Universal history

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Universal history is the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, as a coherent unit.[1][2][3] It is basic to the Western tradition of historiography. A universal chronicle or world chronicle traces history from the beginning of written information about the past up to the present (contemporary time).[4] As understood by historians, universal history embraces the events of all times and nations with the only limitation being that they should be ascertained as to make a scientific treatment of them possible.[5][6]

Universal history is the representation of general facts both of entire nations and of individuals. Its uses are manifold. It teaches human nature and the experience of all centuries. Universal history is commonly divided into three parts, viz. ancient, medieval, and modern time.[7]

Historiography[edit]

The roots of historiography in the 19th century are bound up with the concept that history written with a strong connection to the primary sources could be integrated with "the big picture", i.e. to a general, universal history. For example, Leopold von Ranke, probably the pre-eminent historian of the 19th century, founder of "Rankean historical positivism", the classic mode of historiography that now stands against postmodernism, attempted to write a Universal History at the close of his career. The work of Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee are two examples of attempts to integrate primary source-based history and Universal History. Spengler's work is more general; Toynbee created a theory that would allow the study of "civilizations" to proceed with integration of source-based history writing and Universal History writing.[8] Both writers attempted to incorporate teleological theories into general presentations of the history.

Instances and Description[edit]

Ancient examples[edit]

Historians[edit]

In Greco-Roman antiquity, the first universal history was written by Ephorus (fl. 4th century BC). This work has been lost, but its influence can be seen in the ambitions of Polybius (203–120 BC) and Diodorus (fl. 1st century BC) to give comprehensive accounts of their worlds. Metamorphoses by Ovid has been considered as a universal history because of its comprehensive chronology—from the creation of mankind to the death of Julius Caesar a year before the poet's birth.[9] In Leipzig are preserved five fragments dating to the 2nd century AD and coming from a world chronicle. Its author is unknown, but was perhaps a Christian. Later, universal history provided an influential lens on the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire in such works as Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, Augustine's City of God, and Orosius' History Against the Pagans.

During the Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) of China, Sima Qian (145–86 BC) was the first Chinese historian to attempt a universal history—from the earliest mythological origins of his civilization to his present day—in his Records of the Grand Historian. Although his generation was the first in China to discover the existence of kingdoms in Central Asia and India, his work did not attempt to cover the history of these regions.

Abrahamic[edit]

Universal history is seen in the Abrahamic source of western historiographical tradition. The first five books of the Bible constitute a primary example of such a history. To the extent that the Pentateuch presents itself as an account of humankind as a whole, from creation to the death of Moses, it is universal history. The story progresses according to a universal principle: the Bible posits that the history of humankind is governed by Yawveh, and that his will is manifest in every event that takes place. The destiny of all humankind, according to this idea, is governed by humans' relationship with God. This idea naturally flows into the story of the Children of Israel, whose patriarchs conversed with God and made various covenants with Him. These covenants governed humankind's destiny. This idea extends into the New Testament, which posits that the sacrifice of Jesus now affects every person, and every generation since His resurrection, into the limitless future.

See also: Eschatology

Medieval examples[edit]

Western Europe[edit]

The universal chronicle traces history from the beginning of the world up to the present and was an especially popular genre of historiography in medieval Western Europe. The universal chronicle differs from the ordinary chronicle in its much broader chronological and geographical scope, giving, in principle, a continuous account of the progress of world history from the creation of the world up to the author's own times, but in practice often narrowing down to a more limited geographical range as it approaches those times.

The Chronica of Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275–339) is considered to be the starting point of this tradition. The second book of this work consisted of a set of concordance tables (Chronici canones) that for the first time synchronized the several concurrent chronologies in use with different peoples. Eusebius' chronicle became known to the Latin West through the translation by Jerome (c. 347–420).

Universal chronicles are sometimes organized around a central ideological theme, such as the Augustinian idea of the tension between the heavenly and the earthly state, which plays a major role in Otto von Freising's Historia de duabus civitatibus. In other cases, any obvious theme may be lacking. Some universal chronicles bear a more or less encyclopedic character, with many digressions on non-historical subjects, as is the case with the Chronicon of Helinand of Froidmont.

