University of Edinburgh Medical School
|University of Edinburgh Medical School|
|Dean||Prof Sir John Savill|
|Admin. staff||1244 (2007/8; includes Support Staff)|
|Campus||The Medical School, Teviot Place
Chancellor's Building, RIE
Western General Hospital
Royal Hospital for Sick Children
|Colours||Dark Red, Light Red and Pale Yellow (or "Liver, Blood and Pus" according to the history books)|
|Affiliations||University of Edinburgh|
The University of Edinburgh Medical School also known as Edinburgh Medical School or Edinburgh University Medical School is part of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. It was established in 1726, during the Scottish Enlightenment, and soon attracted students from across Britain and the American colonies. It is one of the oldest medical schools in the English-speaking world and today is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools in the UK. In 2013 and 2014, it ranked 1st in Scotland and 3rd in the UK by the Guardian University Guide, The Times Good University Guide. and the Complete University Guide. It ranked 1st in the UK in research according to the most recent RAE in 2008, 21st in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2013-14 and 22nd in the world by the QS World University Rankings 2014. According to a Healthcare Survey run by Saga in 2006, the medical school's main teaching hospital, the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, was considered the best hospital in Scotland.
As of 2013 the school accepts 190 European Union medical students per year and an additional 17 students from outwith the EU. Admission is very competitive, with an acceptance rate of 11.5% for the 2012-13 admissions year. The matriculation rate, the percentage of people who are accepted who choose to attend, is 71% for the 2012-13 admissions year. The school requires the 3rd highest entry grades in the UK according to the Guardian University Guide 2014.
Graduates of the medical school have founded medical schools and universities all over the world including 5 out of the 7 Ivy League medical schools (Pennsylvania, Yale, Columbia, Harvard and Dartmouth), University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, University of Melbourne Medical School, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Université de Montréal Faculty of Medicine and the London School of Medicine for Women (now UCL Medical School).
- 1 History
- 2 The Edinburgh Model
- 3 Admission
- 4 The Current Course and Curriculum
- 5 Facilities
- 6 Research
- 7 Textbooks
- 8 Royal Medical Society
- 9 Ties to the United States and Canada
- 10 Famous alumni
- 11 Faculty
- 12 In popular culture
- 13 Doctors Pub
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Although the University of Edinburgh's Faculty of Medicine was not formally organised until 1726, medicine had been taught at Edinburgh since the beginning of the sixteenth century. Its chief sponsor was Archibald Campbell (1682-1761), duke of Argyll, Scotland's most influential political leader. Its formation was dependent on the incorporation of the Surgeons and Barber Surgeons, in 1505 and the foundation of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1681.
The University was modelled on the University of Bologna, but medical teaching was based on that of the sixteenth century University of Padua, and later on the University of Leiden (where most of the founders of the faculty had studied) in an attempt to attract foreign students, and maintain potential Scottish students in Scotland.
Since the Renaissance the primary facet of medical teaching here was anatomy and therefore in 1720, Alexander Monro was appointed Professor of Anatomy. Later his son and grandson (both of the same name) would hold the position, a reign of Professor Alexander Monros lasting 128 years. In subsequent years four further chairs completed the faculty allowing it to grant the qualification of Doctor of Medicine (MD) without the assistance of the Royal College of Physicians.
Success in the teaching of medicine and surgery through the eighteenth century was achieved thanks to the first teaching hospital, town physicians and the town guild of Barber Surgeons (later to become the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh). By 1764 the number of medical students was so great that a new 200-seat Anatomy Theatre was built in the College Garden. Throughout the 18th century until the First World War the Edinburgh Medical School was widely considered the best medical school in the English speaking world. Students were attracted to the Edinburgh Medical School from Ireland, America and the Colonies by a succession of brilliant teachers, such as William Cullen, James Gregory and Joseph Black, the Medical Society and a flourishing Extra-Mural School. Graduates of the medical school went on to found the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Yale School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Université de Montréal Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, University of Vermont College of Medicine and Harvard Medical School.
The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
The origins of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary began in a small house, opposite the head of Robertson's Close, in today's Infirmary Street. Only four beds were available from 6 August 1729 and medical students' visits were limited to two tickets only per student (to prevent crowding). This was the oldest voluntary hospital in Scotland. The facilities were clearly inadequate, and in 1741, shortly after the foundation of the college, a 228-bed purpose-built hospital was designed by William Adam. Due to overcrowding throughout this High School Yards site, David Bryce was commissioned to design a new hospital - the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh on Lauriston Place close to the university and next door to where the medical school buildings would be built in 1880.
In 2003 a new 900-bed Royal Infirmary opened at Little France, in the south-east of the city, replacing the facility on Lauriston Place.
The Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh
The Edinburgh Botanic Garden was created in 1670 for study of medicinal plants by Dr Robert Sibbald (later first Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh University) and Dr Andrew Balfour. It gave a base for the development of study of Pharmacology (Materia Medica) and Chemistry. Originally at St Anne’s Yards adjacent to Holyrood Palace, the garden measured a meagre 40 square feet (3.7 m2). It moved subsequently to the ground now occupied by Waverley Station and in the 1760s was again relocated to Shrubhill between Edinburgh and Leith. It was not until after 1820 that the garden and its contents began the move to its present day location in Inverleith ('The Inverleith Garden') by Robert Graham (appointed Regius Keeper, 1820–45). It is currently recognised as the second oldest botanic garden in Britain after Oxford (OBG founded in 1620).
The nineteenth century saw a growth of new sciences at Edinburgh, notably of Physiology and Pathology, and the development of Public Health and Psychiatry. Midwifery was finally admitted as an essential part of the compulsory medical curriculum.
Women and Medical School
In 1869 Sophia Jex-Blake was reluctantly accepted to attend a limited number of classes in the School of Medicine, enrolling Edinburgh in the heated international battle for women to enter medicine. Full equality between the sexes was not achieved at Edinburgh Medical School until 20 years later. British medical schools openly refused to accept women students at this time. Jex-Blake persuaded Edinburgh University to allow not only herself, but also her friend, Edith Pechy, to attend medical lectures.
