University of Michigan Library
|University of Michigan Library|
|Location||Ann Arbor, Michigan|
|Size||12.25 million volumes (University Library)
13.36 million volumes (all campus libraries)
136,810 current serials
The University of Michigan Library ranks in the top ten largest libraries in the United States. As of 2011-12, the University Library contained more than 12.25 million volumes, while all campus library systems combined held more than 13.36 million volumes. The Library also held 136,810 current serials, and over 4.42 million annual visits.
Founded in 1838, the University Library is the university's main library and is housed in 12 buildings, with more than 20 libraries, among the most significant of which are the Shapiro Undergraduate Library, Hatcher Graduate Library, Special Collections Library, and Taubman Health Sciences Library. However, several U-M libraries are independent of the University Library: the Bentley Historical Library, the William L. Clements Library, the Gerald R. Ford Library, the Kresge Business Administration Library of the Ross School of Business, and the Law Library of the University of Michigan Law School. The University Library is also separate from the libraries of the University of Michigan–Dearborn (Mardigian Library) and the University of Michigan–Flint (Frances Willson Thompson Library and Genesee Historical Collections Center).
UM was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics. In December 2004, the University of Michigan announced a book digitization program in collaboration with Google (known as Michigan Digitization Project), which is both revolutionary and controversial. Books scanned by Google are included in HathiTrust, a digital library created by a partnership of major research institutions.
Responding to restricted public funding and the rising costs of print materials, the Library has launched significant new ventures that use digital technology to provide cost-effective and permanent alternatives to traditional print publication. This includes access to print on demand books via the Library's Espresso Book Machine. The University Library is also an educational organization in its own right, offering a full range of courses, resources, support, and training for students, faculty, and researchers.
The University Librarian and Dean of Libraries is James Hilton, whose term began on September 1, 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Collections
- 3 Challenges and opportunities
- 4 ARL rankings
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The Michigan Legislature creates the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor in 1838, and that year allocated funding for a library. The next year (three years before classes began), the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan acquired the University Library's first volume, John James Audubon's Birds of America, purchased at a cost of $970. (The book is now displayed in the Library Gallery's Audubon Room). Also in 1838, the university's first professor, Asa Gray (known as the "father of American botany"), was entrusted with a $5,000 budget to establish the first collection of books for the University Library; he purchased 3,400 volumes.
Before the university's first years, books were stored in various places around campus, including at the Law School and in various professors' homes. In 1956, the North Wing of the University Building was remodeled, and books centralized in the University's Library and Museum there. In 1863, the Library moved to the Law Building. In 1883, the university's first library building was completed, although within twelve years of its construction the building was already too small for the growing collection. Between 1870 and 1940 the collection grew rapidly, from 17,000 to 941,500.
In 1890, the University Library inaugurated a handwritten card catalog system, which later changed to typed cards and, after 1900, to printed cards from the Library of Congress. By 1895, the Library's overcrowding problem had become acute, and President James Burrill Angell told the Regents that "The embarrassment, to which I have called attention in previous reports, arising from the crowded condition of the Library, of course grows more serious every year."
In 1900, the library established "caged areas in the stacks to protect books of exceptional value," become one of the first rare book rooms to be established in America. By 1905, student borrowing privileges had become established, a shift from the early restricted-circulation model in which students needed a faculty member's permission to check books out of the Library. In 1911, the Detroit anarchist Joseph Labadie donated his personal library to the university, establishing the nucleus of the what became of the Labadie Collection, the oldest collection of radical-left history materials in the world.
By 1915, the overcrowded, wood-constructed General Library was designated a fire hazard by the Board of Regents. After this, a new building was finally constructed. Designed by architect Albert Kahn, the library building (which is today the north building of the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library) was dedicated on January 7, 1920. The same year, Professor Francis W. Kelsey (who founded the university's Kelsey Museum of Archaeology) added 617 ancient Egyptian papyri to the university's holdings, beginning the University of Michigan Papyrus Collection, which became the largest in the Americas.
By 1940, the University Library's card catalog has 2,000 trays and 1.75 million cards. A post-World War II boom in enrollment, fueled by the G.I. Bill, further strained the Library's crowding problems as the library continued to expand. In 1947, the Library took over collection development responsibilities, replacing the old system in which each academic department selected and purchases books and journals. In 1948, the Library established its Far Eastern Library (renamed the Asia Library in 1959) of materials from China, Japan, and Korea; the Asian Library is now the largest collection of East Asian resources in North America.
