University Philosophical Society
Crest of the University Philosophical Society
|Senior patron||Provost Patrick Prendergast|
Officers of the University Philosophical Society, 329th Session
|Hon. President||Rosalind Ní Shúilleabháin|
|Hon. Secretary||Sarah Mortell|
|Hon. Treasurer||Paul Behan|
|Hon. Registrar||Cormac Shine, Sch.|
|Hon. Debate Convener||Sarah Deegan|
|Hon. Librarian||Aifric Ni Chriodain|
|Hon. Steward||Lily McKillop|
|Hon. School Convenor||Ludivine Rebet|
The University Philosophical Society, commonly known as The Phil, is a student paper-reading and debating society in Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. Founded in 1683 it is the oldest student, collegial and paper-reading society in the world.
The society is based within the Graduates Memorial Building of Trinity College. Throughout its long history it has welcomed many prominent guests and some of its most notable members include Ernest Walton, John Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, Bram Stoker and Oscar Wilde.
- 1 Society
- 2 History
- 3 Governance
- 4 The Bram Stoker Club
- 5 Competitive debating
- 6 Phil Speaks
- 7 Awards
- 8 Honorary patrons
- 9 Controversies
- 10 Notable members
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The Phil's members meet every Thursday during term to discuss a paper, debate a motion or hear an address. Traditionally a paper-reading society, meetings sometimes continue the format of responses to a paper rather than debate on a motion.
Its rooms are within the Graduates' Memorial Building (GMB) of Trinity College, which it has shared with the College Historical Society (the Hist) since the building's construction in 1902, where it provides facilities for its members such as a games and a conversation room. The Phil shares the use of its Bram Stoker Room with the College Theological Society (the Theo). It holds most of its meetings in the GMB's Debating Chamber with meetings having an expected audience of above two hundred being held in the larger lecture theatres of the college.
The society also hosts numerous social events, internal competitions, sporting events, blood drives and the occasional concert. It endeavours each year in providing debating workshops, developmental competitions for members and school children. Furthermore, it has a strong history in intervarsity debating competitions, at both an international and national level.
The society publishes The Philander as an annual Freshers' guide to the society.
Membership of the society is open to each Undergraduate, Postgraduate student and staff member of Trinity College. It is unique among the societies within the college, as it is the only such society to offer four year membership. This means that should a person join in their Junior Freshman year they would still be a member for their entire time of study at the college.
The history of the University Philosophical Society spans over three centuries, several guises, identifies and name changes.
Foundation in the 17th century
In 1683, natural philosopher and political writer William Molyneux (b. 1656) founded the Dublin Philosophical Society, with the assistance of his brother Sir Thomas Molyneux and future Provost St George Ashe. They intended it to be the equivalent of the Royal Society in London (with which it maintained cultural ties) as well as the Philosophical Society at the University of Oxford. The society was traditionally a paper reading society; however it also included many demonstrations of the latest science and mathematical endeavour of that era. The first meeting on 15 October 1683 was in the Provost's lodgings at Trinity College, Dublin, a location where members continued to meet.
Sometime after December 1683, Provost Robert Huntington became the society's first Senior Patron, promising protection and assistance, a role the Provost of Trinity College still holds. While at the time no particular precedent existed for Trinity College to recognise it, it can be considered the college's first such society.
On 1 November 1684 William Petty was elected as the first President of the society, and William Molyneux elected as its first Secretary. The current numbering takes this as the first session of the University Philosophical Society.
Reformation in the 19th century
In November 1842, to mark the original session date the Dublin Philosophical Society was fully reformed under its original name, traditionally meeting on Mondays, to cater for those Trinity College students too young to join other societies in Dublin.
At the time, undergraduates were not allowed to join most College societies, such as the College Historical Society. It then became the Dublin University Philosophical Society in February 1843 when it was recognized by the college, with then Provost Franc Sadleir reassuming the traditional role of Senior Patron.
In 1860, the Dublin University Philosophical Society changed its name to the University Philosophical Society. This makes the Phil the oldest, student, paper-reading, and collegial society in the world, as well as currently being the largest such society in Ireland.
