Electoral Map
  42. ^ http://innovation.cq.com/prezMap08/
  43. ^ The New York Times http://elections.nytimes.com/2008/president/whos-ahead/key-states/map.html?scp=1&sq=electoral%20college%20map&st=cse |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  44. ^ "October – 2008 – CNN Political Ticker - CNN.com Blogs". CNN. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  45. ^ "Winning The Electoral College". Fox News. 2010-04-27. 
  46. ^ roadto270
  47. ^ Election 2008: Electoral College Update - Rasmussen Reports™
  48. ^ "RealClearPolitics - Election 2008 - Pennsylvania". Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  49. ^ http://www.fec.gov/DisclosureSearch/MapAppState.do?stateName=PA&cand_id=P00000001
  50. ^ "Map: Campaign Ad Spending - Election Center 2008 from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  51. ^ "Map: Campaign Candidate Visits - Election Center 2008 from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  52. ^ "Commonwealth of PA". Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  53. ^ a b "Election Results 2008". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  54. ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Map Comparison: Pennsylvania". Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  55. ^ "Electoral College". California Secretary of State. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  56. ^ Running for Office

See also[edit]