In 1970, an eight-story addition was built, where much of the print collections are housed, along with the Library's administration offices, the Map Library, Special Collections, and Papyrology. In 1959 the Shapiro Undergraduate Library was built, with a policy of open access to the stacks for students. In years to come the principle of access to materials would become the standard and goal for all libraries and initiatives.
Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library
The Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library is the university's the primary research collection for the humanities and social sciences. It contains over 3.5 million volumes and over 10,000 periodicals written in more than 300 languages. Commonly cited collecting strengths of the Graduate Library include English and French history, papyrology, Germanic history and culture, classical archeology, military history, English Literature, social and political movements. In addition, these general stacks collections are supported by strong holdings in United States and foreign government documents, a significant collection of maps and cartographic materials, a comprehensive collection of publications written in East Asian languages, manuscripts and special collections, over 1.5 million items in microformat, and a strong collection of reference and bibliographic sources.
A number of units are physically located in the Hatcher Library or are organizationally associated with the Hatcher Library. These include:
Click here for an audio walking tour of the Graduate Library.
The Asia Library is located on the fourth floor of Hatcher Graduate Library (North). It is one of the largest collections of East Asian materials in North America, as of June 2012 holds some 785,000 volumes of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean monographs, 2,100 currently received serials, and 80,000 titles of materials in microform, and a large number of electronic resources in all East Asian languages. The Asia Library also has a reference room with essential reference materials, such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps, bibliographies, and indexes, in both East Asian and Western languages. The Asia Library launched its own website in April 1994, making it one of the first multilingual websites on East Asian studies.
Stephen S. Clark Library:
The Clark Library is the university's combined "map collection, government information center, and spatial and numeric data services" center. Its map collection is the largest in Michigan and one of the largest of any university, consisting of more than 370,000 maps and about 10,000 atlases and reference works. The map collection's holdings include a variety of cartographic materials, including maps, atlases, gazetteers, geographical dictionaries, and other reference works. Among the highlights of the collection are Abraham Ortelius's 1570 Americae sive novi Orbis, nova Descriptio, an early map of the Americas; Giambattista Nolli's 1798 Nuova Pianta di Roma, a map of Rome; Giovanni Battista Piranesi's 1746 Plan of the Course of the Tiber, a plan of the Tiber River commissioned by Pope Benedict XIV; a 1809 pocket globe, and Guillaume Coutans's 1880 Tableau Topographique des Environs de Paris. The Library is storing and preserving digitized version of their maps in a new digital collection. The collection currently contains over 100 maps.
The Clark Library Government Information Collection serves as a center for government documents. The university is a Federal Depository Library for U.S. government documents, and is also the a depository for publications of the State of Michigan, government of Canada, United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and European Union. The University's collection of publications of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) are also held at the Clark Library. Highlights of the Government Information Collection include a full run of all U.S. congressional publications since 1789, all UN documents since 1946, and all U.S. Census documents since 1790.
The library's Spatial and Numeric Data Services (SAND) is housed at the Clark Library and on North Campus at SAND North in the Spatial Analysis Lab (room 2207) of the Art and Architecture Building. SAND assists in research, and "locates, acquires, and converts numeric and spatial data sets, especially social science data sets. SAND also supports the use of geographic information systems (GIS) software.
Special Collections Library
The Special Collections Library is "home to some of the most historically significant treasures at the University of Michigan." The collection is non-circulating, with many materials stored off-site and retrieved upon request. The Special Collections Library includes around 275,000 published volumes, as well as an estimated 6,500 linear feet of archival material, about 450 incunabula (pre-1501 books), and almost 1,400 early manuscripts on vellum and paper. The Special Collections Library also includes an estimated 20,000 posters and prints and 10,000 photographs. Notable strengths of the Special Collections Library include:
- History of astronomy and mathematics - includes hundreds of pre-1800 publications, including works by Copernicus, Kepler, and Euclid. The Library owns an original Galileo manuscript, a gift of Tracy W. McGregor in 1938; the manuscript is a draft of a Galileo letter to Leonardo Donato, doge of Venice, around August 1609, mentioning his discovery of four moons of Jupiter
- Children's literature - includes around 25,000 published volumes and a large amount of archival material "containing the artwork, correspondence, manuscripts, and other material created or collected by a number of notable authors and illustrators."
- Early manuscripts - includes over 250 medieval and Renaissance volumes, as well as individual leaves, many of religious topics. Among the most notable is a collection of 20 parchment leaves containing the works of Shenoute of Atripe. There is also a separate collection of around 1,250 Islamic manuscripts, written in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish and ranging from the 8th to the 20th centuries. This is considered "among the largest and most important such collections in North America."
- Heritage Edition of The Saint John's Bible - The Special Collections Library holds one of this rare reproductions, with calligraphy by Donald Jackson, on display on the eighth floor of the Hatcher Graduate Library.
- Joseph A. Labadie Collection - "One of the oldest and most comprehensive collections of radical history in the United States," including materials on anarchism, labor movements, civil liberties, socialism, communism, colonialism and imperialism, American labor history, the Industrial Workers of the World, and the Spanish Civil War.
- Worcester Philippine History Collection - This collection includes a variety of published works, manuscripts, and photographs on the history of the Philippines. The core of the collection is the extensive collection of material donated by Dean Conant Worcester to the university (his alma mater) in 1914. The collection is particularly strong in the period from 1899 and 1913, when Worcester served as a member of the Philippine Commission and the Philippines was governed by the Bureau of Insular Affairs.
- Transportation History Collections - This collection includes "thousands of volumes on railroad history, roads and automobile travel, bicycling, bridges, Hot air ballooning, canals, and steamships." Highlights include the records of the Lincoln Highway Association, the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company, and the Detroit United Railway; the papers of Charles Ellet, Jr.; a 27-volume photographic journal documenting the building of the Panama Canal; and "extensive graphic material depicting pre-20th century transportation."
- Theater, Radio, Television, and Film - The Special Collections Library holds various pre-19th century plays in various languages, including "numerous works from the Spanish Golden Age; early English plays including hundreds of editions of the works of Shakespeare, beginning with his Second Folio (1632); over 1,000 plays performed in French 'boulevard' theatres early in the 20th century; and several archival collections documenting American vaudeville and the 'Little Theatre' movement of the early 20th century." More contemporary highlights include two collections of papers acquired from a collaborator and a partner of Orson Welles, covering Welles' career in theater, radio, and film, and an extensive archive on the life and career of film director Robert Altman.
Jewish Heritage Collection
The Library's special collection on Jewish history and culture, from a gift made jointly to the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies and the University Library. Includes more than 1,500 books, 1,000 works of art (drawings, paintings, engravings, woodcuts, lithographs, and prints); 700 items of ephemera (cards, calendars, clippings, postcards, and mementoes); and some 200 objects, including both ritual objects (menorahs, groggers, yarmulkes, Challah covers, besamim) and other objects (toys, candles, serving trays).
Area Programs Library
The Area Programs Libraries consists of four divisions: Near East; Slavic, East European, and Eurasian; South Asia; and Southeast Asia Division.
- The Near East Division focuses on North Africa, Southwest Asia, Asia Minor, and Central Asia. As of 2013 the division had 597,507 monograph titles and 1,457 current serial titles. Represented are works in European languages (308,000 works), Arabic (174,427), Hebrew and Yiddish (55,477), Persian and Tajik (27,037), Turkish, Ottoman, or Turkic (32,136), and Kurdish (430).
- The Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Division focuses on Eastern Europe, Mongolia, modern Greece, and Russia and the post-Soviet states, including Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Notable holdings of the collection include: "Russian revolutionary movements, Russian and East European dissident writings, modern Armenian history and literature, rare books and archives focusing on the Silver Age of Russian literature, Southeast European travel literature, and serial publications of the East European academies." The division has some 600,000 items, including some 427,800 monographs, 3,900 current serials in vernacular languages; 405,000 titles in Western languages, and 16,500 non-print media items, including microform and electronic resources. There are 86 languages represented, with the best-represented being Russian (163,650 items), Serbo-Croatian (45,000 items), Polish (60,000); Czech and Slovak (30,000); Armenian (22,500 items); and Central Asian languages (15,800 items).
The Hatcher Graduate Library is connected by a skyway to the Shapiro Library Building, which houses three libraries:
- Shapiro Undergraduate Library (referred to by the student population, affectionately, as the UGLi) is located in the basement, first and second floors of the Shapiro Library Building. It is a popular study and meeting place for UM undergraduates, and has a solid, generalist collection of about 200,000 books and journals. The UGLi also offers a great many services to its students, including Course Reserves, