University of Medicine 1, Yangon

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University of Medicine 1, Yangon
ဆေးတက္ကသိုလ်(၁) ရန်ကုန်
University of Medicine-1 (Yangon) seal
Motto ဥပဌာနံ၊ အနုကမ္ပာ၊ ဒယာ
(Service, Sympathy, Humanity)
Established 2 February 1927 (2 February 1927)
Type Public
Rector Thet Khine Win
Academic staff 685
Students 2969 (2002–2003)[1]
Undergraduates 3000
Postgraduates 500
Location Yangon, Yangon Region, Myanmar
Coordinates: 16°49′9″N 96°8′2″E / 16.81917°N 96.13389°E / 16.81917; 96.13389
Campus
  1. Lanmadaw (Main)
  2. Pyay Road
  3. Thahton Road
Former names Institute of Medicine 1 (IM-1), Medical College 1 (MC-1)
Colors Red, Black, White, Yellow                 
Affiliations Ministry of Health
Website www.um1ygn.edu.mm
UM1badge.png

The University of Medicine 1, Yangon (Burmese: ဆေးတက္ကသိုလ်(၁) ရန်ကုန် [sʰé tɛʔkəθò tɪʔ (jàɴɡòʊɴ)]; formerly the Institute of Medicine 1), located in Yangon, is the oldest medical school in Myanmar. The university offers M.B.,B.S. (equivalent of the M.D.) degrees and graduate (diploma, master's and doctoral) degrees in medical science.[2] The university is perhaps the most selective university in the country, and admits approximately 300 students annually based solely on their college matriculation exam scores.

The University of Medicine 1 comprises three campuses: Lanmadaw campus (also known as St. John's), Pyay Road campus and Thaton Road campus.

University of Medicine 1, Yangon is one of 4 schools in Burma recognized by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates.[3]

History[edit]

Panorama view of Lanmadaw Campus

The history of the University of Medicine 1 began with the establishment of the government medical schools in Myanmar in 1907 at the premises of the old Rangoon General Hospital, and the introduction of a course in medical sciences. it was a four-year medical course known as Licentiate Medical Practice(L.M.P) course and the successful candidates were offered certificate of license for medical practice(L.M.P). In 1923–1924, the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.,B.S) course was introduced at the old Rangoon College building at the site of the present Neurology Department of the Yangon General Hospital. Then, the present main building of the University of Medicine 1 was built and the foundation stone was laid by Sir Harcourt Butler on 2 February 1927. The classes were transferred to the new building in 1929.

The medical college became a constituent college of the Rangoon University in 1930 and was placed under the Board of Administration, on which the Vice-chancellor of the University of Rangoon and the Inspector General of Civil Hospital served as Chairman and Vice-chairman respectively. Academic matters and general administration were attended to by the principal with the help of the Medical College Council(Academic Body).

In 1937, the medical degree, M.B.,B.S (Rgn), conferred by the University of Rangoon gained recognition of the General Medical Council of Great Britain. From 1942 to 1945, during World War II, there was a temporary suspension of the M.B.,B.S. course. A modified course was conducted instead, on the successful completion of which the Licentiate of the State Medical Board (L.S.M.B.) was conferred. Although the medical college building remained intact, all the laboratory equipment, and all the mounts and specimens collected in the Pathology and Forensic Medicine Department Museums were completely destroyed, and valuable books from the College library were also lost.

After the war, all the constituent colleges of the reconstituted Rangoon University became Faculties, and the Medical College became the Faculty of Medicine, under the administration of the Dean.

Mosaic Walls at the corner of stairways inside the Pyay Road Campus

On promulgation of the University Education Act in May 1964, the Institutes of Medicine were established. In 1973, the administration of the three medical Institutes and the Institute of Dental Medicine was transferred to the Ministry of Health, and came under the direct control of the Department of Medical Education, now known as the Department of Health Manpower.

Post-graduate courses were introduced at the three Institutes of Medicine in 1964, the Dean of the courses being responsible to the Rector for their organization and administration. With the addition of new courses in 1970, the Board of Postgraduate Medical Studies came under the administration of the Director. With the institution of the Department of Medical Education in 1973, the Board has been under the direct charge of the Director-General of the Department of Medical Education, now known as the Department of Health Manpower. In 2005, Institute of Medicine 1 was renamed the University of Medicine 1.

Leadership[edit]

Since 1964, the University of Medicine 1, Yangon has been headed by an academic dean known as a rector.[4] Past rectors have included:

  1. 1964-1970: Ba Than
  2. 1971-1972: Pe Kyin
  3. 1972-1984: Tun Min
  4. 1984-1987: Hla Myint
  5. 1987-1988: Tin Aung Swe
  6. 1988-1991: Maung Maung Sein
  7. 1991-1996: Mya Oo
  8. 1996-1997: Kyaw Myint Tun
  9. 1997-1998: Kyaw Myint
  10. 1998-2007: Myo Myint
  11. 2007-2009: Aye Maung Han
  12. 2009-2011: Pe Thet Khin
  13. 2011-2013: Than Cho
  14. 2013-present: Thet Khine Win

Coursework[edit]

The M.B.,B.S. course work extends over 7 years.