20th and 21st centuries
The Phil suffered with the rest of Trinity College during the First and Second World Wars, though one notable President of the early 1940s was lawyer, Nigerian and Ugandan independence activist and Supreme Court Chief Justice Udo Udoma.
The society admitted women to full membership in November 1968 (after the resignation of numerous conservative council members), a year before the Hist did the same. A merger with the female-only Elizabethan Society soon followed; this was a spur towards both increased female membership and increased debating within the society. As a symbolic gesture, the highest ranking female officer of the Phil is accorded the honorary title of Auditrix of the Elizabethan Society.
Today the University Philosophical Society is the largest student society within the college and Ireland. Its meetings include weekly paper readings and debates. Additionally it invites many internationally esteemed guests each year, regularly interviews with public figures, which have included Al Pacino, Desmond Tutu, John McCain and Stephen Fry.
Among the notable events held was the demonstration of an early telephone by Stephen Yeates in 1865.
The Phil is governed by a Council elected by the members of the society each year. There are eight officers: President, Secretary, Treasurer, Registrar, Debates Convenor, Librarian, Steward, and Schools Convenor. All officers are directly elected. In addition to the officers are a number of Members of Council, seven of whom are elected each year. One of these seven is then selected by the Council to serve as Vice President of the society. The Senior Member of Council is also selected in the same manner as the Vice President and is delegated the responsibility of co-ordinating the other Members of Council. The newly elected Council may then add up to seven further Members of Council via co-option. The Members of Council serve as deputies to the officers, aid in the execution of their responsibilities and any other such work necessary for the efficient running of the society.
Members of Council, 329th Session
|Senior Member of Council||Sophie Madden|
|Pro-Secretary||Liam Hunt, Clare Ní Cheallaigh|
|Pro-Debates Convener||Rónán Ó'Connor, Hugh Guidera|
|Pro Librarian||James Wilson, Glen Byrne|
|Pro-Steward||Anna Sheehan, Deirdre McAteer|
|Pro-Schools Convener||Lucy Murray, Johnny Byrne, Keith Murphy|
The Bram Stoker Club
In addition to its usual events, the society added a sub-group, the Bram Stoker Club (more commonly known as Bram), to its organization in 2011. Named after one of the Phil's most illustrious presidents (Bram Stoker), the club holds weekly afternoon paper-readings on a range of topics. These paper-readings have served to carry on the long tradition of the society, which had fallen slightly out of fashion in recent years.
In January 2013, the Club was incorporated into the official laws of the University Philosophical Society by majority vote. This was then officially recognised by the Dublin University Central Societies Committee in March of the same year.
|2011||1st||Clíodhna Ní Ghuidhir and John Engle|
|2011-2012||2nd||Leah Morgan, Brian Higgins, Sch. and Jamie Donnelly|
|2012-2013||3rd||Sarah Grace, Gavin Tucker, Sch., Fionn McGorry and Keith Murphy|
|2013-2014||4th||Fionn McGorry, Cormac Henehan, Turlough Heffernan|
The society first won the Mace (the premier British and Irish university debating competition) in 1997 when the all-Scottish team of Matthew Magee, Librarian, and Alex Massie, Steward, won the title. Three years later Fergal Davis and Robert Cuffe, President, also won the Mace. Registrar Kiera Healy and former President Ruth Faller reached the Quarter Finals of the World University Debating championships in UCC in 2009, breaking in 9th position. Since then, two teams from the Phil have reached the elimination rounds at the World Championships, David Byrne and Ricky McCormack in 2012, and John Engle and Adam Noonan in 2013.
The society runs internal debating competitions: the Eamon O'Coine Memorial Maiden Speaker's Competition, for first-time speakers in college; the satirically-titled Margaret Thatcher Memorial Debating Competition (or Maggies); a series of impromptu debates, the Elizabethan Society Memorial Pro-Am Competition (or "Lizzies"); and the John Pentland Mahaffy Memorial First-Year Mace. The Phil and the Hist jointly host the Claire Stewart Trinity IV each year in January, in association with the, comprising the Kingsmill-Moore Invitational and the Dean Swift Intervarsity. The society also hosts a secondary schools' public speaking competition, the AIB Phil Speaks.
