University of Costa Rica
|University of Costa Rica|
|Universidad de Costa Rica|
|Motto||Lucem Aspicio (Latin)|
|Type||Public, undergraduate, graduate.|
|Rector||Dr. Henning Jensen Pennington|
|Location||San Pedro Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica|
|Campus||Both Urban and Rural|
|Campus size||77.5 ha, 775.000 m²|
The University of Costa Rica (in Spanish, Universidad de Costa Rica, abbreviated UCR) is a public university in the Republic of Costa Rica, in Central America. Its main campus, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, is located in San Pedro Montes de Oca, in the province of San José. It is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious institution of higher learning in Costa Rica. It is also the most important research university in the country, and Central America. Approximately 39,000 students attend UCR throughout the year.
The first institution dedicated to higher education in Costa Rica was the University of St. Thomas (Universidad de Santo Tomás), which was established in 1843. That institution maintained close ties with the Roman Catholic Church and was closed in 1888 by the progressive and anti-clerical government of President Bernardo Soto Alfaro as part of a campaign to modernize public education. The schools of law, agronomy, fine arts, and pharmacy continued to operate independently. In 1940, those four schools were re-united to establish the modern University of Costa Rica (UCR), during the reformist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia.
The UCR remained the country's sole university until the Costa Rica Institute of Technology (Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica) and the National University of Costa Rica (Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica) were opened by the government in 1972 and 1973, respectively. Five years later, in 1979, another public university opened: the Distance State University (Universidad Estatal a Distancia), modeled after the British Open University. Today, Costa Rica has five public universities (the fifth being the newly created National Technical University) and approximately fifty three private ones, but the UCR remains the largest and most well funded institution.
Costa Rican applicants to the UCR must take an admission test. This test is similar to the SAT in the USA. The score of this test is used along with the grades from the student's last years in high school to determine the student's admission score, which is later used to determine admission to a specific major and financial aid. 800 is the highest possible score on the admission test and 442 is the minimum score required for admission. Students who score 800 usually appear in the front pages of Costa Rican newspapers.
Undergraduate Admission is highly selective, having an acceptance rate of approximately 25%. In 2009, out of the 31.042 that completed the admission test, only 16.593 got above the necessary 442 points to be admitted into the university. However, being admitted to the university doesn't assure admission to a chosen departmental program, or major. In 2007, only 60% of those admitted to the university got accepted into their chosen major. The remaining 40% have to take classes that may not work for their major, hoping it will lift their grade point average to the level necessary to be admitted to the program of their liking.
International applicants must revalidate their high school certificate and grades from their country of origin at the Ministry of Public Education (Ministerio de Educación Pública) in order to apply and take the admission test. Graduate school applicants must revalidate their undergraduate certificate also.
 Campuses and local branches
The main campus is located on a 100 ha (250-acre) campus in San Pedro, San Jose (Rodrigo Facio campus). Other regional campuses are located throughout the country to reach rural Costa Ricans. The regional options are:
- Western Campus (San Ramon, Alajuela Province): includes a local branch in Tacares township, Grecia county
- Atlantic Campus (Turrialba city, Cartago Province): includes a local branch in Paraíso township, Cartago province and another one in Guápiles township, Limón province
- Guanacaste Campus (Liberia City, Guanacaste Province): includes a local branch in Santa Cruz township
- Limon City Campus (Port Limón City).
- Pacific Campus (Puntarenas Port).
- The Golfito Campus (Southern Pacific coast) officially opened in 2006.
The main campus in San Pedro offers the most diverse course curricula of any other campus, in addition to hosting the Medical School, and graduate programs.
 Social relevance
The University, while neutral on most aspects of Costa Rican life, defines itself as a secular and humanist institution. The university encourages social work and research activities and in order to graduate most students must work in the Trabajo Comunal Universitario (University Community Service), which is organized by the University. The University maintains a prestigious position in Costa Rican society and is the most often cited governmental institution in Costa Rican media. Opinions generated in scientific, ethical and economic matters strongly influence Costa Rican policies and public sentiment. UCR counts Costa Rica's Nobel Laureate Oscar Arias, many ministers, and many heads of the country's public institutions as alumni.
The UCR is also part of the Consejo Nacional de Rectores (National Council of University Chairpersons), a watchdog body that overviews higher education quality.
 International Cooperation
The University maintains international cooperation alliances with the DAAD (the German Academic Trust), the governments of Japan, France, Mexico, Spain, Taiwan (R.O.C.), the European Union, the OAS and United States research institutions such as the Organization for Tropical Studies, whose headquarters in Costa Rica are located within UCR's central campus (Rodrigo Facio campus). Other Universities with ties to the University of Costa Rica are: University of Florida, New York University at Albany, University of Texas at Austin, University of Illinois, University of Maryland, Rutgers University and the University of Kansas, which is the oldest standing agreement between two universities in the Western Hemisphere.
Academic cooperation agreements have been signed with the governments of the following countries (in alphabetical order): Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Honduras, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jamaica, Mexico, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (R.O.C.), Uruguay, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Venezuela.
The government structure of the university is composed by a Legislative Body (Asamblea General), Board of Directors (Consejo Universitario), Presidency (Rectoría), and the Offices (Vicerrectorías) of Extension (Acción Social) , Administrative Affairs (Administación), Academic Affairs (Docencia), Research (Investigación) and Student Affairs (Vida Estudiantil) .
The UCR is divided into six major academic areas: Agricultural Sciences, Arts and Letters, Basic Sciences, Engineering, Health and Social Sciences. These areas are divided into Colleges, Schools and Departments, Research Centers and Institutes. The Graduate Studies System offers masters and doctorate degrees in a variety of academic fields. Careers are as follows:
- Arts and Letters
- Engineering 
- Health 
- Social Sciences 
- Anthropology & Social Science 
- Economic Sciences 
- Educational Sciences 
- Geography 
- History 
- Law 
- Media Sciences 
- Political Sciences 
- Private Management (Business) 
- Psychology 
- Public Management (Government & Customs) 
- Social Work 
- Statistical Sciences 
 Research institutes
The University manages 26 research institutes:
- Central American Population Studies Center (CCP)
- Electro-Chemical Energy Research Center (CELEQ)
- Agronomical Research Center (CIA)
- Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Center (CIBCM)
- Environmental Pollution Research Center (CICA)
- Research Center on Nuclear and Molecular Sciences ( CICANUM)
- Center for Research and Training on Public Management (CICAP)
- Center for Research on Materials Science & Engineering (CICIMA)
- Center for Research on Agribusiness (CIEDA)
- Center for Research on Sustainable Development (CIEDES)
- Center on Women Studies (CIEM)
- Research Center on Microscopic Structures (CIEMIC)
- Research Center on Tropical Diseases (CIET)
- Research Center on Geophysics (CIGEFI)
- Research Center on Seed Science (CIGRAS)
- Center for Central Americal Historical Studies (CIHAC)
- Research Center on Abnormal Hemoglobins and Related Ailments (CIHATA)
- Center of Studies on Latin American Identity and Culture (CIICLA)
- Institute of Investigations in Engineering (INII)
- Research Center on Sea Sciences (CIMAR)
- Research Center on Mathematics and Metha-mathematics (CIMM)
- Research Center on Pure and Applied Mathematics (CIMPA)
- Research Center on Animal Nutrition (CINA)
- Center on Space Research (CINESPA)
- Research Center on Plant Protection (CIPROC)
- Research Center on Natural Products (CIPRONA)
- National Research Center on Food Science (CITA)
Other projects managed include one rain forest research station (Alberto Manuel Brenes Station), two agricultural research stations (Alfredo Volio and Fabio Baudrit stations ), one botanical garden focused on orchid conservation (Lankester Botanical Garden), a planetarium , two radio stations , one weekly newspaper  and one television station .
The school calendar runs from March to December, while the academic year in Costa Rican schools and high schools starts in February. The school year is divided into two semesters, plus one additional summer term that may be mandatory depending on the student's chosen career and that extends from early January to late February.
Semana U is an event held in the middle of the first semester and involves the participation of the different student organizations. There are many concerts, talks, expositions, and other activities.
The Expo (sometimes called Expo UCR) is a recent bi-annual event that also showcases the University's work and developments in various areas; it was recently held in the first week of April, 2009.
An internal free shuttle moves students around its main campus and satellite areas (fincas) including the research campus, sports facilities, and a cluster of laboratories and research centers detached from the main campus by a river and several neighborhoods. Transportation to downtown San Jose and neighboring counties (cantones) is readily available either as part of subsidized transportation routes or through San Jose's inexpensive bus and railway lines.
|This section requires expansion. (December 2010)|
The following are notable individuals associated with the University of Costa Rica:
- Oscar Arias, former president of Costa Rica (1986-1990; 2006-2010), Nobel Peace Laureate
- Laura Chinchilla, current president of Costa Rica (2010-2014)
- Fernando Baudrit Solera, former dean of the University of Costa Rica College of Law and public jurist
- UCR Home Page
- Red Sismológica Nacional (National Seismological Network)
- Centro de Investigaciones en Contaminación Ambiental (Environmental Pollution Research Center)
- Institute of Investigations in Engineering (Institute of Engineering Research)
- Laboratorio de Productos Forestales (Forest Products Laboratory)
- Latindex (UCR journals)
- Semanario Universidad (Weekly newspaper)