The Medical School at Teviot Place
In the 1860s the medical school was constrained within the Old College and by 1880 the new Royal Infirmary had been built on Lauriston Place. The construction of new medical buildings began and they were completed by 1888, in Teviot Place, adjacent to the Royal Infirmary. Together they housed the Medical Faculty with proper facilities for teaching, scientific research and practical laboratories. This complex came to be known as the "New Quad," in contrast to the Old College (sometimes known as the "Old Quad") and New College, which was not originally part of the university.
The competition to design the University's new buildings was won by the architect Sir Robert Rowand Anderson in 1877 (who later designed the dome of the Robert Adam/William Henry Playfair Old College building). After extensive European travel, he decided upon a 'Cinquecento' Italian Renaissance style which he judged "more suitable than Greek or Palladian, where the interior would have been constrained by the formal exterior, or mediaeval, which would have been out of keeping with the spirit of scientific medical enquiry". Initially the design incorporated a new University Graduation Hall, but as this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall, also designed by Anderson, after funds were made available by the brewer Sir William McEwan in 1894. The final grand structure took three years to decorate including elaborate ceiling murals and organ.
The Medical School was designed around two courts, with a grand public quadrangle at the front and, for discreet delivery of cadavers to the dissection rooms, a second private yard entered from the lane behind. The Professor of Anatomy, Sir William Turner (Professor 1867 to 1903, Principal 1903 to 1917) was placed in charge of the project leading to the construction of a three-storey galleried Anatomy Museum with displays of everything from whales to apes as well as human anatomy, an associated library and a whole series of dissecting rooms, laboratories, and a grand anatomy lecture theatre (based on that at Padua) with steeply raked benches rising above the central dissecting table. The Anatomy Museum has since been plastered and its remnants are now a student study space, off-limits to the general public, although the grand elephant skeletons that were once the hallmark of the museums entrance still remain in the east wing.
Today the medical buildings at Teviot Place focus on the teaching of pre-clinical subjects such as biochemistry and anatomy. The building still holds the anatomy teaching laboratory (although prosection has replaced dissection) and anatomy resource centre (a scaled down version of the anatomy museum) and the original lecture theatre. The building also hosts the Biomedical Teaching Organisation, where subjects allied to medicine (such as physiology and forensic science) are taught to senior biology students and to medical students taking intercalated degrees.
There are also currently plans to hand the West Wing of the medical school to the History Department of Edinburgh University, as the previous occupants (the Department of Medical Microbiology) have moved to the new campus at Little France.
The Medical School at Little France
The Chancellor's Building was opened on 12 August 2002 by The Duke of Edinburgh and houses the new £40 million Medical School at the New Royal Infirmary in Little France. It was a joint project between private finance, the local authorities and the University to create a large modern hospital, veterinary clinic and research institute and thus the University is currently (2003) in the process of moving its Veterinary and Medical Faculties there (and quite possibly also the School of Nursing). It has two large lecture theatres and a medical library. It is connected to the new Edinburgh Royal Infirmary by a series of corridors.
The Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh
The Polish School of Medicine was established in 1941 as a "a wartime testament to this spirit of enlightenment". Students were to be those drawn from the Polish army to Britain and were taught in Polish. Classes in pre-clinical subjects were held at the Medical School. Clinical teaching was carried out mainly at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh in Lauriston Place. Former nurses' quarters in the grounds of the Western General were designated The Paderewski Hospital and used to provide care for members of the Polish armed forces and Polish civilians.
The project was initiated by Lt. Col. Professor Francis Crew, then Commanding Officer at the Military Hospital in Edinburgh Castle, and Lt. Col. Dr Antoni Jurasz, the School's organiser and first Dean.
The school was closed in September 1950. 336 students matriculated, of which 227 students graduated with the equivalent of an MBChB. A total of 19 doctors obtained a doctorate or MD. A bronze plaque commemorating the existence of the Polish School of Medicine is located in the Quadrangle of the Medical School in Teviot Place.
The Edinburgh Model
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2013)|
The Edinburgh Model was a model of medical teaching developed by the University of Edinburgh in the 18th century and widely emulated around the world including at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine and the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. It was a two-tiered education model, revolutionary and well suited to the medical system of the UK at the time. First, the model offered its students studies in all branches of science, not just medicine. According to Mary Hewson, "every branch of science was regularly taught, and drawn together so compactly from one to the other." Edinburgh offered the most extensive selection of courses in any university in Britain.
Furthermore, it had a two-tiered education model which allowed a great number of students to matriculate, but allowed few to graduate. The requirements for an MD were very stringent. Students had to attend all lectures with the exception of midwifery (although it was strongly encouraged nonetheless), they had to study for at minimum 3 years, had to write a series of oral and written examinations in Latin and had to compose a Latin thesis and defend it before the whole faculty. Consequently, the majority of students attended Edinburgh with the intention of learning medicine for 1 year before leaving due to the costs of a degree and the fact that a MD degree was not required to practice medicine. Between 1765 and 1825, only 20% of Edinburgh students graduated with an MD.
This pedagogical model allowed Edinburgh to train many physicians and have a large network of alumni. Under this model, Edinburgh flourished as the leading medical institution in the world throughout the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries.
Gaining admission to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh is highly competitive. In 2013, there were 2150 Home/EU applications for 190 Home/EU positions leading to an applicant to place ratio of 17 to 1. In addition, there were 715 overseas applications for 17 international spots, an applicant to place ratio of 42 to 1.
The minimum entry qualifications include:
SQA Highers: AAAAB. AAAAB at one sitting to include Chemistry and two of Biology, Maths or Physics. Students unable to take two of Biology, Maths, Physics in S5 may take the missing subject(s) in S6. Human Biology may replace Biology. Standard Grade Credit (or Intermediate 2) in Biology, Chemistry, English, Maths.
GCE A Levels: AAA. AAA plus grade B at AS-level. A levels must include Chemistry and one of Biology, Maths or Physics. Biology at AS level required as minimum. Only one of Maths or Further Maths will be considered. Human Biology may replace Biology. GCSE grade B in Biology, Chemistry, English, Maths. Double Award Combined Sciences at grade BB may replace GCSE grades in sciences.
International Baccalaureate: 37 points. Including 667 at Higher Level with Chemistry and at least one other science subject (Biology preferred). For the 2012 admissions year, no offer was given to a student who achieved below 41 IB points with 776 at Higher Level.