The Phil Speaks Debating and Public Speaking Initiative, more commonly known as Phil Speaks is a campaign aimed at promoting, as well as developing skills in public speaking and oratory. Formed by the society in 2004 the initiative combines in-school oratory workshops, with Pro–Am (Professional-Amateur) learning competitions to encourage these skills in students of all secondary schools throughout Ireland.
At the end of the contest, the society hosts the Phil Speaks Competitive Weekend modelled on the format of a University Intervarsity Competition held within the Graduates Memorial Building, with the grand final taking place in the Debating Chamber.
The society also awards the Gold Medal of Honorary Patronage and the Bram Stoker Medal to various esteemed guests each year.
Central Societies Committee of Trinity College, Dublin
The society has a strong record of being the recipient of several awards by the internal Central Societies Committee of Trinity College.
In recent years these include:
|2013||Individual of the Year, awarded to President Lorcan Clarke (328th Session).|
|2013||Best Online Web Presence.|
|2012||Best Large Society.|
|2011||Individual of the Year, awarded to President Declan Meehan (326th Session).|
|2010||Best Event, for the Oscar Wilde Festival (jointly awarded to DU Players).|
Board of Irish College Societies
The Board of Irish College Societies (BICS) is a national organisation, constituted in 1995, dedicated to providing a national forum for the societies in Ireland’s Universities, Colleges and Institutes of Education. The Board is responsible for the promotion of interest in the activities of Irish college societies and of contact and co-operation between them.
The University Philosophical Society has formidable history of achievement:
|2013||Best individual (Large Society), awarded to 328th Session President Lorcan Clarke.|
|2009||Best Event (Large Society), awarded for The Trials of Oscar Wilde.|
Through its years in college, the Society has recorded the presence of many notable guests, the most distinguished of whom are named honorary patrons of the society. Included amongst these are multiple Nobel Prize laureates, both before and after their receipt of the Prize, such as William Butler Yeats, Heads of State and of Government, notable actors and musicians, as well as well-known intellectuals. Guests have also included all Taoisigh since Charles Haughey.
- Niall Ferguson, British Historian, Harvard professor.
- Joseph Nye, international relations theorist, former Dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.
- George Ritzer, sociologist, Professor at the University of Maryland.
- Edward Saïd, Palestinian-American literary theorist, former University Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University.
- A.C. Grayling, British philosopher. founder and first Master of New College of the Humanities, London.
- John Mearsheimer, international relations theorist, Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago.
- Dan Ariely, Professor of Psychology and Behavioural Economics at Duke University.
- Edmund Phelps, Economist, Professor of Political Economy at Columbia University, Nobel Laureate.
- Richard Dawkins, Ethologist, Evolutionary Biologist, Author.
- Arthur T. Benjamin, American mathematician, Professor of Mathematics at Harvey Mudd College.
- Brian Greene, American theoretical physicist, Professor at Columbia University.
- Daniel Gilbert, social psychologist and Professor at Harvard University.
- Joseph Stiglitz, American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
- Jane Goodall, primatologist and environmental activist.
- Steven Pinker, psychologist, cognitive scientist, linguist and science author.
- Helen Mirren, actress, Academy Award Winner.
- The Edge, guitarist, keyboardist, and main backing vocalist of rock band U2.
- Johnny Marr, guitarist of the bands The Smiths and Modest Mouse.
- Tom Stoppard, playwright and writer, Academy Award winner.
- Gabriel Byrne, Irish actor, director and producer.
- Al Pacino, American actor and director, Academy Award winner.
- Joanna Lumley, British actress and political activist.
- Oliver Stone, film director, Academy Award winner.
- Tommy Tiernan, Irish comedian.
- Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Irish actor and model.
- David Cronenburg, Canadian filmmaker and screenwriter.
- Jeffrey Archer, actor, playwright and former politician.
- Jon Voight, American actor and political commentator, Academy Award winner.
- Spike Milligan, Irish comedian, writer, poet and playwright.
- Naomi Campbell, supermodel.
- Jack White, musician, lead vocalist of the White Stripes.
- Pete Doherty, singer and songwriter, lead singer of the band The Libertines.
- Dolores O'Riordan, lead singer of the band The Cranberries.
