University of Fort Hare
|University of Fort Hare|
|Motto||In lumine tuo videbimus lumen (In Thy light we shall see the light)|
|Vice-Chancellor||Dr Mvuyo Tom|
East London, Eastern Cape, South Africa
The University of Fort Hare is a public university in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa. It was a key institution in higher education for black Africans from 1916 to 1959. It offered a Western-style, academically excellent education to students from across sub-Saharan Africa, creating a black African elite. Fort Hare alumni were part of many subsequent independence movements and governments of newly independent African countries.
In 1959, the university was subsumed by the apartheid system, but it is now part of South Africa's post-apartheid public higher education system. The University's main campus is located on the Tyhume River, in a town known as Alice (in English) and Dikeni (in Xhosa). It is in the Eastern Cape Province about 50 km west of King Williams Town (or eQonce) in a region that for a while was known as the "independent" state of Ciskei. In 2011, the Alice campus had some 6400 students. A second campus at the Eastern Cape provincial capital of Bhisho was built in 1990 and hosts a few hundred students, while the campus in East London, acquired through incorporation in 2004, has some 4300 students. The University has five faculties (Education, Law, Management & Commerce, Science & Agriculture, Social Sciences & Humanities) all of which offer qualifications up to the doctoral level.
The fort 
Originally, Fort Hare was a British fort in the wars between British settlers and the Xhosa of the 19th century. Some of the ruins of the fort are still visible today, as well as graves of some of the British soldiers who died while on duty there. Missionary activity (under James Stewart) led to the creation of a school for missionaries from which at the beginning of the 20th century the university resulted. In accord with its Christian principles, fees were low and heavily subsidised. Several scholarships were also available for indigent students.
Fort Hare is one of the oldest universities in southern Africa, and was the first Western-style tertiary education institution in the whole continent to be open to non-white students. A number of notable students have attended Fort Hare, including some who were expelled for protests during the period of white minority rule and thus did not graduate.
Anti-apartheid activity 
In the struggle years there was much anti-apartheid activity, including the Black Consciousness Movement of Steve Biko. A few students became politically active and opposed the apartheid authorities who enjoyed the unqualified support of the Fort Hare authorities after it became a University in 1972.
University of Fort Hare Strategic Plans 
Following a period of decline in the 1990s, Professor Derrick Swarts was appointed Vice-Chancellor with the task of re-establishing the University on a sound footing. The programme launched by Prof. Swartz was the UFH Strategic Plan 2000. The plan was meant to address the universities financial situation and academic quality standards simultaneously. The focus of the university was narrowed and consequently 5 faculties remained:
- Science & Agriculture
- Social Sciences & Humanities
- Management & Commerce
Further narrowing the focus, 14 institutes were founded to deal with specific issues, such as the UNESCO Oliver Tambo Chair of Human Rights. Through their location the institutes have excellent access to poor rural areas, and consequently emphasis is placed on the role of research in improving quality of life and economic growth (and especially sustainable job creation). Among the outreach programmes, the Telkom Centre of Excellence maintains a "living laboratory" of 4 schools at Dwesa on the Wild Coast, which have introduced computer labs and internet access to areas that until 2005 did not even have electricity. The projects at Dwesa focus research on Information and Communication for Development (ICD).
Incorporation of Rhodes University's former campus in East London in 2004 gave the University an urban base and a coastal base for the first time. Subsequent growth and development on this campus have been rapid. Initial developments of the new multi-campus university were guided by a three-year plan; currently the University is following the new "Strategic Plan 2009-2016", set to take the institution to its centennial year.
Notable alumni 
|Name||DoB - DoD||Notes|
|Z. K. Matthews||1901–1968||Lectured at Fort Hare from 1936 to 1959|
|Archibald Campbell Jordan||30 October 1906–1968||Novelist, pioneer of African studies|
|Govan Mbeki||9 July 1910 – 30 August 2001||South African politician|
|Yusuf Lule||1912 - 21 January 1985||Interim president of Uganda 1979|
|Cedric Phatudi||27 May 1912 – 7 October 1987||Former Chief Minister of Lebowa 1972–1987|
|Kaiser Matanzima||5 June 1915 - 15 June 2003||President of bantustan Transkei|
|Oliver Tambo||27 October 1917 – 24 April 1993||member, African National Congress- Expelled while doing his second degree.|
|Joshua Nkomo||1918 - 1 July 1999||Founder of the ZAPU.|
|Nelson Mandela||18 July 1918 -||Former President of South Africa- - Expelled and later graduated from the University of the Witwatersrand.|
|Lionel Ngakane||17 July 1920 – 26 November 2003||South African filmmaker|
|Seretse Khama||1 July 1921 – 13 July 1980||First President of Botswana|
|Julius Nyerere||19 July 1922 – 14 October 1999||President of Tanzania|
|Herbert Chitepo||15 June 1923 – 18 March 1975||ZANU leader|
|Robert Sobukwe||1924 - 27 February 1978||Founder of the Pan Africanist Congress|
|Robert Mugabe||21 February 1924 -||President of Zimbabwe, attended 1949–1951|
|Kenneth Kaunda||28 April 1924 -||First President of Zambia|
|Allan Hendrickse||22 October 1927 – 16 March 2005||Politician, preacher, and teacher|
|Mangosuthu Buthelezi||27 August 1928 -||Leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party - Never graduated but transferred to University of Natal to study History and Bantu Administration; graduated to become leader of KwaZulu Bantustan in apartheid South Africa|
|Desmond Tutu||7 October 1931 -||Archbishop Emeritus, South African peace activist, Chaplain at Fort Hare in 1960|
|Frank Mdlalose||29 November 1931 -||First Premier of KwaZulu-Natal|
|Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri||18 September 1937 – 6 April 2009||Minister of Communications, South Africa|
|Manto Tshabalala-Msimang||9 October 1940 – 16 December 2009||Minister of Health of South Africa|
|Chris Hani||28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993||Leader of the South African Communist Party - Expelled, later graduated from Rhodes University.|
|Wiseman Nkuhlu||5 February 1944 -||economic advisor to former President Thabo Mbeki, Head of NEPAD|
|Makhenkesi Arnold Stofile||27 December 1944 -||former Minister of Sport of South Africa|
|Sam Nolutshungu||15 April 1945 – 12 August 1997||South African scholar|
|Nyameko Barney Pityana||7 August 1945 -||lawyer and theologian, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of South Africa|
|Bulelani Ngcuka||2 May 1954 -||South Africa's former Director of Public Prosecutions|
|Loyiso Nongxa||1954-||Vice-Chancellor of the University of the Witwatersrand|
|Joseph Diescho||1955 -||Namibian novelist|
|John Hlophe||1 January 1959 -||Judge President of the Cape Provincial Division of the High Court|
(Others, unknown DOB)
- Tiyo Soga - religion, Vice-Chancellor of the University of South Africa
- K. Mokhele - science
- Don Ncube - business
See also