Additional requirements include the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is a mandatory requirement for all students applying to study Medicine at Edinburgh and applicants are required to sit the test during the summer prior to application.
Most applicants including overseas applicants are not interviewed prior to admission.
The 5 year MBChB course can extend a pre-entry year for applicants without adequate subject choice but with the right qualifications who otherwise would be admitted on to the 5 year programme, or an extra 'intercalated year' between years 2 and 3 to gain a BSc or BMedSci in a separate scientific discipline.
The Current Course and Curriculum
Degrees available for study: Medical Sciences (BSc), Medicine (5-year course) (MBChB) with optional intercalated Medical Sciences (BMedSci).
Years 1 & 2
Students undertake the study of Biomedical Science and Health and Society, which provide an introduction to the scientific, sociological and behavioural principles for the practice of medicine. Practical clinical and resuscitation skills are also taught. Contact is made with patients and their families in Talking with Families and Health Needs of Older People and will have the opportunity to work in a clinical setting and investigate a chosen healthcare issue.
In year 2, students undertake basic history-taking and examination in teaching general practices.
This optional year achieves the student an intercalated Bachelor of Medical Sciences honours degree. 18 fields of scientific study are available and covered in great depth.
Years 3 & 4
Clinical attachments are undertaken, and an understanding of clinical medicine is taught. Bedside teaching is enhanced with lectures and opportunities are made available to students within the Royal Infirmary.
Recovers all the topics of year's 1-4 and includes an elective period of eight weeks, when many students broaden their clinical experience by studying overseas.
Undergraduate teaching through year 1 and 2 center mainly in the Medical School buildings on Teviot Row in the university quarter of Edinburgh city centre. Clinical years, 3, 4 and 5 are spent spread across the three main teaching hospitals in Edinburgh, the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh in Little France, in the city's southern Green Belt; the Western General Hospital just west of the city centre, and the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in the centre of the city.
The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh is the main clinical teaching environment of the Medical School. The Chancellor's Building at Little France, next to the new Royal Infirmary was opened on 12 August 2002 by HRH Prince Phillip Duke of Edinburgh, then Chancellor to the University.
- The Biological Sciences and Hospital-based Clinical Subjects both gained a 5 rating.
- Only two other UK undergraduate medical schools also achieved a 5 rating in Hospital-based Clinical Subjects
Edinburgh Electronic Medical Curriculum
Edinburgh Electronic Medical Curriculum is an online virtual learning environment (VLE) which allows students securely protected access direct to any of the information on or for the MBChB course. It also encompasses announcements, discussions and the use the tools embedded in EEMeC to facilitate and manage students' progress through the course including exam results and computer aided learning programmes. Created in 1998 this was one of the first of its kind in the world and has since provided a model for other medical schools to follow. In 2005 The University of Edinburgh was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize for EEMeC and The Virtual Hospital Online.
Edinburgh University is a member of the Russell Group of universities, receiving a quanta of a third of British research funding. In the last UK-wide Research Assessment Exercise, three quarters of the College's research staff were in academic units rated 5 or 5 star (the maximum possible ratings). This was more noteworthy in view of the large size of the College's research groupings. The College has average research income in excess of £45 million/annum, and the figure has been steadily increasing each year.
Main sources of research funding include UK research councils, UK medical and veterinary medical charities, industry and commerce and European Union bodies.
- 2013 - Researchers successfully synthesize human blood using stem cells
- 2014 - Researches lead by Dr. Clare Blackburn successfully regenerated a living organ, the thymus, for the first time in mice
Many medical textbooks published around the world have been written by Edinburgh graduates:
- Robert Muir - wrote Muir's Textbook of Pathology now in its 14th edition
- John George Macleod - wrote Macleod's Clinical Examination now in its 12th edition
- J.C. Boileau Grant - wrote Grant's Atlas of Anatomy now in its 13th edition
- Stanley Davidson - wrote Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine now in its 21st edition
- Sir Robert Hutchison, 1st Baronet - wrote Hutchison's Clinical Methods now in its 23rd edition
Royal Medical Society
The Royal Medical Society, the medical society at the University of Edinburgh is the oldest Medical Society in the UK. Known originally as 'the Medical Society' from 1734 it became known as 'the Royal Medical Society' from 1777. It has its own premises and a fine library built up throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, sold at 3 sales at Sotheby's London in 1969. Much of the collection was purchased by the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Ties to the United States and Canada
The Edinburgh Medical School has very strong ties to the United States and Canada. Graduates of the medical school went on to found 5 out of the 7 Ivy League medical schools (Pennsylvania, Yale, Columbia, Harvard and Dartmouth). The McGill University Medical School in Montreal and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine were modelled after Edinburgh by Edinburgh graduates. Graduates became senators, representatives and participated in the American Revolutionary War. A great number of the early presidential physicians and surgeon generals were trained at Edinburgh. Today, the medical school maintains the strong ties through an exchange program with the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Pioneers in Medicine
|John Fothergill||MD 1736||Scottish physician, first identified and named trigeminal neuralgia|
|James Lind||MD 1748||Scottish military surgeon, pioneer of naval hygiene, conducted the first ever clinical trial, developed cure for scurvy and typhus, first proposed fresh water could be obtained from distilling sea water|
|Alexander Monro||MD 1755, Prof. Anatomy and Surgery 1754-1798||Scottish physician and anatomist, described the lymphatic system, elucidated the musculo-skeletal system, described the foramen of Monro, described the Monro-Kellie doctrine on intracranial pressure|
|William Hewson||1762||English surgeon, isolated fibrin, known as the "father of haematology"|
|William Withering||MD 1766||English botanist and physician, discovered Digoxin|
|Benjamin Bell||1767||Scottish surgeon, Father of Edinburgh's school of surgery, first to suggest syphilis and gonnorhea were not the same disease|
|Philip Syng Physick||MD 1792||American surgeon, "father of American surgery", pioneered the use of the stomach pump, designed needle forceps|
|John Cheyne||MD 1795||Scottish physician, discovered Cheyne-Stokes respiration, Physician General to the British Armed Forces in Ireland|
|Abraham Colles||MD 1797||Irish physician, discovered and described the Colles' fracture, Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament|
|Charles Bell||MD 1798||Scottish anatomist and neurologist, discovered Bell's palsy and the functions of the roots of the spinal nerves|||
|John Collins Warren||MD 1801||American surgeon, performed the first surgery under ether anesthesia in 1846, first dean of Harvard Medical School, co-founder of Massachusetts General Hospital|
|George Kellie||MD 1803||Scottish surgeon, described the Monro-Kellie doctrine on intracranial pressure|
|James Blundell||MD 1813||English obstetrician, who performed the first successful human to human blood transfusion|
|Richard Bright||MD 1813||English physician, discovered Bright's disease, known as the "father of nephrology"|
|Thomas Addison||MD 1815||English physician, discovered Addison's disease, pernicious anemia and Addison-Schilder syndrome|
|Robert Liston||1815||Scottish surgeon, inventor of artery forceps and the Liston knife, known as "the fastest surgeon alive"|
|James Begbie||MD 1821||Scottish physician, first described Graves' Disease also known as Begbie's disease, President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh|
|Thomas Hodgkin||MD 1823||English pathologist, described Hodgkin's lymphoma|
|Martin Barry||MD 1823||English pathologist, discovered the segmentation of yolk in the mammalian ovum and demonstrated that sperm could be found inside the ovum|
|Dominic Corrigan||MD 1825||Irish physician, described Corrigan's pulse and was Liberal MP for Dublin.|
|James Hope||MD 1825||English physician, discovered the murmur of mitral stenosis|||
|William Stokes||MD 1825||Irish physician, discovered Cheyne-Stokes respiration and Stokes-Adams syndrome|
|Thomas Wharton Jones||1827||Scottish ophthalmologist, discovered the germinal vesicle in the mammalian ovum and described the origin of the chorion|||
|Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy||MD 1829||Irish physician, introduced Cannabis, also known as medical marijuana, into Western medicine, inventor of IV therapy, pioneered work on telegraphy and installed 3500 miles of telegraph lines in India|
|John Reid||MD 1830||Scottish physician, described the function of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.|
|Sir James Young Simpson||MD 1832||discovered chloroform anaesthesia in 1847, revolutionising obstetric and surgical practice|
|James Spence||1832, Prof. Systemic Surgery 1864-1882||Scottish surgeon, President of the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh, the tail of Spence is named after him|
|John Murray Carnochan||1834||American neurosurgeon, performed the world's first successful surgery for trigeminal neuralgia|
|John Hughes Bennett||MD 1837||English physician, first to describe aspergillosis and first identified leukaemia as a blood disorder|
|William Budd||MD 1838||Scottish physician, first recognized that infectious disease was contagious and could be spread through feces|
|Alexander Wood||MD 1839||Scottish physician, invented the first hypodermic syringe|
|Edward Henry Sieveking||MD 1841||English physician, pioneer in epilepsy treatments, invented the aesthesiometer, used to measure two point discrimination, Physician to King Edward VII|
|John Struthers||MD 1845||Scottish anatomist, discovered and described the vestigial organ Ligament of Struthers which was used by Charles Darwin to argue the case for evolution|
|Sir Henry Littlejohn||MD 1847, Prof. Medical Jurisprudence 1897-1906||Scottish surgeon and public health officer, developed IV saline injection for cholera, Edinburgh's first Medical Officer of Health and co-founded the Royal Hospital for Sick Children|||
|Thomas Annandale||MD 1860, Regius Chair of Clinical Surgery 1877-1907||Scottish surgeon, performed the first repair of the meniscus, the first successful removal of an acoustic neuroma and introduced the pre-peritoneal approach to inguinal hernia repair.|
|Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton||BSc 1867, MD 1868, DSc 1870||discovered organic nitrates had the ability to alleviate angina pectoris|
|David Ferrier||MB 1868, CM 1868, MD 1870||Scottish neurologist, mapped the cortical function of the brain, the idea that specific areas of the brain are associated with specific behaviours|||
|Graham Steell||MB 1872, CM 1872, MD 1877||described the Graham Steell murmur|
|Robert Marcus Gunn||MB 1873, CM 1873||Scottish ophthalmologist, discovered Gunn's Sign and the Marcus Gunn pupil|
|James Rutherford Morison||MB 1874, CM 1874||Scottish surgeon, discovered Morison's pouch|
|Sir George Beatson||MD 1878||surgical oncologist who pioneered oophorectomy, the removal of the ovaries in the treatment of breast cancer|||
|David Bruce||MB 1881, CM 1881||Scottish pathologist, identified the cause of sleeping sickness and discovered Malta fever and brucellosis|
|John Scott Haldane||MB 1884, CM 1884||Scottish physiologist, invented the decompression chamber, first proposed placing a "canary in the coal mine" to warn of dangerous carbon monoxide levels, international authority on ether and respiration, discovered the Haldane effect on hemoglobin|
|James Hogarth Pringle||MB 1885, CM 1885||Scottish surgeon, developed the Pringle manoeuvre a technique of occluding the portal triad to control hemorrhage, first surgeon in Britain to carry out a saphenous vein graft, pioneered the hindquarter amputation|
|Harold Stiles||MB 1885, CM 1885, FRCS(Edin) 1889, Regius Chair of Clinical Surgery 1919-1925||British surgeon, known for research in tuberculosis and breast cancer, performed first pyloromyotomy|
|John Clarence Webster||MB 1888, CM 1888||Canadian OB/GYN, known for the Baldy-Webster operation to retrovert the uterus by shortening the round ligaments|