Other notable universal chroniclers of the Medieval West include Bede (c. 672 or 673–735), the Christherre-Chronik, Helinand of Froidmont (c. 1160—after 1229), Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636), Jans der Enikel, Matthew Paris (c. 1200-1259), Ranulf Higdon (c. 1280-1363), Rudolf von Ems, Sigebert of Gembloux (c. 1030–1112), Otto von Freising (c. 1114–1158), and Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1190-1264?).

The tradition of universal history can even be seen in the works of medieval historians whose purpose may not have been to chronicle the ancient past, but nonetheless included it in a local history of more recent times. One such example is the Decem Libri Historiarum of Gregory of Tours (d. 594), where only the first of his ten books describes creation and ancient history, while the last six books focus on events in his own lifetime and region. While this reading of Gregory is currently a widely accepted hypothesis in historical circles, the central purpose of Gregory's writing is still a topic of hot debate.[10][11]

Christian writers as late as Bossuet (in his Discours sur l'histoire universelle,1679) were still reflecting on and continuing the Medieval tradition of universal history.[12]

Middle East[edit]

In the medieval Islamic world (13th century), universal history in this vein was taken up by Muslim historians such as Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini ("The History of The World Conqueror") by Ala'iddin Ata-Malik Juvayni, Jami al-Tawarikh ("Compendium of Chronicles") by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (now held at the University of Edinburgh) and the Muqaddimah by Ibn Khaldun.

Central Asia[edit]

The Secret History of the Mongols (1240) by an unknown author, is a source of the first magnitude for the social history of the Asian nomadic civilization[13] of the Mongols before the establishment of what was the world's greatest empire in the 13th century. It contains historical events over a vast area of Eurasia 800 years ago.

Modern examples[edit]

An early European project was the Universal History of George Sale and others, written in the mid-18th century. In the 19th century, universal histories proliferated. Philosophers such as Kant, Schiller and Hegel, and political philosophers such as Marx, presented general theories of history that shared essential characteristics with the Biblical account: they conceived of history as a coherent whole, governed by certain basic characteristics or immutable principles. For example, Hegel presented the idea that progress in history is actually the progress not of humankind's material existence, but of humanity's spiritual development. Concomitantly,[15] Hegel presented a developmental theory of how the human spirit progresses: through the dialectic of synthesis and antithesis. Marx's theory of dialectic materialism is essential to his general concept of history: that the struggle to dominate the means of production governs all historical development.

Pop universal history[edit]

Basic ideas of universal history are influential that they are difficult to separate from basic assumptions of how the world is or should be. Outside intellectuals, the ideas continue to predominate as assumptions. The teleological aspects of universal history remains accepted. Events of the world, and more specifically, the events within the human community, are arranged in a direct or straight outline toward an end or tending toward an end of some sort. 'Linear' pre-suppositions of a historical theory are no less prevalent. People living in Western cultures conceive of time, and therefore of history, as a line or an arrow; that is, proceeding to the future, toward an objective aimed at in socio-political movements considered as the close and effect of the past (conclusion). In contrast to this view, Social cycle theories are among the earliest social theories in sociology. Sociological cycle theory argues that events and stages of society and history are generally repeating themselves in cycles.

Universal chronicles[edit]

Timeline[edit]

Contemporary history Modern history Early modern Modern Age Late Middle Ages High Middle Ages Early Middle Ages Post-classical era Ancient Iron Age Bronze Age

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details.

Ancient[edit]

Main article: Ancient History

Ancient history is the study of the past from the beginning of recorded human history to the Early Middle Ages. In India, the period includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms,[16][17][18] and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty is included.[19][20]

The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system. In this system, it follows the Neolithic Age in some areas of the world. In the 24th century BC, the Akkadian Empire[21][22] was founded. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 22nd century BC) was followed by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt between the 21st to 17th centuries BC. The Sumerian Renaissance also developed c. 21st century BC. Around the 18th century BC, the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt began. By 1600 BC, Mycenaean Greece developed, the beginning of the Shang Dynasty in China emerged and there was evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system. Also around 1600 BC, the beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region is seen. The time between the 16th to 11th centuries BC around the Nile is called the New Kingdom of Egypt. Between 1550 BC and 1292 BC, the Amarna Period developed.

The Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system, preceded by the Bronze Age. Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region. During the 13th to 12th centuries BC, the Ramesside Period occurred in Egypt. Around c. 1200 BC, the Trojan War was thought to have taken place.[23] By c. 1180 BC, the disintegration of the Hittite Empire was underway.

In 1046 BC, the Zhou force, led by King Wu of Zhou, overthrows the last king of the Shang Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty is established in China shortly thereafter. In 1000 BC, the Mannaeans Kingdom begins in Western Asia. Around the 10th to 7th centuries BC, the Neo-Assyrian Empire forms in Mesopotamia. In 800 BC, the rise of Greek city-states begins. In 776 BC, the first recorded Olympic Games are held.

Imperial China Ancient China Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Middle kingdoms of India Indo-Greeks Iron Age India Indus Valley Civilization Ancient Rome Ancient Greece Phoenicia Axumite Empire Kingdom of Kush Ancient Egypt Sassanid Empire Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Achaemenid Empire Mesopotamia Iron Age Bronze Age

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details

Middle[edit]

Main article: Post-classical era

The post-classical era, also known as the Middle Ages,[24] is a historical period following the Iron Age, fully underway by the 5th century and lasting to the 15th century, and preceding the early Modern Era.[25][26] The medieval[27] history is the middle period, or the middle age, in a three-period division of history: Classic, Medieval,[27] and Modern. The precise dates of the beginning, culmination, and end of the medieval history are more or less arbitrarily assumed according to the point of view adopted. Any hard and fast line drawn to designate either the beginning or close of the period in question is arbitrary. The widest limits given, viz., the irruption of the Visigoths over the boundaries of the Roman Empire, for the beginning, and the Middle Ages of the 16th century, for the close, may be taken as inclusively sufficient, and embrace, beyond dispute, every movement or phase of history that can be claimed as properly belonging to the medieval history.

In Europe, the period saw the large-scale European Migration and fall of the Western Roman Empire. In South Asia, the middle kingdoms of India were the classical period of the region. The "Medieval" period on the Indian subcontinent lasts for some 1,500 years, and ends in the 13th century. During the late medieval history, several Islamic empires were established in the Indian subcontinent. In East Asia, the Mid-Imperial China age begins with the reunification of China and ends with China was conquered by the Mongol Empire. The Golden Horde invaded North and West Asia and parts of eastern Europe in the 13th century and established and maintained their khanate until the end of the medieval history.

The Early medieval history saw the continuation of trends set up in ancient history (and, for Europe, late Antiquity). The period is usually considered to open with those migrations of the German Tribes which led to the destruction of the Roman Empire in the West in 375, when the Huns fell upon the Gothic tribes north of the Black Sea and forced the Visigoths over the boundaries of the Roman Empire on the lower Danube. A later date, however, is sometimes assumed, viz., when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus, the last of the Roman Emperors of the West, in 476. Depopulation, deurbanization, and increased barbarian invasion were seen across the Old World. North Africa and the Middle East, once part of the Eastern Roman Empire, became Islamic. Later in European history, the establishment of the feudal system allowed a return to systemic agriculture. There was sustained urbanization in northern and western Europe.

During the High medieval history in Europe, Christian-oriented art and architecture flourished and Crusades were mounted to recapture the Holy Land from Muslim control. The influence of the emerging states in Europe was tempered by the ideal of an international Christendom. The codes of chivalry and courtly love set rules for proper European behavior, while the European Scholastic philosophers attempted to reconcile Christian faith and reason.

During the Late medieval history in Europe, the centuries of prosperity and growth came to a halt. The close of the medieval history is also variously fixed; some make it coincide with the rise of Humanism and the Renaissance in Italy, in the 14th century; with the Fall of Constantinople, in 1453; with the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492; or, again, with the great religious schism of the 16th century. A series of famines and plagues, such as the medieval Great Famine and the Black Death, reduced the population around half before the calamities in the late medieval history. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. Western Europe experienced serious peasant risings: the Jacquerie, the Peasants' Revolt, and the Hundred Years' War. To add to the many problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. Collectively the events are a crisis of the Late medieval history.

