University of Michigan Health System

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University of Michigan Health System
University of Michigan Health System Logo
Motto Excellence and Leadership in Patient Care, Research and Education
Established 1850 (U-M Medical School)
1869 (University Hospital)
1997 (U-M Health System)
Type Public
Endowment $951 million (2006)
Academic staff 3,261
Admin. staff 18,923
Location Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Campus 128 acres (0.58 km²)
Nickname UMHS, U-M Health System

The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. UMHS includes the U-M Medical School, with its Faculty Group Practice and many research laboratories; the U-M Hospitals and Health Centers, which includes University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital, 120 outpatient clinics and approximately 40 health centers; the clinical programs of the U-M School of Nursing; and the activities of the Michigan Health Corporation, through which UMHS partners with other medical centers and hospitals to provide specialized care throughout Michigan.

In June 2014, the University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers projected that it will end its 2014 fiscal year with an operating margin of 0.7 percent ($17 million) on revenues of $2.52 billion. In 2015, the Hospitals and Health Centers will aim to achieve an operating margin of 3 percent on revenues of about $2.66 billion. As a not-for-profit entity, UMHS uses positive operating margins to fund continued advances in patient care, education, research, and the facilities needed to support these functions.[1]

Overview[edit]

UMHS East Campus

Hospital and outpatient care[edit]

UMHS provides a broad range of care, with specialized centers for Alzheimer's disease, cancer, cardiovascular care, depression, diabetes, epilepsy, geriatrics, organ transplant, pediatrics, trauma/burn, vision, and women’s health research and care. Its hospitals have 1,000 licensed beds. As a tertiary care center, UMHS has 179 intensive care unit (ICU) beds, giving it one of the highest number of ICU beds in the country.[citation needed]

UMHS is also a high-volume surgical center with a total of 66 operating rooms. The construction of the $523 million Children and Women's Hospital and the $132 million Eye Center expansion added 18 operating rooms to the Health System for a total of 82 operating rooms. Outpatient care is provided at the main medical campus in Ann Arbor and at numerous satellite locations.[2]

More than 1.8 million outpatient and emergency visits, 45,000 hospital stays, 49,000 surgeries and 4,000 births take place each year at facilities operated by the Hospitals and Health Centers unit of UMHS, including the University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Women’s Hospital and the A. Alfred Taubman Health Care Center.[3]

The University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers unit has nearly 26,000 employees, including 4,600 nurses.[2] The Michigan Visiting Nurses, a wholly owned part of the Michigan Health Corporation, provides a broad range of home care services in a 13-county area of southeastern Michigan. These include home nursing, specialty treatments, therapy and palliative care. It also provides public and employer-based immunization services.

From 1986 to 2006, the Health System included M-CARE, a managed care organization that provided health plans to University faculty, staff, retirees and dependents, and to employees of companies throughout Michigan. In late 2006, due to rapidly changing conditions in the health plan climate and the need for the Health System to focus on its core missions of patient care, research and education, it sold M-CARE to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and its Blue Care Network subsidiary.

Survival Flight[edit]

In 1983, the University of Michigan Health System established a medical flight service called Survival Flight, the first of its type in the state. The service operates total of four aircraft, three American Eurocopter EC155 B1 helicopters and one Cessna Citation Encore fixed wing twin engine jet.[4] These Eurocopters began service replaced Bell 430 which were used from 1998 until 2012. For its first ten-years, the service flew American Eurocopter AS355 Twinstar craft. It replaced them in 1993 with Bell 230 craft that remained in service for five years.

The three helicopters and one jet make 1000 to 1500 trips annually and have a range of over 400 mi (640 km) from UMHS. The flights transport 800 to 1000 patients per year with the remainder of the trips for the transport of human organs. The jet also transported victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake for treatment in the United States.[5][6]

Survival Flight has an excellent safety record and intense maintenance program. The aero-medical aviation sector has a high accident rate per hour flown due to their requirement to operate in almost all types of weather conditions and due to urgent transportation needs. Survival Flight has only suffered one crew and equipment loss. On June 4, 2007, a Cessna 550 Citation II provided by Marlin Air, Inc. plunged into lake Michigan after experience a "trim runaway" problem. In September 2008, a legal settlement was reached by University of Michigan and Marlin Air, Inc. after a lawsuit was filed because the university terminated its contract for air medical transportation services. Results of the NTSB investigation placed blame on the deficiencies and inadequate checkrides instituted by the chief pilot of Marlin Air, Inc., cited an "ill-prepared pilot in the first officer's seat.", and also placed blame on the FAA's inability to detect such training and operational deficiencies. In 2009, Survival Flight once again began to operate fixed-wing service in a new Cessna Citation Encore out of KPTK airport in Waterford, Michigan and in 2013 moved fixed-wing operations to KOZW airport in Howell, Michigan. The new Cessna Citation Encore's extended operability allows Survival Flight to provide aeromedical evacuation "as far away as the Caribbean and Mexico."

Medical school[edit]

University of Michigan Medical Center

All 1,650 physicians who are part of the U-M Medical School Faculty Group Practice hold faculty positions. Patients at many hospitals and clinics in southeastern Michigan also receive U-M physicians' care through affiliations with other health institutions, including the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System.

A total of 683 medical students, 1,010 interns and residents, 503 graduate students and 482 postdoctoral research fellows are currently in training at the Medical School, and more than 15,000 practicing physicians and health professionals receive continuing medical education through U-M courses each year. In addition to the M.D. program and post-M.D. residency and fellowship Graduate Medical Education programs, the U-M Medical School offers master's degree, Ph.D. and post-Ph.D. training in the basic sciences through the Program in Biomedical Sciences (PIBS) and the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

The VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System is affiliated with the U-M Medical School. All physicians who practice at VA hospital and clinics have U-M faculty appointments. Medical students receive training at the VA as part of their internal medicine rotation, but can also receive training there in other specialties as part of other rotations and elective rotations.

Affiliations with Other Organizations[edit]

To address the changing environment under health care reform, the University of Michigan Health System has developed affiliations with other regional health systems.

  • In May 2012, the University of Michigan Health System and Trinity Health, headquartered in Livonia, Michigan signed a master affiliation agreement promoting close cooperation between the two health systems and prioritizing University of Michigan hospitals as Trinity Health's academic partner.[7]
  • In August 2012, the University of Michigan Health System announced that it was in negotiations with MidMichigan Health to acquire a minority ownership position in the four-hospital health system headquartered in Midland, Michigan.[8] The partnership was finalized in June, 2013.[9]
  • In December 2013, the University of Michigan Health System and Allegiance Health in Jackson, Michigan announced that they had signed a letter of intent for Allegiance to become absorbed by the University of Michigan. It is expected that the arrangement may take 18 months to finalize.[10]

Development and expansion[edit]

In 2005, the university unveiled a development master-plan for the medical campus and satellite campuses that is expected to add 3,000,000 sq ft (280,000 m2) to the existing 5,600,000 sq ft (520,000 m2).[11]

  • The Master Plan identifies 3 sites for future growth and construction:
    • The main 84-acre (340,000 m2) campus of the University of Michigan Health System.
    • The Wall Street district across the Huron River from the main campus, currently housing the Kellogg Eye Center.
    • A 200-acre (0.81 km2) plot owned by UMHS just east of Ann Arbor, currently housing outpatient centers for geriatrics, psychiatry, and ambulatory surgery.

W.K. Kellogg Eye Center and Brehm Center for Diabetes Research[edit]

The W.K. Kellogg Eye Center is the home of the University of Michigan Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, part of the Medical School and U-M Health System. The Kellogg Eye Center has 64 clinical faculty and 21 research faculty (including nine endowed professorships), 21 residents, 17 research fellows, and 11 clinical fellows. The Department of Ophthalmology was established in 1872 and has served patients at least as early as 1904, when there were 1,400 patient visits to the Eye & Ear Ward. The Kellogg Eye Center opened in 1985; in that year, there were 36,852 visits to the center. In 2011, there were 140,104 patient visits and over 5,783 surgical procedures performed. The Kellogg Eye Center has community clinics in Ann Arbor, Brighton, Canton, Livonia, Milford, West Bloomfield, and Ypsilanti. Eye Center residents also staff the VA Ophthalmology Clinic at the Veterans Affairs Hospital in Ann Arbor.[12]

The expanded W.K. Kellogg Eye Center and new Brehm Center for Diabetes Research opened in March 2010. The $132 million expansion project built the Brehm Tower, an eight-story 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2) research and clinical building expands space for the Kellogg Eye Center by 50 percent. The Eye Center is located on the tower's six lower floors, and while the Brehm Center is housed on the upper two floors, which have advanced Type 1 diabetes research laboratories.[13][14] (Diabetes can cause vision loss).[15] The tower includes nine eye clinics, six operating rooms, and new refractive surgery and cosmetic surgery suites, as well as facilities for support services such as genetic counseling, ophthalmic photography, diagnostic visual electrophysiological testing,[16] and ocular prosthetics. The tower also houses a library, optical shop, and café. The Eye Center has 20 research laboratories in the new building and in the adjoining research tower.[12] Parts of the former three-building facility, including a converted nursing home and geriatric center, may be demolished and turned into a parking lot. In 2010, U-M reported that it expected to add around 100 jobs over the next five to seven years for the new facility.

The tower is named after Virginia philanthropists Delores S. (Dee) and William K. Brehm, who donated $44 million to the University in November 2004, of which around $30 million was dedicated for the Brehm Tower project.[15]

C. S. Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital[edit]

The new facility for the C. S. Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital, opened in December 2011 following the completion of a $754 million, five-year construction project. It is one of the largest children's hospitals in the United States.[17][18] The hospital is 1,100,000 sq ft (100,000 m2) and consists of a 12-story inpatient wing and a nine-story outpatient wing. There are 348 beds, including 50 maternity rooms and 46 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) rooms. The expansion increases the number of beds at the hospital by 75 percent and makes the hospital the largest of Michigan's three children's hospitals. Every inpatient room is private, in contrast to the old facility, which had mostly double occupancy rooms.[19] The new hospital has 16 operating rooms and two interventional radiology rooms.[20][21] The first Women's Hospital opened in 1950, while the original C.S. Mott Children's Hospital opened in 1969 and traces its origin to a small ward for sick children that began in 1903.[22]

The new hospital was the most expensive building project in University of Michigan history and one of the most expensive construction projects in state history. Of the $754 million cost, the university financed $588 million through tax-exempt bonds, $91 million through cash reserves from hospital operations, and $75 million through fundraising.[19][23]

The C. S. Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital employs about 4,000 people and is gradually hiring 500 more now that the hospital expansion is complete.[24]

Major projects in development[edit]

Finally, UMHS has four major projects that are currently in development:

  • Cardiovascular Research Building: To complement the recently completed clinical facility.
  • Musculoskeletal Center: An orthopaedics hospital that will be located on the East Ann Arbor campus.
  • Emergency Department Facility: A free-standing emergency health center to be located in Brighton, MI.
  • Health Education Building: To house the Medical School's anatomy labs, classrooms, physical examination rooms, and the clinical simulation center.

Rankings[edit]

UMHS is considered one of the nation’s leading medical and research institutions and has received many awards and honors recognizing its advanced medical care, leading-edge biomedical research and broad range of educational activities.[25]

For 17 consecutive years through 2011, UMHS has been named to the "Honor Roll of America's Best Hospitals" compiled by U.S. News and World Report magazine.[26] In 2011, U.S. News and World Report ranked UMHS 14th in its honor roll and recognized it in 16 areas of specialized care.[27] The University of Michigan Health System ranks among the top hospitals, most notably in Ear, Nose, and Throat; Neurology and Neurosurgery; Orthopaedic Surgery; Heart and Heart Surgery; Cancer; Ophthalmology; and Urology.

The Medical School’s 2,492 faculty provide advanced medical and surgical care, and perform scientific research, while training young doctors and biomedical scientists. As of 2009, 163 chairs are endowed in the medical school. The Medical School is ranked 8th in the nation by U.S. News and World Report[28] and has the nation's 10th highest total of research funding from the National Institutes of Health, with NIH funding of $519 million in 2012 and a total annual research budget of more than $557 million.[29]

Main medical campus[edit]

The current medical campus complex includes facilities for the UM Medical School, which was founded in 1848 as the Department of Medicine and opened to students in 1850. The medical campus complex also includes the Hospitals and Health Centers, which trace their history back to the nation's first university owned and operated hospital which opened in 1869.

Today, the complex includes:

  • University Hospital is an 11-story structure that opened in 1986 and contains 794 beds. The facility is home to adult inpatient medical, surgical, and psychiatric care; 33 operating rooms; the Adult Emergency Department; and diagnostic facilities for adult and some pediatric patients. It also includes large outpatient and inpatient pharmacies, clinical pathology labs, rehabilitation facilities, a cafeteria, a gift shop, a non-denominational chapel, an auditorium, numerous classrooms, and support functions including food preparation, sanitation and medical equipment maintenance. Home to the following specialty care programs and centers:
    • Level I Adult Trauma Center: Designated by the American College of Surgeons
    • Michigan Trauma-Burn Unit: Burn Center receiving the highest Level I designation by the American Burn Association[citation needed]
    • Michigan Transplant Center: One of the busiest transplant centers in the country; performed over 7,100 solid organ transplants since 1964
    • Michigan Comprehensive Epilepsy Center: Awarded highest designation by the National Association of Epilepsy Centers[citation needed]
    • Michigan Stroke Center: Designated Primary Stroke Center by the Joint Commission on Accreditation; featuring 6-bed Stroke Unit (opened in 2005) modeled on the European system of stroke care that has demonstrated positive patient outcomes
  • C.S. Mott Children's Hospital opened 2011 with 348 beds in the 12-story inpatient tower for children and adolescents including a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry unit, a 46-bed Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 12 operating rooms, diagnostic facilities, rehabilitation facilities, a gift shop, indoor and outdoor play areas, a classroom, and a chapel. This facility is attached to a 9-story outpatient clinic.[17]