|Percy Theodore Herring||MB 1896, CM 1896, MD 1899||English physician, discovered herring bodies|
|Samuel Wilson||MB 1902, ChB 1902, BSc 1903, MD 1912||British neurologist, described Wilson's disease|
|Arthur Cecil Alport||MB 1905, ChB 1905, MD 1919||South African physician, described Alport syndrome|
|Thomas Addis||MB 1905, ChB 1905, MD 1908||Scottish-American physician, described the pathogenesis of haemophilia as well as the concept of renal clearance, demonstrated that normal blood plasma could correct the defect in haemophilia|
|William John Adie||MB 1911, ChB 1911, MD 1926||British physician, described Adie syndrome and narcolepsy|
|Cuthbert Dukes||MD 1914||English pathologist, devised the Dukes classification system for colorectal cancer|
|Mary Broadfoot Walker||MD 1935||Scottish physician, demonstrated the effectiveness of physostigmine in the treatment of myasthenia gravis|
|Robert Edwards||PhD 1955||British physiologist, developed in-vitro fertilisation (IVF), awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Matthew Kaufman||MB 1967, ChB 1967, Prof. Anatomy 1987-2007, Prof. Emeritus 2008-2013, FRS(Edin) 2008||British physician, first to derive embryonic stem cells from mouse embryos|
|Randy Schekman||1970||American cell biologist, discovered cell membrane trafficking, discovered machinery regulating vesicle traffic, awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Peter C. Doherty||PhD 1970||Australian veterinary surgeon, discovered how T cells recognize antigens in combination with major histocompatibility complex proteins, awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Adrian Peter Bird||PhD 1970, Buchanan Prof. of Genetics 1990-Present||British geneticist, discovered the protein MeCP2 involved in DNA methylation, awarded the 2011 Gairdner Foundation International Award for discoveries in DNA methylation and gene expression|||
|Valentin Fuster||PhD 1971, Research Fellow 1968-1971||Prominent Spanish cardiologist, only cardiologist to receive the 2 highest gold medals and all 4 major research awards from the world's four major cardiovascular organizations, named as "one of the best doctors in America and New York" since 1992, leader of the CNIC-Ferrer polypill project, demonstrated platelets role in CABG occlusion|
|Ian Frazer||BSc 1974, MB 1977, ChB 1977||Scottish-Australian physician, discovered the link between HPV and cervical cancer, co-invented the HPV vaccine for cervical cancer, CEO and Director of Research at the Translational Institute of Research, University of Queensland|
|David Baulcombe||PhD 1977||British plant scientist, discovered small interfering RNA, awarded the 2008 Lasker Award and the 2010 Wolf Prize in Agriculture.|
|Richard Eastell||MB 1977, ChB 1977, MD 1984||British physician, pioneered treatments in osteoporosis|
|Olivier James Garden||BSc 1974 MB 1977, ChB 1977, MD 1987, FRCS(Edin) 1994, Regius Chair of Clinical Surgery 2000-present||British surgeon, performed the first liver transplant in Scotland in 1992, president of the International Hepato-Pancreto-Biliary Association 2012-2014|||
|Nanshan Zhong||MD 1981||Chinese pulmonologist, discovered the SARS virus in 2003, President of the Chinese Medical Association|
|Gordon Wishart||MB 1983, ChB 1983, MD 1992||British breast surgeon, identified P-glycoprotein in breast cancer, introduced early patient discharge following breast surgery, pioneered minimally invasive parathyroid surgery, pioneered pre-operative axillary lymph node breast cancer staging|
Founders of Medical Schools and Universities
Leaders in Medicine
|Robert Whytt||1734||President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, First physician to the King in Scotland, wrote book on diseases of the nervous system|
|William Cullen||1736, Prof. Physiology 1756-89||President of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (1746-7), President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (1773-75), first physician to the King in Scotland|
|Francis Home||MD 1750, Prof. Materia Medica 1768-1798||President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, co-founder of the Royal Medical Society, made the first attempt to vaccinate against measles|
|James Craik||MD 1750||Physician General of the Continental Army, Personal Physician and close friend of George Washington|
|William Shippen Jr.||MD 1761||Surgeon General of the Continental Army, co-founder and president of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia|
|Andrew Duncan Sr.||1768, Prof. Medicine 1773-1824||President of the Royal Medical Society and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, First physician to the King in Scotland, founder of the Harveian Society, founder of the first lunatic asylum in Edinburgh|
|Adam Kuhn||MD 1768||Co-founder and President of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, founding Professor of Materia Medica at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine|
|John Coakley Lettsom||1768||Philanthropist, Founder of the Medical Society of London|
|Sir Gilbert Blane||1773||Physician to the King (George IV and William IV) and the Prince of Wales, instituted health reform in the Royal Navy|
|Caspar Wistar||MD 1786||American physician and anatomist, described the posterior part of the ethmoid bone, President of the American Philosophical Society and Society for the Abolition of Slavery|
|Sir James McGrigor, 1st Baronet||1788||Founder of the Royal Army Medical Corps|
|James Gregory||MD 1774, Chair of Medical Theory 1776-1790, Head of Edinburgh Medical School 1790-1821||President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and author|
|Andrew Duncan Jr.||MA 1793, MD 1794, Prof. Med Jurisprudence 1807-1832||Creator of the journal Edinburgh New Dispensatory, Chief Editor of the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal|
|John Abercrombie||MD 1803||Wrote the Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord the first textbook on neuropathology, known for Abercrombie's degeneration, the deposition of amyloid between cells|
|David Maclagan||MD 1805||Physician to the Forces, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh|
|Walter Channing||1811||American obstetrician, Co-founder of Boston Lying-In Hospital now Brigham and Women's Hospital, Professor of Obstetrics and Medical Jurisprudence at Harvard Medical School 1815-1854|
|William Alison||MD 1811, Prof. Medicine and Physic 1822-1856||Scottish physician, President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, advocate of preventative social medicine|
|Robert Christison||MD 1819, Prof. Medical Jurisprudence 1822-1832, Prof. Materia Medica and Therapeutics 1832-1877||Scottish physician, President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, President of the British Medical Association, Physician in Ordinary to the Queen in Scotland, expert in toxicology and key witness in the Burke and Hare trial.|
|Thomas Graham Balfour||MD 1834||Scottish physician, President of the Royal Statistical Society, Staff Surgeon at the Royal Military Asylum|
|Thomas Bevill Peacock||MD 1842||English cardiologist, founder of the London Chest Hospital and expert on valvular heart disease|
|William Tennant Gairdner||MD 1845||President of the British Medical Association|
|John Smith||MD 1847||Founder of the Edinburgh school of dentistry, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, President of the British Dental Association, co-founder of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children|
|Huang Kuan||MD 1855, PhD 1857||First Chinese student to study medicine in the west, Deputy-Chief of Boji Hospital|
|Joseph Bell||MD 1859||Scottish surgeon, lecturer at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and personal surgeon to Queen Victoria, served as the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes|
|Joseph Fayrer||MD 1859||English physician, physician to King Edward VII, expert on snake venom|
|Frederick Montizambert||MD 1865||Canadian physician, first Director-General of Public Health in Canada, President of the Canadian Medical Association, President of the American Public Health Association, inductee to the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame|
|Robert Muir||MA 1884, MB 1888, CM 1888, MD 1890||Scottish pathologist, author of Muir's Textbook of Pathology|
|Obadiah Johnson||MB 1886, CM 1886, MD 1889||Nigerian physician, second Nigerian to qualify as doctor, author of A History of the Yorubas from the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the British Protectorate|
|Lim Boon Keng||MB 1892, CM 1892||Singaporean physician, co-founder of the Singapore Chinese Girls' School, recipient of the Order of the British Empire as an officer, President of Xiamen University|
|Sir Robert Hutchison, 1st Baronet||MB 1893, CM 1893, MD 1896||Scottish physician, author of Hutchison's Clinical Methods|
|Andrew Balfour||MB 1894, CM 1894, MD 1898, BSc 1900||Scottish physician, Medical Officer of Health in Khartoum, Director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine|
|George Newman||MD 1895||English physician, Chief Medical Officer of England|
|James Couper Brash||BSc 1908, MB 1910, ChB 1910, Chair of Anatomy 1931-1954||British anatomist, President of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland from 1945-1947|
|J.C. Boileau Grant||MB 1908, ChB 1908||Anatomist, author of Grant's Atlas of Anatomy|
|Alexander Biggam||MB 1911, ChB 1911, MD 1942||Scottish physician, Major General in the British Army, Honorary physician to King George VI|
|Sydney Smith||MB 1912, ChB 1912, MD 1914, Regius Chair of Forensic Medicine 1928-1953, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine 1931-1953, Rector of the University of Edinburgh 1954-57||Scottish forensic pathologist, published the textbook Textbook of Forensic Medicine in 1925|
|Stanley Davidson||MB 1919, ChB 1919, Chair of Medicine 1938-1959||British physician, author of Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, the first medical textbook to sell over a million copies|
|Robert Lim||MB 1919, ChB 1919, PhD 1920, DSc 1924||Singaporean physician, Lieutenant General and Surgeon General of the Army of the Republic of China|
|Charles Illingworth||MB 1922, ChB 1922, MD 1929, ChM 1939||President of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, Surgeon to the Queen in Scotland|
|John George Macleod||MB 1938, ChB 1938||Scottish physician, author of Macleod's Clinical Examination|
|Ekkehard von Kuenssberg||MB 1939, ChB 1939||Founder and President of the Royal College of General Practitioners, one of the first GP's to discover the side effects of thalidomide|
|Sydney Selwyn||BSc, MB, ChB, MD||Authority on the history of medicine, designed the Florence Nightingale 10 pound note, pioneer in bone marrow transplantation|
|Sheila Sherlock||MB 1941, ChB 1941, MD 1945||First woman in the UK to be appointed professor of medicine, published over 600 papers, founded the liver unit at London's Royal Free Hospital|
|Yao Zhen||PhD 1949||Co-founder and editor in chief of the journal Cell Research, first president of the Asia-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology|
|Seneka Bibile||PhD 1952||Founder of the Sri Lanka National Pharmaceuticals Policy|
|Philip Raffaelli||MB 1979, ChB 1979||Surgeon General of the British Armed Forces, Vice Admiral in the Royal Navy, Governor of the University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust|
|Austin Smith||PhD 1986, MRC Prof. of Stem Cell Research 2003-2006||Co-recipient of the Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine, Director of the Wellcome Trust/MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute|
Pioneers in Science and Humanities
|James Hutton||1747||Scottish physician, geologist, known for theories on Deep time and Gaia Hypothesis|
|Joseph Black||MD 1754||Scottish physician and chemist, discoverer of carbon dioxide, latent heat and specific heat|
|Erasmus Darwin||1755||physician, poet, author and evolutionary biologist.|
|Daniel Rutherford||MD 1772, Prof. Medicine and Botany 1786-1819||Scottish physician, chemist and botanist, first to isolate nitrogen in 1772|
|Thomas Charles Hope||MD 1787, Prof. Medicine and Chemistry 1799-1843||Scottish physician, chemist, discovered the element strontium, demonstrated that water reached its maximum density at 4C in an experiment called Hope's experiment, President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh|
|Robert Brown||1793||Scottish botanist, named and described the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming, discovered Brownian motion, discovered the difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms|
|Thomas Brown||MD 1803||Scottish metaphysician|
|William Prout||MD 1811||English physician and chemist, known for Prout's hypothesis, discovered hydrochloric acid in the stomach and improved the barometer|
|James Braid||1814||Scottish surgeon, pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy|
|Robert Edmond Grant||MD 1814||Scottish physician, biologist, mentor of Charles Darwin|
|Richard Owen||1825||English biologist, coined the word Dinosauria, described the false killer whale, opponent of the theory of evolution|
|Charles Darwin||1827||English naturalist, published the theory of evolution, author of On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man|
|David Boswell Reid||MD 1830||Scottish physician, inventor, expert on ventilation, President of the Royal Medical Society|
|Charles Wyville Thomson||MD 1845||Chief scientist of the Challenger expedition, discovered animal life at depths of 1200m|
|John Kirk||MD 1854||Scottish physician, botanist, companion of David Livingstone, identified the Zanzibar Red Colobus, British Consul in Zanzibar|
|Alexander Crum Brown||MA 1858, MD 1861, Prof. Chemistry 1869-1908||Scottish physician and chemist, discovered the double bond of ethylene, introduced the name kerogen for insoluble organic matter in oil shale.|
|John Anderson||MD 1862||Scottish zoologist, first curator of the Indian Museum in Calcutta|
|Neil Gordon Munro||MB 1888, CM 1888, MD 1909||Scottish physician, anthropologist, one of the first people to study the Ainu people of Hokkaido|
|John Moultrie||MD 1749||American politician, acting governor of East Florida|
|Samuel Seabury||1753||first American Episcopal bishop, first bishop of Connecticut|
|Oliver Goldsmith||1754||Anglo-Irish novelist, playwright, author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield and the children's tale of The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes|
|William Buchan||MD 1761||Author of the book Domestic Medicine|
|Gustavus Richard Brown||MD 1768||United States Representative from Maryland, physician at George Washington's deathbed.|
|Thomas Tudor Tucker||MD 1770||United States Representative from South Carolina, longest serving Treasurer of the United States, presidential physician to James Madison|
|Henry Latimer||MD 1775||United States Senator from Delaware|
|George Logan||MD 1779||United States Senator from Pennsylvania|
|William Crawford||MD 1781||United States Representative from Pennsylvania's 5th and 6th Congressional districts|
|Samuel L. Mitchill||MD 1786||United States Senator from New York|
|Mungo Park||1791||Scottish explorer, first westerner to have travelled to the Niger River|
|James Jones||MD 1796||United States Representative from Virginia|
|Peter Mark Roget||MD 1798||British physician and author, published Roget's Thesaurus|
|William Jardine||MD 1802||Co-founder of Hong Kong conglomerate Jardine, Matheson and Company, Whig MP for Ashburton|
|John Crawfurd||MD 1803||Scottish physician, Governor of Singapore|
|James C. Crow||MD 1822||Scottish inventor of the sour mash proceess for creating Bourbon whiskey, creator of the Old Crow brand of Bourbon whiskey|
|Samuel Smiles||MD 1832||Scottish author and biographer, wrote the book Self-Help|
|John Rae||MD 1833||Scottish explorer, discovered the fate of the Franklin Expedition, discovered Rae Straight, showed that King William Land was an island|
|David Monro||MD 1835||Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives, MP representing Waimea|
|William Johnston Almon||1836||Nova Scotian physician, Canadian Senator from Nova Scotia, Canadian MP for Halifax|
|Logan Campbell||MD 1839||New Zealand physician, Mayor of Auckland, co-founder of Auckland Savings Bank, Superintendent of Auckland, known as the "Father of Auckland"|
|Sir Charles Tupper||MD 1843||6th Prime Minister of Canada and father of confederation|
|Valentine Munbee McMaster||MD 1853||British army surgeon, recipient of the Victoria Cross, for the intrepidity with which he exposed himself to the fire of the enemy, in bringing in, and attending to, the wounded, on the 25th of September, at Lucknow|||
|William Henry Thomas Sylvester||LRCS(Edin) 1853||British army surgeon, recipient of the Victoria Cross, for coming to the aid of an officer who was mortally wounded and remained with him, dressing his wounds, in a most dangerous and exposed situation on the 8th of September, and again on the 18th of September.|||
|Campbell Mellis Douglas||MD 1861||Canadian army surgeon, recipient of the Victoria Cross, for risking their lives in manning a boat and proceeding through dangerous surf to rescue some of their comrades who had been sent to the island to find out the fate of the commander and seven of the crew.|||
|James Graham||MA 1879, MB 1882, CM 1882, MD 1888||Australian physician, 38th Mayor of Sydney|||
|Henry Halcro Johnston||MB 1880, CM 1880, MD 1893, BSc 1893, DSc 1894||Scottish botanist, represented Scotland internationally in rugby union, Colonel in the British Army|
|William Babtie||LRCP(Edin) 1880, LRCS(Edin) 1880||Scottish surgeon, recipient of the Victoria Cross, he exposed himself to heavy fire to tend to the wounded including going with Captain Walter Norris Congreve to bring in Lieutenant Frederick Hugh Sherston (The Hon.) Roberts who was lying wounded on the veldt during the Second Boer War, Lieutenant General in the British Army|
|Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle||MB 1881, CM 1881, MD 1885||novelist, creator of the character Sherlock Holmes|
|John Batty Tuke||MB 1881, CM 1881, MD 1890||Scottish psychiatrist, Conservative MP for the University of Edinburgh and St Andrews|
|Robert Stirton Thornton||MB 1884, CM 1884||Minister of Education for Manitoba, President of the Medical Council of Canada|
|George Ernest Morrison||MD 1895||Australian adventurer, The Times correspondent in Peking during Boxer Rebellion|
|Bhagvat Singh||MB 1895, CM 1895||Indian prince, Maharaja of the princely state of Gondal|
|Henry Edward Manning Douglas||LRCP(Edin) 1898, LRCS(Edin) 1898||Scottish surgeon, recipient of the Victoria Cross, he showed great gallantry and devotion under a very severe fire in advancing in the open and attending to Captain Gordon, Gordon Highlanders, who was wounded, and also attending to Major Robinson and other wounded men under a fearful fire. Many similar acts of devotion and gallantry were performed by Lieutenant Douglas on the same day, Major General in the British Army|
|Alec Boswell Timms||LRCP(Edin) 1903, LRCS(Edin) 1903||Scottish-Australian rugby union forward, played for Scotland and participated in the 1899 British Lions tour to Australia|
|Bernard Friedman||MB 1921, ChB 1921||South African surgeon, co-founder of the anti-apartheid Progressive Party|
|Robert McIntyre||MB 1938, ChB 1938||Scottish politician, leader of the Scottish National Party from 1947-56, first SNP MP for Motherwell|
|Hastings Banda||MB 1941, ChB 1941||Malawian politician, 1st President of Malawi from 1966 to 1994|
|Lim Chong Eu||MB 1944, ChB 1944||Malaysian politician, served as Chief Minister of Penang for a record 21 years, co-founder and president of Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia|
|Kerry Lang||MB 1998, ChB 1998||British triathelete, British Triathlon Vice Champion of the Year 2009|
List only includes faculty who were not graduates of the medical school. Faculty that were also graduates of the medical school are listed under alumni.
|Robert Sibbald||Scottish physician, first described the blue whale, founder of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh|
|William Cullen||Scottish physician, first demonstrated artificial refrigeration|
|James Syme||Scottish surgeon, invented Mackintosh, conducted the first exarticulation of the hip, known for Syme's amputation|
|Douglas Argyll Robertson||Scottish ophthalmologist, described the Argyll Robertson pupil a sign of neurosyphilis|||
|Joseph Lister||Scottish surgeon, developed antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments|
|Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer||English physiologist, regarded as the founder of endocrinology, discovered adrenaline, coined the terms endocrine and insulin|
|George Barger||British chemist, identified tyramine, contributed to the synthesis of thyroxine and Vitamin B1|
|Vincent du Vigneaud||American biochemist, discovered oxytocin, awarded the 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry|
|Hermann Joseph Muller||American geneticist, discovered that mutations could be caused by X-rays, awarded the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|John Gaddum||British pharmacologist, discovered Substance P, a neuropeptide|
|James Learmonth||Scottish surgeon, performed lumbar sympathectomy on King George VI to treat his vascular disease|
|John Crofton||British physician, pioneered the treatment of tuberculosis, which was known as the Edinburgh method.|||
|Michael Woodruff||British transplant surgeon, performed the first ever kidney transplant in the UK at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary in 1960.|
|Kenneth Murray||Developed recombinant DNA technology, developed the vaccine for Hepatitis B, co-founder of biotechnology company Biogen|||
|Edwin Southern||Developed the Southern blot, founder of Oxford Gene Technology, received the 2005 Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research|||
|Robert Evan Kendell||Welsh psychiatrist, Chief Medical Officer of Scotland from 1991-1996|||
|Paul Nurse||Discovered the proteins cyclin and cdk as well as the genes cdc2 and cdk1 that are involved in the cell cycle, awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|||
|Richard G. Morris||Scottish neuroscientist, developed the Morris water navigation task|
|Andrew H. Wyllie||Scottish pathologist, discovered the importance of programmed cell death and coined the term apoptosis|
|Edvard Moser||Norwegian neuroscientist, discovered entorhinal grid cells, awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|May-Britt Moser||Norwegian neuroscientist, discovered entorhinal grid cells, awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Andrew H. Wyllie||Scottish pathologist, discovered the importance of programmed cell death and coined the term apoptosis|
|John Savill||Scottish physician, CEO of the Medical Research Council 2010-Present|
|Sir Ian Wilmut||Scottish embryologist, first to clone a mammal, a Finn Dorset lamb named Dolly|
|Clare Blackburn||British embryologist, first to grow a whole organ, a thymus, inside an animal|
In popular culture
- In the television show NCIS, the chief medical examiner Dr. Donald "Ducky" Mallard studied medicine at Edinburgh. Ari Haswari, the show's main antagonist for the first two seasons, also studied medicine at Edinburgh.
- In the BBC soap opera Doctors, Dr. Emma Reid studied medicine at Edinburgh.
- In the film The Last King of Scotland, the protagonist Dr. Nicholas Garrigan recently graduated from Edinburgh.
- The character Sherlock Holmes, created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a graduate of Edinburgh, was based on Dr. Joseph Bell, a graduate and lecturer at Edinburgh.
- In the BBC television drama Murder Rooms: The Dark Beginnings of Sherlock Holmes, the main protagonists Dr. Joseph Bell and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle are both graduates of Edinburgh.
Situated directly across the road from the medical school buildings and the old Royal Infirmary, "Doctors" has been the refuge since the 1970s of many Edinburgh Medical School graduates and students. History drapes the walls in the forms of plaques and photographs.
- "University guide 2012: Medicine". The Guardian (London). 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
- Watson, Roland; Elliott, Francis; Foster, Patrick. "Good University Guide 2010". The Times (London).
- QS World Rankings by Faculty Life Science/Medicine. QS http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/faculty-rankings/life-sciences-and-medicine/2014#sorting=rank+region=+country=+faculty=+stars=false+search=
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "NHS hospital ranking". Daily Mail (London). 21 March 2006.
- pageid=stats "University of Edinburgh Medicine". www.ed.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- "FOI request Edinburgh Medicine A100". Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "2012-2013 Undergraduate Admissions Statistics". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- "University guide 2014: league table for medicine". Guardian University Guide. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Roger L. Emerson, "The Founding of the Edinburgh Medical School," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (2004) 59#2 pp 183-218 in Project MUSE
- "Edinburgh 1880-1914". Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "The Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1941-1949)". University of Edinburgh. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Thistle on the Delaware: Edinburgh Medical Education and Philadelphia Practice, 1800-1825". Social History of Medicine 5 (1): 19–42. 1992. doi:10.1093/shm/5.1.19. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- "Entry Requirements". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- "FOI University of Edinburgh A100 Medicine". Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "International Exchange Programs Columbia". Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Sir William Turner: a chapter in medical history". Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Rolleston, Humphry (Jul 1939). "The History of Clinical Medicine (Principally of Clinical Teaching) in the British Isles". Proc R Soc Med: 1189. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Henry Littlejohn helped win cholera fight". Scotsman. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "David Ferrier". Dictionary of Neurology Project. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "George Beatson". Retrieved 2013-02-13.
- "Prof. Adrian P. Bird". zoominfo. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Professor O James Garden". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- . London Gazette http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/23828/pages/595/page.pdf. Retrieved 15 November 2013. Missing or empty
- . europepmc http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC2337460/pdf/brmedj06762-0034a.pdf. Retrieved 15 November 2013. Missing or empty
- "Three Licentiates of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were decorated with the Victoria Cross.". PubMed.
- Caldwell, Margaret. "Graham, Sir James (1856–1913)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Timoney, P. J; Breathnach, C. S. (13 January 2010). "Douglas Argyll Robertson (1837-1909) and his pupil". Irish Journal of Medical Science. doi:10.1007/s11845-009-0460-z. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Obituaries: Sir John Weynman Crofton". Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Professor Sir Kenneth Murray". Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- "Edwin Southern, DNA blotting, and microarray technology: A case study of the shifting role of patents in academic molecular biology". LSSP Journal. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Nobel prize winners". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Edinburgh Doctors". Retrieved 2009-03-01.
David S Crawford, Canadians who graduated with an MD from the University of Edinburgh 1809 - 1840 and Canadians who graduated in medicine from the University of Edinburgh 1841-1868. http://internatlibs.mcgill.ca/
Tara Womersley, Dorothy H Crawford, Bodysnatchers to Lifesavers: Three Centuries of Medicine in Edinburgh (Luath Press Ltd, Edinburgh, 2010), ISBN 978-1-906817-58-9
- The Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh
- The Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh
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