Mesoamerican chronology Mississippian culture Woodland period Pre-Columbian Muromachi period Kenmu restoration Kamakura period Heian period Nara period Asuka period Kofun period Yamato period Yuan Dynasty Song Dynasty Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period Tang Dynasty Sui Dynasty Ming Dynasty Early Imperial China Six Dynasties Golden Horde(Mongol) Chagatai Khanate(Mongol) Mongol Empire Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty Samanids Muslim conquests Hephthalites Scythians Islamic empires in India Middle kingdoms of India Mamluk Sultanate Ayyubid dynasty Fatimid Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate Muslim conquests Sassanid Empire Ottoman Empire Serbian Empire Byzantine Empire Second Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire First Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Reconquista Caliphate of Córdoba Muslim conquests Al-Andalus Visigothic Kingdom Kingdom of England Heptarchy Anglo-Saxon England Sub-Roman Britain Holy Roman Empire Carolingian Empire Lombard kingdom Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire East Francia Carolingian Empire Francia Germanic Wars Grand Duchy of Moscow Grand Duchy of Lithuania Sarai (city) Mongol invasion of Rus' Kievan Rus' Rus' Khaganate Migration Period Sarmatians Hunnic Empire Kalmar Union Northern Crusades Christianization of Scandinavia Norsemen Viking Age Germanic Iron Age Crisis of the Late Middle Ages Mongol invasion of Europe Crusades Urbanization Manorialism Feudalism Migration Period Renaissance Late Antiquity Early modern Modern history Ancient history Iron Age Late Middle Ages High Middle Ages Early Middle Ages

Modern[edit]

Europe 1550
Source: The Library of Universal History.
by Israel Smith Clare, New York, R.S. Peale, J.A. Hill, 1897.
Pre 1800 Map
Geographicus - World. 1798

Modern history describes the historical period after the Middle history.[28][29] Modern history can be further broken down into the early modern period and the late modern period after the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Contemporary history describes the span of historic events that are immediately relevant to the present time. The Great Divergence[30] refers to the period of time in which the process by which the Western Europe and the parts of the New World overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire.

The modern era began approximately in the 16th century.[31] Many major events caused Europe to change around the start of the 16th century, starting with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the fall of Muslim Spain and the discovery of the Americas in 1492, and Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation in 1517. In England the modern period is often dated to the start of the Tudor period with the victory of Henry VII over Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.[32][33] Early modern European history is usually seen to span from around the start of the 15th century, through the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries, until the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century.

Early Modern Age[edit]
Main article: Early modern period

The modern era includes the early period, called the early modern period, which lasted from c. 1500 to around c. 1800 (most often 1815). Particular facets of early modernity include:

The early period ended in a time of political and economic change as a result of mechanization in society, the American Revolution, the first French Revolution; other factors included the redrawing of the map of Europe by the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna[34] and the peace established by Second Treaty of Paris which ended the Napoleonic Wars.[35]

Empire of Brazil United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Colonial Brazil History of Mexico New Spain Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire History of the United States Canada under British rule British America New France Mississippian culture Company rule in India Mughal Empire Islamic empires in India Joseon Dynasty Edo period (Tokugawa) Azuchi–Momoyama period Sengoku period Muromachi period Qing Dynasty Ming Dynasty Golden Horde Russian Empire Zunghar Khanate Chagatai Khanate Ottoman Syria Egypt Eyalet Mamluk Sultanate Decline of the Ottoman Empire Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire Growth of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Italian unification History of Italy (1559–1814) Italian Wars Italian Renaissance German Confederation Confederation of the Rhine Kleinstaaterei Thirty Years War Reformation German Renaissance Holy Roman Empire Russian Empire Tsardom of Russia Grand Duchy of Moscow France in the long nineteenth century French Revolution France in the Middle Ages Kingdom of France French Renaissance Ancien Régime United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Industrial Revolution Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of England Early modern Britain Mid-19th-century Spain Reconquista Enlightenment in Spain Spanish Renaissance Spanish Empire Union between Sweden and Norway Denmark History of Sweden Denmark–Norway Kalmar Union Modern age Late Middle Ages

Late Modern Age[edit]
Main article: Late modern history
The World in 1897
Cambridge University Library

As a result of the Industrial Revolutions and the earlier political revolutions, the worldviews of Modernism emerged. The industrialization of many nations was initiated with the industrialization of Britain. Particular facets of the late modernity period include:

Other important events in the development of the Late modern period include:

History of the United States (1991–present) History of the United States (1980–91) History of the United States (1964–80) History of the United States (1945–64) History of the United States (1918–45) Progressive Era Gilded Age American Civil War Antebellum History of Russia (1992–present) History of the Soviet Union (1982–1991) History of the Soviet Union (1964–1982) History of the Soviet Union (1953–1964) History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953) History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–27) History of the Soviet Union History of Russia (1892–1917) History of Russia (1855–1892) History of Russia (1796–1855) Russian Empire Heisei Postwar Japan Taishō period Shōwa period Empire of Japan Meiji period Edo period History of the People's Republic of China Chinese Civil War Nanjing decade Republic of China (1912–49) Qing Dynasty Post-colonial Africa Decolonization of Africa Colonisation of Africa Scramble for Africa European exploration of Africa History of Pakistan India and the Non-Aligned Movement Dominion of Pakistan Dominion of India Partition of India British Raj Company rule in India Arab Spring Middle East History of the Arab–Israeli conflict Mandatory Palestine French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire History of Brazil since 1985 Brazilian military government Second Brazilian Republic Vargas Era First Brazilian Republic History of the Empire of Brazil Francoist Spain Spanish Empire First Spanish Republic Spain under the Restoration Spanish Civil War Second Spanish Republic Mid-19th-century Spain History of Spain (1975–present) History of the United Kingdom (1945–present) Postwar Britain United Kingdom Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II Great Depression in the United Kingdom History of the United Kingdom during World War I Edwardian era United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Victorian era British Empire French Third Republic Belle Époque French Third Republic Second French Empire French Second Republic French Fifth Republic French Fourth Republic Vichy France History of the Italian Republic Italian Empire History of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Italian unification German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany History of Germany (1945–90) New states of Germany Information Age Atomic Age World War II Interwar period World War I Long Depression Second Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Contemporary Period Late Modern Period Modern Age

Dates are approximate range (based upon influence), consult particular article for details
         Modern Age      Other
Contemporary[edit]
Main article: Contemporary history
The contemporary world
commons.wikimedia.org
See also: Clickable world map

The contemporary "Great Divergence" is a term given to a period starting in late 1970s when inequality grew substantially in the United States and to a lesser extent in other countries such as Canada and the United Kingdom. The term originated with Nobel laureate, Princeton economist and New York Times columnist Paul Krugman,[36] and is a reference to the "Great Compression", an earlier era in the 1930s and 40s when income became dramatically more equal in the United States and elsewhere.[37]

Age of Oil Big Data Information Age Space Age Cold War Atomic Age Post-war era World War II Interwar period World War I Machine Age 2010s The Noughties The Nineties The Eighties The Seventies The Sixties Great Depression Roaring Twenties Post-Modern

See also[edit]

Timelines
Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures
Main
Macro-historical, Open and closed systems in social science, Interconnectedness and holism, Causality and dynamical systems, Complex systems
People
David Christian, Jami' al-tawarikh, Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, John Clark Ridpath
Books
Cyclopedia of Universal History, Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose
General
World-systems theory, Metanarrative, Cliometrics, Big History, World-systems theory, Systems thinking, Interdependence, Hindu units of time
Other
Historical Materialism, The End of History and the Last Man, Integral theory, Epic of Evolution, Chaos theory (and Butterfly effects), Systems theory in political science, Source criticism, Primary research and Secondary research, Literature review

References[edit]