The hospital is home to several world-renowned specialty centers:

    • Level I Pediatric Trauma Center: One of only 13 children's hospitals designated Level I; features the Sorini Children's Emergency Medicine Center, established by a $7 million gift from Dr. Ernest Sorini.
    • Michigan Congenital Heart Center: International referral center; widely regarded as best congenital heart center in the US; conducts 850 heart operations and 600 heart catheterizations per year.
    • Brandon (formerly Holden) Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: 46-bed facility, one of the largest neonatal ICU's in the country. **Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO): Technology developed at U-M; provides temporary heart and lung assistance in the intensive care setting. Approximately 90-130 patients undergo ECMO treatment at UMHS per year, many of them flown to the Health System from across the country by the UMHS Survival Flight program.
    • Pediatric Liver Transplant Program: One of the largest programs in the nation; provides children with cadaveric or live donor transplants.
    • Regional Infectious Containment Unit: A special 32-bed unit that occupies the top floor of the hospital. All beds will be negative pressure and will serve as an isolation unit in case pandemic, bioterrorism, or serious infectious crisis. One of the first units of its kind in the nation.
  • Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital Birth Center is a 50-bed facility that opened in 2011 as part of the new Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital. It handles nearly 4,000 normal and high-risk births each year at U-M, and for diagnostic care during pregnancy. Physicians from the departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Family Medicine, and U-M nurse-midwives, assist with births and birth-related care.
  • A. Alfred Taubman Health Care Center (Taubman center) opened in 1986. The four-story building is home to 120 specialty outpatient clinics and faculty offices for most clinical departments. Specialty clinics include: Otolaryngology, Dermatology, Neurology, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Radiology, Cardiac Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Vascular Surgery, Urology, General Surgery, Neurosurgery, Pediatric Otolaryngology, Rheumatology, General Medicine, Cardiology, Medical Genetics, Nephrology, Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Infectious Disease, Metabolism Endocrine and Diabetes. The Taubman Center includes the following specialty services:
    • Outpatient surgical suite
    • EKG / Echo suite
    • Allergy injection suite
    • Women's Health Resource Center
  • Comprehensive Cancer Center opened in 1997. Its nine-stories contain four floors dedicated to outpatient cancer care for adults and children, five floors for cancer research laboratories. The facility also features 77 clinic rooms, 42 chemotherapy infusion suites, 7 procedure rooms, 2 outpatient surgical suites, Mohs skin cancer unit, patient education center, cancer survivor art gallery. In 2006, the center received $82.5 million in research funding, making it the seventh in US in the number of National Cancer Institute (NCI) research awards. It is one of 39 programs in the country to earn the NCI's "comprehensive" designation and one of 17 centers in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.[citation needed] It consistently receives the NCI's "outstanding" designation and recently established a premier Phase I Clinical Trials and Translational Research Program. The new $523 million Children's Hospital contains a wing dedicated to cancer care, adding 64 Bone Marrow Transplantation rooms for adult and pediatric patients. The expansion will give the U-M Cancer Center one of the largest Bone Marrow Tranplantation programs in the country. In addition to treatment clinics for all types of cancer, the Cancer Center has several multi-disciplinary clinics:
    • Adrenal Cancer Clinic, considered the top adrenal cancer program in the country, sees 10-15 adrenal cancer patients per week, making UMHS the highest volume referral center in the US for this rare disease. It has the nation's first Endowed Professorship for Adrenal Cancer donated by Bo Schembechler on behalf of his wife, Millie, in May 2007. The Garry Betty Scholars Program was inaugurated following a generous donation by the former Atlanta-based EarthLink CEO who traveled to UMHS for treatment of his adrenal cancer. The center also houses the following clinics:
    • Pre-cancerous Gynecologic Clinic
    • Cancer Genetics
    • Fertility Counseling and Gamete Cryopreservation Program (FCGCP)
    • Long Term Follow-Up Clinic
    • Psych Oncology Clinic
  • Cardiovascular Center is a five-story, 48-bed facility that opened in 2007 on the site of the "Old Main" hospital that operated from 1925 to 1986. The CVC clinical building is home to inpatient and outpatient care for adults with cardiovascular disease. Construction cost exceeds $215 million. It includes 8 operating rooms, 11 suites for interventional procedures, 36 outpatient clinic rooms, 48 inpatient beds including a 24-bed intensive care unit, a diagnostic suite, a 150-seat auditorium, cafe and indoor "winter garden" atrium. The facility also provides faculty offices for cardiology, cardiovascular surgery, and vascular surgery in order to promote collaboration between the fields and will provide a new umbrella for the world-famous U-M Congenital Heart Center and U-M Scleroderma Center. This facility is Phase I of the Cardiovascular Center project.[30] Phase II will be a research facility that is currently in the planning stages. In June 2007, the university received a $50 million anonymous donation earmarked for the facility and for future programs. The new heart hospital, believed to be the first of its kind in the country, will bring the following programs among others into one facility:
    • Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Center
    • Center for Circulatory Support
    • Heart Failure Center
    • Heart Transplant Center
    • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Clinic
    • Multidisciplinary Aortic Program
    • Peripheral Arterial Disease Program
    • Congenital Heart Center
    • Venous Health Program
    • Women's Heart Program
  • W.K. Kellogg Eye Center is located on Wall Street, across the Huron River from the main medical campus and opened in 1985. The world-famous Kellogg Eye Center houses outpatient clinics, surgical suites, and research laboratories in one facility and is home to all adult and pediatric eye care at U-M, and is one of the largest vision research centers in the world. Eye center includes an ophthalmic photography service, an optical shop, a cafe, a library, faculty offices and research facilities that includes 16 laboratories. Its operating budget of $30 million per year which including $10 million dedicated to basic science and clinical vision research. Kellogg has very active research component with various clinical trials for age-related macular degeneration, cornea and external disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, and retinal disease. In 2006, Kellogg ophthalmologists saw 128,000 patients and conducted 5,600 surgeries. An eight-story, $132 million expansion, opened in 2010, houses all-new clinic space, surgical and procedure suites, and space for the Brehm Center for Type 1 Diabetes Research and Analysis. It is named for William and Dee Brehm who donated $44 million toward the building. As a comprehensive eye center, Kellogg has the following sub-specialty clinics:
    • Comprehensive Ophthalmology
    • Contact Lens Fitting and Dispensing
    • Cornea, Cataract and Refractive Surgery
    • Emergency Eye Care
    • Eye Plastic and Orbital Surgery
    • Glaucoma and Cataract
    • LASIK
    • Low Vision and Visual Rehabilitation
    • Neuro-Ophthalmology
    • Optical Shop
    • Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus
    • Retina, Uveitis, and Ocular Oncology
  • Med Inn Building opened 1953 and was renovated most recently in 2006. It houses 30 hotel rooms on five-stories to accommodate families of patients in the intensive care units of the hospitals, or have other special needs. The building also houses support facilities for multidisciplinary programs, including:
    • General Clinical Research Center outpatient facility for people taking part in clinical trials
    • Michael S. Aldrich Sleep Disorders Laboratory
    • Center for Interventional Pain Medicine
    • Vestibular Testing and Vertigo Management Programs
    • Phototherapy and Psoriasis clinics of the Department of Dermatology
    • Chemotherapy Infusion Unit
    • Skills Lab for education for cancer patients
    • Symptom Management and Supportive Care Center
  • Taubman Health Sciences Library (Taubman Medical Library) is a five-story building opened in 1980. It is home to one of the nation's largest and finest medical collections, including historical and rare-book collections. Operated by the U-M Library division and open to all it also houses the Learning Resource Center, a major facility for medical students' learning experience.
  • Towsley Center for Continuing Medical Education opened in 1969. The two-story, 52,200-square-foot (4,850 m2) conference center includes two large auditoriums and smaller classrooms, as well as a Medical Simulation Center for training medical professionals in performing procedures and laparoscopic surgeries. More than 15,000 physicians and others receive training here each year. The building is also home to offices of the Department of Medical Education.
  • The A. Alfred Taubman Biomedical Science Research Building (BSRB) at 109 Zina Pitcher Place houses biomedical research facilities.[31] The BSRB opened in February 2006 and is around 472,000 sq ft (43,900 m2)[32] The $220 million building occupies a site 415 ft (126 m) by 200 ft (61 m) and is 100 ft (30 m) high. It is the largest research facility on campus and covers an entire city block. The design has been described as "striking...emphasizing light and curves," with its south wall being a "curved, glass ribbon of office space... separated from the terra cotta- and metal-clad laboratory areas by a sky-lit atrium."[33] The building won a 2007 AIA Honor Award for architecture.[34]