- John C. McGinley, American actor and author.
- Chris Blackwell, music producer.
- John C. Reilly, American actor and comedian.
- Courtney Love, American singer song writer and actress.
- Sir Christopher Lee, renowned and prolific British actor.
- Stephen Fry, British actor, screenwriter, author, playwright, journalist, poet, comedian, television presenter and film director.
- Michael Gambon, Irish film and theatre actor.
- Eric Whitacre, Grammy-winning composer and conductor.
- Hugh Laurie, Golden Globe-winning actor, musician, comedian and author.
- Whoopi Goldberg, comedienne, actress, singer-songwriter, political activist, Academy Award winner.
- Conan O'Brien, Television host, comedian, writer, producer and performer.
- Sean William Scott, American actor and comedian.
- Bobby McFerrin, American musician and vocalist.
- John Hurt, British actor.
- Dominic West, British actor.
- Jenna Marbles, American entertainer and YouTube personality.
- Nile Rodgers, American musician, producer, composer and guitarist.
- Mitsuko Uchida, classical pianist.
- Kele Okereke, musician and lead singer of Bloc Party.
Broadcasting and Journalism
- Germaine Greer, feminist journalist.
- Bill O'Reilly, Fox News presenter.
- Claudia Rosett, investigative journalist.
- Greg Palast, British journalist and author.
- John Simpson, BBC News correspondent.
- Rush Limbaugh, American conservative news pundit.
- Martin Wolf, Economics journalist, Associate Editor and Chief economics commentator at the Financial Times.
- Ira Glass, American public radio personality.
- Tommy Hilfiger, American fashion designer and businessman.
- Tim Draper, American venture capitalist.
- Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia.
- Matt Mullenweg, founder of Wordpress.
- Craig Newmark, founder of Craigslist.
- Christopher Bailey, chief creative director of Burberry.
- Jack Dorsey, founder of Twitter.
- JP McManus, entrepreneur.
- Niklas Zennstrom, founder of Skype.
- Chad Hurley, founder of YouTube.
- Olivier Blanchard, chief economist of the IMF.
- Mark Shuttleworth, entrepreneur and space tourist.
- Michael Birch, computer programmer, entrepreneur and founder of social networking website Bebo.
- Justin Cooke, former CMO of Topshop and founder of innovate7.
- Harper Reed, computer programmer and CTO of Barack Obama's 2012 re-election campaign.
- Susan Denham, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ireland.
- William Butler Yeats, poet, Nobel Laureate.
- Salman Rushdie, novelist and essayist, Booker Prize Winner.
- Seamus Heaney, Irish poet and writer, Nobel Laureate.
- John Banville, author, Booker Prize Winner.
- John Boyne, Irish novelist.
- John Ralston Saul, Canadian author and essayist.
- Neil Strauss, author and journalist.
- Paul Howard, author and journalist.
- Roddy Doyle, Irish novelist, dramatist and screenwriter.
Politics and Government
- John Kenneth Galbraith, economist, former US Ambassador to India.
- John Hume, former leader of the SDLP in Northern Ireland, Nobel Laureate.
- Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, former President of France.
- David Trimble, former First Minister of Northern Ireland, Nobel Laureate.
- Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the US House of Representatives.
- Craig Murray, former British Ambassador to Uzbekistan.
- FW De Klerk, former President of South Africa, Nobel Laureate.
- Charles Haughey, former Taoiseach of Ireland.
- Desmond Tutu, Archbishop, Nobel Laureate.
- John McCain, US Senator, 2008 Republican Presidential Candidate.
- Mohamed ElBaradei, IAEA Director-General, Nobel Laureate.
- Lindsey Graham, US Senator.
- Mark Malloch Brown, former United Nations Deputy Secretary-General.
- Bob Geldof, organizer of Live Aid and Live 8.
- John Bruton, former Taoiseach of Ireland, former EU Ambassador to the United States.
- James Zogby, political organizer, member of the DNC.
- Albert Reynolds, former Taoiseach of Ireland.
- Garret FitzGerald, former Taoiseach of Ireland.
- John Ritch, World Nuclear Association Director-General.
- Ruth Bader Ginsburg, US Supreme Court Justice.
- Bertie Ahern, former Taoiseach of Ireland.
- Christopher Dodd, US Senator.
- Haley Barbour, Governor of Mississippi, former RNC Chairman.
- John Podesta, Chief of Staff, Clinton Administration.
- John Negroponte, former US Deputy Secretary of State.
- Peter Sutherland, former Attorney General of Ireland.
- George Galloway, British politician, author and broadcaster.
- Trent Lott, former US Senator.
- François Bourguignon, former Chief Economist of the World Bank.
- Tim Collins OBE, former Colonel 1st Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment.
- Fredrik Reinfeldt, Prime Minister of Sweden.
- Nancy Pelosi, Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives and 60th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
- Mary McAleese, eighth President of Ireland.
- Alex Ferguson, manager of Manchester United football club.
- Eddie Jordan, founder and owner of Jordan Grand Prix.
- Rafael Benítez, manager of Liverpool football club for their Champions League win in 2005.
- Padraig Harrington, Irish professional golfer.
- Dana White, American businessman, entrepreneur, and President of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC).
- Steve Redgrave, British rower and five time consecutive Olympic Games gold medal winner.
Many guests which the Phil has invited over the years have courted controversy. Contributors to its debates included Oswald Mosley during his residence in Ireland. In 1988, the Society invited then–Holocaust denier David Irving to speak. A large protest by students, staff, Jewish groups, socialists, and anti-Nazi activists resulted in the meeting being relocated to a hotel conference room and held in the small hours of the morning. The traditional vote of thanks to Mr Irving for his paper was defeated, which is rare in the society's history.
The address of Austrian politician Jörg Haider to the society in late 2002 led to a protest by self-described anti-fascist activists, which continued through the debate, with noise being made outside the chamber and interjections in the society's proceedings within. An invitation to British National Party (BNP) official Tony Wentworth was revoked after threats of physical action by leftist groups.
Another guest to generate controversy was Islamist Anjem Choudary, who hailed the 9/11 terrorists as martyrs. Former Taoiseach John Bruton threatened to withdraw from a Phil debate later that year over this invitation, which was not withdrawn. Mr Bruton is now an Honorary Patron of the Society, and Anjem Choudary has been invited to speak at the Phil's lectern several times.
In 2011, the Phil encountered controversy when it invited BNP leader Nick Griffin to speak at a Thursday night debate on immigration. After raging protests, talks with college officials and physical threats made to the members and council the invitation was reluctantly withdrawn by the President of the 327th session, Eoin O'Liathain. In a press statement the Phil said this “The Phil feels it is unfortunate that circumstances have arisen under which the planned debate can no longer go ahead without compromising the safety of staff and students”
- Robert Stawell Ball, Royal Astronomer of Ireland and Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at the University of Cambridge. President, 1860-61.
- Valentine Ball, geologist. Treasurer, 1863-64.
- J.B. Bury, historian, classicist, Byzantinist and philologist.
- George Coffey, scholar of Irish history and cultural revivalist. President, 1880-81.
- William Macneile Dixon, British academic and author, Regius Professor of English Language and Literature, Glasgow. President, 1889-90, Librarian, 1888-89.
- Mervyn A. Ellison, astronomer and authority on solar flares. President, 1931-32, Treasurer, 1930-31.
- William Hugh Ferrar, classical scholar. Treasurer, 1855-56.
- John Pentland Mahaffy, classicist and polymath scholar. President, 1858-59.
- Vincent Arthur Smith, Indologist, historian and member of the Imperial Civil Service. President, 1868-69.
- W. J. M. Starkie, Greek scholar.
- William Stokes, doctor and professor of surgery.
- John Lighton Synge, mathematician and physicist. Treasurer, 1917-18.
- Ernest Walton, physicist and Nobel Laureate.
- Trevor West, mathematician and Senator. Treasurer, 1959-60, Registrar, 1958-59.
- Bertram Windle, British anatomist, archaeologist, scientist and writer. Librarian, 1877-78.
Broadcasting and Journalism
- Daire Brehan, Irish broadcaster, barrister and actress. Secretary, 1976-77.
- Sarah Carey, columnist and broadcaster. Registrar, 1991-92.
- Marc Coleman, economics editor of Newstalk and columnist for the Sunday Independent. Secretary, 1992-93.
- Ken Early, journalist and sports broadcaster. Steward, 1998-99.
- Alex Massie, prominent Scottish journalist. Steward, 1996-97.
- James Campbell, 1st Baron Glenavy, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, Attorney-General for Ireland, Solicitor-General for Ireland, Member of Parliament and later first Chairman of the Free State Senate.
- Richard Cherry, Attorney-General for Ireland and Liberal MP. Secretary, 1879-80.
- Gerald Fitzgibbon, Solicitor-General for Ireland, 1877-78 and Lord Justice of Appeal. Secretary, 1857-58.
- Jonathan Pim (1858-1949), Solicitor-General for Ireland, Attorney-General for Ireland and Lord Justice of Ireland in the aftermath of the Easter Rising. President, 1883-84, Secretary, 1882-83, Librarian, 1881-82.
- Udo Udoma, former Justice of the Nigerian Supreme Court, former Chief Justice of Uganda. President, 1942-43, Secretary, 1941-42, Librarian, 1940-41.
- Edmund John Armstrong, poet. President, 1864-65.
- Samuel Beckett, dramatist and poet, Nobel Laureate.
- Kate Cruise O'Brien, author.
- Edward Dowden, poet and critic. President, 1862-63, Secretary, 1861-62.
- Standish James O'Grady, author, journalist and historian. Secretary, 1866-67.
- Bram Stoker, novelist and short story writer. President, 1868-69, Secretary, 1867-68.
- Oscar Wilde, author, playwright and poet.
- Charles Austin Thomas Robert John Joseph ffrench, 6th Baron ffrench, 1868-1955. Deputy Lieutenant of County Galway.
- Charles Edward MacDermot, The Mac Dermot, Prince of Coolavin, 1904-47. Registrar, 1883-84. His son and successor, Charles John MacDermot (Prince of Coolavin, 1947-79), was also a member.
- Martin Morris, 2nd Baron Killanin, Conservative peer. Secretary, 1888-89.
Politics and Government
- Gerald Brunskill, Unionist MP. Treasurer, 1887-88, Registrar, 1886-87.
- Nessa Childers MEP, Member of European Parliament. Registrar, 1977-78, SMC 1976-77.
- Paschal Donohoe TD, Minister of State for European Affairs. Secretary, 1993-94.
- Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth, Liberal MP, businessman and brother of press barons Lord Northcliffe and Lord Rothermere. Registrar, 1889-90.
- Caesar Litton Falkiner, Unionist MP. President, 1885-86, Treasurer, 1884-85, Librarian, 1883-84.
- David Norris, Senator and gay rights campaigner.
- George Noble Plunkett, anti-treaty republican, member of the First Dáil and Ireland's first Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1919-21.
- James Wallace Quinton, chief commissioner of Assam from 1889 until his murder by rebels in Manipur in 1891. President, 1855-56, Secretary, 1854-55.
- Mary Robinson, former President of Ireland and UN Human Rights Commissioner.
- Robert Rowlette, TD, Senator and doctor. Secretary, 1895-96.
- Hugh Dunlop Brown, President of the Irish Baptist Association, theologian and prominent unionist.
- John Baptist Crozier, Anglican bishop. President, 1874-75, Secretary, 1873-4, Treasurer, 1872-73.
- Ralph Creed Meredith, chaplain to King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II. President, 1910-11, Secretary, 1909-10.
- Charles D'Arcy, Anglican bishop. Treasurer, 1883-84.
- James Walsh, Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, 1908-18.
- Keenan & O’Hare (2010). Universities, Societies & Clubs. Culture, Extracurricular Activities & Career Progression: Trinity College Dublin, Four Case Studies. Dublin: Trinity Long Room Hub. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9780956551610.
- Thom's Directory of Ireland. Dublin: Alexander Thom. 1850. p. 281.
- Moriarty, Gerry (February 23, 2013). "TCD Bram Stoker Club wins 'Irish Times' Debate in Queen's". The Irish Times. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- University Philosophical Society. "Phil website". Retrieved 30 March 2012.