Main Building in Lanmadaw Campus
Interior View Of Lanmadaw Campus
This is the courtyard where the graduation dinner are held
Courtyard Of Lanmadaw Campus
Year Duration
First M.B.,B.S. 1 year
Second M.B.,B.S. 1½year
Third M.B.,B.S. 1 year
Final M.B.,B.S. Part I 1 year
Final M.B.,B.S. Part II 1½year
House Surgeon 1 year
Total 7 years
Football ground inside the Pyay Road Campus

Subjects[edit]

First year[edit]

Pyay Road Campus

Second year[edit]

Theatre 15 and 16 of Pyay Campus
Dissection Room 4 of Anatomy Department

Third year[edit]

Students are also posted for 18 weeks each to the medical and surgical wards for clinical training.

Final year (Part I)[edit]

Students attend lectures & clinics in Medicine, Surgery, Child health, Obstetrics & gynecology, and posted to the various teaching hospitals, including Urban Health facilities as part of Preventive and Social Medicine teaching.

Final year (Part II)[edit]

Students study the allied specialties, namely, eye, ear, nose & throat diseases, urology, neurology, tuberculosis, venereal diseases, orthopaedics and traumatology, skin diseases, mental health and psychiatry,orthomaxillo-facial surgery, radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, anesthesiology, thoracic surgery, and paediatric surgery.

A summative examination is held at the end of the Final M.B.,B.S.Part II course. Problem Based Learning (PBL), Community Based Learning (CBL) and Behavioural Science will be incorporated, as relevant, in the M.B.,B.S. course.

House surgeon training[edit]

All students, after successful completion of Final Part II examination, are continued to train hands-on for period of one year as house surgeons in the recognized Teaching Hospitals in Yangon and / or the State and Division Hospitals.[5] Training Periods are as following: -

Subject Duration
Child Health 2 ½ months
Community Medicine 2 weeks
Medicine (including Psychiatry) 3 months
Obstetrics & Gynaecology 3 months
Surgery(including Traumatology) 3 months
  • Only after completion of house-surgeonship M.B.,B.S. Degree is offered to the students. Before 1997, the degree was conferred upon completion of the second part of the final year.

Improvements and changes[edit]

Convocation(Graduation Ceremony) of the University

M.B.,B.S. COURSE (1930)

Yangon University passed a new curriculum for M.B., B.S. degree course with a slight alteration in program structure of 1923 curriculum. There was no change in 1st M.B., course. The teaching of Physical and Organic chemistry in second M.B. course was shortened to six months.

The 3rd M.B.,B.S. course was of one year duration and consisted of:

  1. Materia medica and Pharmacology
  2. General and Special Pathology including Medical Zoology and Bacteriology
  3. Morbid Anatomy including attendance to all post-mortem examination for three months.
  4. Morbid Histology
  5. Elementary Bacteriology and Medical Zoology
  6. Clinical clerkship

The final M.B.,B.S. course was two years and it was divided into two parts (The Final Part I and the Final Part II M.B.,B.S.): The subjects taught in the Final Part I course were:

  1. Forensic Medicine (including medico-legal post-mortem examination)
  2. Hygiene and vaccination (including Practical Hygiene).

The examination was held at the end of one year.

The course leading to Part II of the final M.B.,B.S. examination was as follows:

  1. Systemic Medicine
  2. Systemic Surgery
  3. Systemic Midwifery
  4. Applied anatomy and physiology
  5. Outpatient clerkship - 4 months
  6. Special Departments

Three months - Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Two months - Venereal Diseases & Skin

  1. Maternity Hospital - 3 months
  2. Clinical clerkship in medicine & Surgery

To fulfil the regulation of General Medical Council of Great Britain the instructions on child welfare, prenatal care and causes of excessive infantile mortality had to be included.

The candidate who failed in any one of the M.B., B.S. examinations could transfer himself to L.M. & S. course, if desired to do so. But candidates who had passed the L.M. & S. course were not granted any concession to enable them to follow a modified course leading to the degree of M.B.,B.S.

(Ref. University Regulation, 1930, Chapter 15, p. 207)

The General Medical Council of Great Britain was again requested to reconsider the University's application for the recognition of its M.B., B.S. Degree as registrable qualification in Great Britain. The Committee of the General Medical Council informed the University that it was not expedient or just to accede to the request of the University.

(Ref. Report of the E.C. of the council of the University, 1930–31)

M.B.,B.S. COURSE (1935–36)

The Motto explained in Burmese
The central courtyard near the lecture theatre 15 and 16

The prospectus of the Medical College of the University of Rangoon (1935–1936) stated that the duration of M.B., B.S. course was seven years (previously six years) from the time of matriculation - two years of pre-medical and five years of medical studies proper.

A candidate for admission into Medical College, had to pass the First M.B., B.S. course that normally extended over two years or one of the examinations recognized by the General Medical Council of Great Britain as prerequisite education.

There was no change in Second M.B., B.S. course but the subjects taught in clinical years were rearranged as follows:

The Third M.B., B.S.

  1. Materia Medica & Pharmacology
  2. Bacteriology & Medical Zoology

The Final Part I M.B.,B.S.

  1. Pathology
  2. Forensic Medicine
  3. Hygiene and Public health

The Final Part II M.B.,B.S.

  1. Medicine
  2. Surgery
  3. Obstetrics & Gynaecology

In the previous curriculum, Bacteriology and Medical Zoology were taught under Pathology in Third M.B.,B.S. course. The teaching of Pathology was carried out in the Final Part I in 1935-36 curriculum.

Some of the rules for the students stated that the students who were absent without leave would be removed from the college and no student would be allowed to sit for a University Examination unless his attendance, work and conduct had been certified to be satisfactory by the Professor or Lecturer in each subject for which the student was appearing for the examination.

During the three years of clinical study, (i.e. starting from Third M.B.,B.S.) the students had to work in the outpatient departments and the wards of the Rangoon General Hospital, and attend post-mortem examinations, clinics and surgical operations. They performed clinical duties under the supervision of the members of the staff of hospital who were also staff of the Medical College. The students were posted for a period of continuous duty at the Dufferin Hospital for training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. The course of medical study was planned to conform to the requirements of the General Medical Council of Great Britain.

After passing the Final part II examination one could register as a medical practitioner with the Burma Medical Council. The M.B., B.S. degree was registrable in India and Burma. It was also anticipated that registration in Great Britain could be made in the near future.

The internship was not compulsory but the graduates were strongly recommended to spend a year at least as a House-physician or Surgeon in a well equipped hospital in order to gain experience and confidence in solving the problems that may be encountered in general practice. Only about ten posts were available a year in selected Civil General Hospitals in Burma. They were given an allowance of 75 rupees (75 Myanmar kyats) per month. It is then raised to around 50,000 Myanmar kyats (around 55 USD) per month in 2011.

The majority of graduates entered the private practice. Few posts were available in the Government Service; the Burma Railways, the Corporation of Rangoon and certain large commercial enterprises such as the Burmah Oil Co., the Irrawaddy Flotilla Co., Burma Corporation, Indo-Burma Petroleum Co.. The initial pay ranged from 200 to 400 rupees per month according to the nature of the duties and qualification of the applicants.

(Ref. The Medical College of University of Rangoon Prospectus 1935-36)

Starting from August 2008, UM I has started teaching new medical ethics and patient safety curriculum integrating into first MB to House Surgeon training with total hour of 36 hours.

Core contents[edit]

Main building with newly built water-fountain seen in February,2012
  • At the end of the 1st MB course, the student should be able to:
    • Define and understand ethics, medical ethics, Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Geneva in Burmese and English versions
    • Be aware of ethical and moral issues in relation to Burmese culture
  • At the end of the 2nd MB course, the student should be able to:
    • Choose correct statement regarding respect of dead body and specimen.
    • Choose correct statement regarding research ethics
    • Choose correct statement regarding informed consent
  • At the end of the 3rd MB course, the student should be able to:
    • Be aware of biomedical ethics
    • Safely handle infectious agents
    • Describe rational prescribing (NNT, RRR, APR)
    • Prescribe safely
    • Conduct appropriate bedside manner
    • Identify health care errors and their causes
  • At the end of the FP I course, the student should be able to describe:
    • code of conduct (medical/ethical)
    • serious medical misconduct
    • medical negligence (civil and criminal)
    • formation and function of MMC
    • professionalism
    • patient safety concepts
    • How to take Consent for post-mortem examination
    • Public health ethics and their importance
    • communication skills concerning specimen collection
    • Ethical principle of respect for the death
  • After the end of the Final Part II, the students should be able to:
    • Demonstrate effective and ethical communications skills in patient management
    • Be aware of patient safety concepts & ethical principles in clinical management decision making and ethical dilemmas
  • After the end of the internship, the candidates should be able to:
    • Apply patient safety concepts & ethical principles in clinical management decision making and ethical dilemmas

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Enrollment at Institutes of Higher Education". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  2. ^ "Health Statistics". Ministry of Health, Myanmar. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  3. ^ https://imed.faimer.org/details.asp?country=209&school=&currpage=1&cname=MYANMAR&city=&region=AS&rname=Asia&mcode=209020&psize=25
  4. ^ "Rectors". University of Medicine 1 Yangon. 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  5. ^ http://universityofmedicine1yangon.wordpress.com/2009/04/18/first-year/

External links[edit]