  1. ^ What is history?: Five lectures on the modern science of history By Karl Lamprecht. Pages 181-227.
  2. ^ Epitome of ancient, mediaeval and modern history By Carl Ploetz. Introduction, pages ix–xii.
  3. ^ Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, James Elphinston. An universal history: from the beginning of the world, to the Empire of Charlemagne. R. Moore, 1810. page 1-6 (introduction)
  4. ^ History begins at the point where monuments become intelligible and documentary evidence of a trustworthy character is fortheoming but from this point onwards the domain is boundless for Universal History as understood. (Universal history: the oldest historical group of nations and the Greeks by Leopold von Ranke. Preface, pg. x)
  5. ^ Leopold von Ranke. Universal history: the oldest historical group of nations and the Greeks. Scribner, 1884.
  6. ^ An epitome of universal history By A. Harding. Page 1.
  7. ^ H. M. Cottinger. Elements of universal history for higher institutes in republics and for self-instruction. Charles H. Whiting, 1884. pg. 1+.
  8. ^ Donald A. Yerxa. Recent Themes in World History and the History of the West: Historians in Conversation. Univ of South Carolina Press, 2009. Page 1+
  9. ^ Solodow, Joseph B. (1988). The World of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780807817711. 
  10. ^ Wood, Ian. Gregory of Tours. (Bangor: Headstart History, 1994.)
  11. ^ Mitchell, Kathleen and Wood, Ian, eds.. The World of Gregory of Tours. (Boston: Brill, 2002).
  12. ^ Bossuet, J. B. Discours sur l'histoire universelle (Paris, Furne et cie, 1853).
  13. ^ See also: Eurasian nomads
  14. ^ Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View
  15. ^ Occurring or existing concurrently
  16. ^ Elphinstone, M. (1889). The history of India. London: Murray.
  17. ^ Smith, V. A. (1904). The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest, including the invasion of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  18. ^ Hoernle, A. F. R., & Stark, H. A. (1906). A History of India. Cuttack: Orissa mission Press.
  19. ^ Foster, S. (2007). Adventure guide. China. Hunter travel guides. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. Page 6–7 (cf., "Qin is perceived as 'China's first dynasty' and [... developed] writing.)
  20. ^ Gernet, J. (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  21. ^ akkadian
  22. ^ Wells, H. G. (1921). The outline of history, being a plain history of life and mankind New York: Macmillan company. Page 137.
  23. ^ Strauss, Barry S. (2006) The Trojan War: A New History. Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-7432-6442-8
  24. ^ The World in the Middle Ages: An Historical Geography, with Accounts of the Origin and Development, the Institutions and Literature, the Manners and Customs of the Nations in Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa, from the Close of the Fourth to the Middle of the Fifteenth Century. Adolphus Louis Koeppen.
  25. ^ Tabular Views of Universal History. George Haven Putnam.
  26. ^ Emma Willard. A system of universal history, in perspective: accompanied by an atlas, exhibiting chronology in a picture of nations, and progressive geography in a series of maps. F. J. Huntington, 1835. Page 3
  27. ^ a b Latin: medius + Latin: aevum (middle + age); See Middle and Age.
  28. ^ Intrinsic to the English language, "modern" denotes (in reference to history) a period that is opposed to either ancient or medieval — modern history comprising the history of the world since the close of the Middle history.
  29. ^ The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, Page 3814
  30. ^ a term coined by Samuel Huntington
  31. ^ Dunan, Marcel. Larousse Encyclopedia of Modern History, From 1500 to the Present Day. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.
  32. ^ Helen Miller, Aubrey Newman. Early modern British history, 1485-1760: a select bibliography, Historical Association, 1970
  33. ^ Early Modern Period (1485-1800), Sites Organized by Period, Rutgers University Libraries
  34. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  35. ^ Hazen, Charles Downer (1910). Europe since 1815. American historical series, H. Holt and Company.
  36. ^ Krugman, Paul, The Conscience of a Liberal, W W Norton & Company, 2007, p.124-8
  37. ^ The Great Divergence. By Timothy Noah

Further reading[edit]

Pre-1920s books
Post-1950s books
  • Hegel, GWF. Philosophy of Right. TM Knox, tr. Oxford UP: New York, 1967. para. 341-360 (pp. 216–223). As a point of clarification, Hegel writes of World History, although this is somewhat identical to Universal History.
  • Mink, Louis O. “Narrative Form as a Cognitive Instrument.” In Historical Understanding. Brian Fay, et al., eds. Cornell UP: Ithaca, 1987. pp. 182–203.
  • Kant, Immanuel. “Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View.” In Philosophical Writings. Ernest Behler, ed. Lewis W Beck, tr. Continuum: New York, 1986. pp. 249–262.
  • White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Johns Hopkins UP, 1975.
  • D Christian. "The return of universal history." History and Theory 49.4 (2010): 6-27. DOI 10.1111/j.1468-2303.2010.00557.x
  • George Park Fisher. Outlines of Universal History Designed as a Text Book and for Private Reading. Kessinger Publishing, Jun 1, 2004.
  • The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community. By William H. McNeill.
Patents
Websites