In social work practice universalization is a supportive intervention used by the therapist to reassure and encourage his/her client. Universalization places the client’s experience in the context of other individuals who are experiencing the same, or similar challenges, and seeks to help the client grasp that his/her feelings and experiences are not uncommon given the circumstances. The therapist or social worker using this supportive intervention intends to “normalize” the client’s experience of his/her emotions and reactions to the presenting challenge. By normalizing the client’s experience the therapist is attempting to help avert the client’s natural feelings of “being alone”, or that “no one understands me”.
For example, a therapist working with a 21-year-old client who is experiencing rejection from her family and friends after admitting that she is a lesbian will use universalization. The therapist will explain that many other young adults who have revealed their sexual orientation undergo the same rejection and scrutiny from peers and parents. The therapist will follow this up by telling her that her emotional response to the rejection is likewise normal and not at all uncommon given the circumstances.
Universalization is an incipient concept describing the next phase of human development, marking the transition from trans-national to interplanetary relations and much more aggressive exploitation of opportunities that lie beyond the confines of Earth. As both a process and an end state, universalization implies an increasingly pervasive, abiding and singular human focus not only on global issues per se but on social, technological, economic and cultural challenges and opportunities extending into our solar system, our galaxy, and well beyond where cooperation supersedes conflict negotiation. Its origins are associated with incipient expansion of social, economic, and political relationships that have emerged in the wake of globalization and that increasingly define the planet and its place within the broader universe. The concept was first inspired by Kwame Anthony Appiah's work on cosmopolitanism, and particularly his emphasis on the need to develop a transcendent, collaborative model of human interaction that looks beyond the limited confines of current human relationships. Underlying principles and activities associated with universalization have also been discussed in a number of works dealing with prospective human exploitation of natural resources in space. The specific term appears to originate in a 2013 article by Lorna Jean Edmonds which posits that "the shift from globalization to universalization," or in other words from global economy, society and politics to relations guiding human activity in outer space, "is just a matter of time". Evidence of the transition from globalization to the century of "universalization" is provided by the exponential growth in outer space activity across all sectors of human endeavour, including exploration (global investments by national governments and consortia of $65 billion annually), governance (the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Association for Space Safety), commerce (aerospace industries such as Boeing, Teledyne, MDA), resource exploitation (Moon Express), Tourism (Virgin Galactic, XCOR), communications (satellites, probes, inter-planetary internet), Education (the International Space University, Singularity University, International Institute of Space Commerce), research (observatories at Hawaii, Chile, the Square Kilometer Array, Hubble), and settlement (Mars One).
- Mattaini, M.A., Lowery C.T., & Meyer C.H. (Eds.) (1998). The Foundations of Social Work Practice (2nd ed.). Washington: NASW Press.
- Appiah, Kwame (2006). Cosmopolitanism. New York: W. W. Norton.
- De Man, Philip (November 2010). "The Exploitation of Outer Space and Celestial Bodies". Leuven Center for Global Governance Studies. Working Paper Number 54.
- Tennen, Leslie I. (2010). "Towards a New Regime for Exploitation of Outer Space Mineral Resources". Nebraska Law Review (88).
- Robles, Stephen (November 2013). "Commercialization, law and governance in outer space". The International.
- Edmonds, Lorna Jean (2013). "Forging a Singular Approach to Higher Education Strategic Planning and Trend Analysis". Research Money url=http://www.researchmoneyinc.com/display.php?issue=27-7&id=15910&q=Edmonds 27 (70).
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2014). The Space Economy at a Glance 2011. Paris: OECD.