The building contains six levels, including two partial levels, of research laboratories and offices, and features a basement, a two-levelvivarium space that includes an imaging core, surgery, behavioral testing suite, aquatics suite, and cage/rack washing facilities. It houses 144 faculty offices; 1,600 sq ft (150 m2) of divisible seminar room and break-out area; 16,000 sq ft (1,500 m2) of linear equipment space; alcoves for tissue culture, fume hoods, general bench space and lab entries.[32] The 240 lab modules in the building are grouped into six "neighborhoods" for geriatrics and biogerontology; immunology; cardiovascular science; cellular and molecular therapeutics; organogenesis; and neuroscience). The grouping of lab modules by scientific themes is a departure from traditional groupings by departrment.[33] The facility is also home of the internationally renowned Center for Organogenesis[35] and U-M Program for Neurology Research and Discovery (P-FUND).[36]

Construction planning by the New York City-based architectural firm of Polshek Partnership Architects.[37] began in 2001, with final design approval in 2002 and groundbreaking in April 2003.[32][33] The BSRB was named in honor of A. Alfred Taubman, the university's largest individual donor.[38]

Within the building is the 300-seat Kahn Auditorium, named for philanthropists D. Dan and Betty Kahn of Bloomfield Hills, who gave $6 million to the university for cardiovascular research. The auditorium is sometimes called "The Pringle" because of its resemblance to the brand of potato chips.[39]

The LSI consists of the laboratories of faculty members from a wide range of life science disciplines including biology, chemistry, pharmacology, bioinformatics, medicine, physiology, genetics and biochemistry. LSI faculty work in silico as well as with macromolecules, bacteria, yeast, worms, flies, mice, and humans. Every LSI faculty member has a joint appointments with a U-M schools or college. Appointments span 16 different departments and include the Medical School, College of Pharmacy, and College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

LSI consists of three centers: The Center for Structural Genomics (structural genomics), Center for Stem Cell Biology (stem cell research), and Center for Structural Biology (structural biology). LSI also have several scientific cores: The DNA Sequencing Core (DNA sequencing), the Flow Cytometry Core (flow cytometry), the Functional Genomic Core (functional genomics), the Metabolic Phenotyping Core, the Vivarium (36,000 sq ft (3,300 m2) for small animals and fish), the NMR Suite (nuclear magnetic resonance), and the Cryo-Electron Microscopy Laboratory (cryo-electron microscopy).[41] In 2007, the Life Sciences Institute entered into a research partnership with Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.[42]

The LSI was established in 2000 and the current six-story structure was completed in 2003 at cost of $100 million. It is part of a three-building facility that houses 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2) of wet bench / dry lab / core facility research space and can accommodate 25-30 faculty-led research teams. The other buildings include the 99,000 sq ft (9,200 m2) Palmer Commons, housing a conference/meeting center and Bioinformatics Program, and the 140,000 sq ft (13,000 m2) Undergraduate Science Building containing classrooms and conference facilities.

  • The Medical Science I (MedSci I) and Medical Science II (MedSci II) Buildings opened in 1958 and 1969, respectively. Together, they house the Medical School, UMHS administrative offices, research laboratories and faculty offices. MedSci II is the main classroom facility for medical student education.
  • The three Medical Science Research Buildings are designated MSRB I, MSRB II and MSRB III and opened, respectively, in 1986, 1989, and 1995. These buildings are home to basic research laboratories and shared "core" facilities for U-M biomedical researchers. MSRB I became home to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) offices at the University of Michigan after the university was chosen to be one of 12 HHMI sites in the country in 2008.[43]
  • The 11-story North Ingalls Building previously housed St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, which moved to a new facility in 1977. The university purchased the building that year and it now houses administrative offices for several clinical departments and the U-M Hospitals & Health Centers, including the University of Michigan School of Nursing
  • The University of Michigan School of Public Health was established in 1941. It is currently home to top-rated clinical research programs in five academic departments: Biostatistics, Environmental Health Science, Epidemiology, Health Behavior and Health Education, and Health Management and Policy. The school is one of two lead institutions in the Finland-United States Investigation of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Genetics (FUSION) study group that recently discovered 4 new genes causing Type II Diabetes.[citation needed]

In 2007, it ranked as the number-five Public Health School in the United States by US News and has ranked first in Health Management every year since 1993.[citation needed] In fall 2006, the school completed construction on its seven-story Crossroads and Research Tower. The 125,000 sq ft (11,600 m2) building houses 17 conference rooms and 133 laboratory benches. The facility also houses the U-M Autism and Communication Disorders Center, a leading center in the clinical treatment of autism as well as autism genetics research.

North Campus Research Complex[edit]

In 2009, the University of Michigan acquired the 174-acre (0.70 km2) former Pfizer facility with 28-buildings and created the North Campus Research Complex. The complex was adjacent to the North Campus and occupied land that the University sold to pharmaceutical manufacturer Parke-Davis in 1957. In 1970, Warner-Lambert acquired Parke-Davis and in 2000, it was purchased by Pfizer.[44]

Though located off-campus, SWOG (formerly the Southwest Oncology Group) is considered part of the Research Campus. SWOG is a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported organization that conducts clinical trials in adult cancer treatments and preventatives.[45]

Ann Arbor Satellite facilities[edit]

  • The East Ann Arbor Health and Geriatrics Center opened in 1996 and houses outpatient clinics for general internal medicine, general pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, and the primary and specialty care services of the Turner Geriatric Clinic.
  • The Rachel Upjohn Building, adjacent to the Geriatrics Center, opened in 2006 and combines all outpatient psychiatric and substance abuse care for adults and children into one facility. The 112,000 square feet (10,400 m2) building houses 335 offices/outpatient treatment rooms, a 120-seat auditorium and two telemedicine offices to assist patients living in remote areas as well as space for the research, education, and administrative programs of the U-M Depression Center, a library and art gallery.[46] The facility is named for Rachel Mary (Upjohn) Meader, who with her husband Edwin gave $10 million toward the building's construction. The facility also is home to:
    • Sleep Research Center
    • MRI Simulator
    • Brain Imaging Center
    • Stress and Neuroendocrine Program[47]
  • The Ice Cube houses the Sports Medicine Program in a facility in southwestern Ann Arbor. The program was established by Gerald A. O'Connor, professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at U-M and past president of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and is operated by the Sports Medicine Division of Orthopedic Surgery. The program is one of the premier Sports Medicine programs in the country and attracts patients from across the US. MedSport Physicians serve as the team physicians for the U-M Athletic Department and several area high school sports teams.[48]
  • The East Ann Arbor Ambulatory Surgery and Medical Procedures Center, located near Geriatrics and Depression centers, opened in 2006. The $30 million outpatient surgical facility houses six operating rooms and four medical procedure suites. The facility help meet the increasing demand for U-M outpatient surgical services.[49]

Other satellite facilities[edit]

In addition to the above, UMHS operates outpatient surgery and health centers in other areas of Ann Arbor, as well as the neighboring communities of Brighton, Canton, Chelsea, Dexter, Howell, Livonia, Saline and Ypsilanti. Among the Ann Arbor facilities are an Orthotics & Prosthetics Center, a Spine Program facility, and other facilities in the community. U-M emergency medicine physicians staff the emergency rooms at several local hospitals, and U-M physicians provide specialized services at other hospitals for patients with specific cardiovascular issues, cancer and other diseases.[50]

  • Outreach clinics - Among the clinics that UMHS operates alone or in conjunction with other entities are the New Hope Outreach Clinic operated by the Geriatrics Center at the New Hope Baptist Church in Ann Arbor, and the Regional Alliance for Healthy Schools clinics for low-income children and teens at Scarlett Middle School and Stone High School in Ann Arbor, and East Middle School in Ypsilanti.
  • The VA Ann Arbor Health Care System opened in 1953 and underwent $150 million expansion in 1998. The 145-bed facility houses a surgical suite containing 9 operating rooms. In 2011, the facility conducted 455,000 outpatient visits to veterans in 15 Michigan counties and portions of Indiana, northern Ohio.[51] The hospital has an annual research budget of $10.6 million and all physicians are faculty of U-M Medical School.[citation needed] It is home to several award winning programs and initiatives, including:
    • One of only 15 VA Medical Centers designated as a "Center of Excellence" by the Department of Veterans Affairs[citation needed]
    • Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research evaluates outcomes of alternative treatments and monitors quality measures
    • Serves as Research Coordinating Center for the national Quality Enhancement Research Initiative - Diabetes Mellitus (QUERI-DM)
    • Home to Center for Behavioral and Decision Sciences in Medicine (CBDSM), a collaboration with U-M Medical School

Institutional milestones[edit]

  • 1848 The Board of Regents establishes a three-member medical department, known today as the U-M Medical School.
  • 1850 The Medical School opens its doors to more than 100 students. They are charged $5 a year for two years of education.
  • 1852 Ninety young physicians receive medical diplomas from the U-M.
  • 1867 Overall University enrollment reaches an all-time high of 1,255 students; 525 of the students are enrolled in the Medical School.
  • 1869 U-M opens the first university-owned medical facility in the United States. The 20-bed hospital is located in the residence of a former professor. It has no wards or operating rooms.
  • 1875 U-M adds two wooden pavilions to the hospital. The structure is designed to be "easily burned down in 10 years because it would be badly infected," according to one physician of the time.
  • 1880 The Medical School adopts a three-year curriculum, introduces laboratory instruction and assigns grades for the first time.
  • 1890 U-M adopts the four-year medical school program still in use today.
  • 1891 A new hospital on Catherine Street replaces the old Campus Pavilion Hospital.
  • 1899 The Medical School introduces the clinical clerkship. The breakthrough is made possible by the fact that the U-M owns its own hospital (privately owned hospitals would not allow medical students to touch their patients).
  • 1900 The U.S. medical community recognizes the Catherine Street Hospital as the largest teaching hospital in the country.
  • 1903 The 75-bed Palmer Ward for children opens in the Catherine Street Hospital.
  • 1906 The Department of Psychiatry] one of the nation's first such academic departments, is established.
  • 1912 The U-M establishes the nation's first Department of Dermatology.
  • 1913 U-M researchers introduce the electrocardiogram (EKG) to American physicians.
  • 1921 U-M establishes Pediatrics as an independent department, strengthening the University's focus on children.
  • 1922 U-M Pediatrician David Murray Cowie introduces iodized salt as a goiter preventive.
  • 1925 The University Hospital (also known as the Main Hospital) replaces the Catherine Street Hospital. University Hospital is a 700-bed facility designed to meet the needs of advanced patient care and medical education.
  • 1928 University Hospital offers the first physician training program in thoracic surgery. Four years later, U-M physicians perform the world's first successful lung removal.
  • 1939 The Neuropsychiatric Institute opens, adjacent to the main hospital.
  • 1940 U-M creates the first human genetics program in the United States.
  • 1941 The Board of Regents authorizes the establishment of the nation's first hereditary diseases clinic at University Hospital.
  • 1950 The U-M Women's Hospital opens its doors.
  • 1955 The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital opens.
  • 1956 James Neel creates the first department of human genetics at a medical school in the United States.[52]
  • 1968 U-M physicians perform the first heart transplant in Michigan at University Hospital.
  • 1969 C.S. Mott Children's Hospital opens as the U-M's first separate children's hospital.
  • 1972 U-M builds the James and Lynelle Perinatal Holden Hospital (now called the Holden Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) to care for premature and critically ill infants.
  • 1976 U-M establishes the W.K. Kellogg Eye Center. The 32-bed facility provides patient care, education and research in eye diseases. Today, Kellogg is an outpatient facility.
  • 1986 A new 11-story, 550-bed adult general University Hospital replaces the old University Hospital. The A. Alfred Taubman Health Care Center, which houses 120 outpatient clinics, is connected to the facility. M-CARE, a managed care organization offering health plans to University staff and faculty, and to employers in southern Michigan, is launched.
  • 1990 The expansion of the U-M Hospitals continues with the opening of integrated services for children and women in 221,000 square feet (20,500 m2) of new space and renovated units in existing hospitals.
  • 1997 The Board of Regents officially approves "University of Michigan Health System" as a designation for the U-M Hospitals and Health Centers, Medical School, M-CARE and Michigan Health Corp. Also this year, the U-M moves its cancer and geriatrics clinical and research programs into the $88 million Cancer Center and Geriatrics Center Building, establishes the Center for Gene Therapy and enhances resources for the Center for Organogenesis.
  • 2001 The National Institutes of Health awards a record $203 million to the U-M. In addition, this year, the U-M establishes the nation's first comprehensive Depression Center.
  • 2003 The U-M breaks ground for a state-of-the-art clinical building for the Cardiovascular Center on the former site of the "Old Main" Hospital, to provide space for clinical care, research and teaching activities focused on the entire spectrum of cardiovascular disease. Also this year, the Medical School begins to implement a new curriculum that integrates biomedical, clinical, and psychosocial sciences with clinical skills and professionalism.
  • 2004 The largest gift ever given to the Health System, $44 million from Bill and Dee Brehm, is announced; it includes funds for the Brehm Center for Type 1 Diabetes Research and Analysis, a new Michigan Comprehensive Diabetes Center, faculty positions, and a research facility to be built as part of the expansion of the Kellogg Eye Center.
  • 2005 A new Master Plan and Strategic Direction for UMHS are introduced, forming a framework for continued growth to meet the new challenges of the health care and research environment. Additionally, a group of medical students inaugurate the "Giant Burrito Challenge," consisting of a race to finish the gargantuan namesake from Big Ten Burrito (now known as BTB Burrito).
  • 2006 The sale of M-CARE to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and its Blue Care Network is finalized. The East Ann Arbor Surgery and Medical Procedures Center, Rachel Upjohn Building (including the U-M Depression Center) and Biomedical Science Research Building open.
  • 2007 U-M and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan launch Michigan HealthQuarters, a joint venture formed after the sale of M-CARE as a "center for healthcare quality and transformation.” The U-M Cardiovascular Center opens in June and receives an anonymous $50 million donation.
  • 2010 U-M announces the creation of a stem-cell line—named UM4-6 -- joining fewer than 12 institutions nationally which have done so. This advance was made possible by Michigan voters’ November 2008 approval of a state constitutional amendment permitting scientists in Michigan to derive embryonic stem cell lines using surplus embryos from fertility clinics.
  • 2011 U-M announces the creation of two new stem lines. One line carries the genetic mutations that cause hemophilia B, a hereditary condition in which the blood does not clot properly while the second carries genes for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which leads to degeneration of muscles in the foot, lower leg and hand. U-M will submit these disease-specific lines to the National Institutes of Health to be placed on the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry. Researchers across the country will be able to use the lines for federally funded research.[53][54]

Notable alumni and faculty[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]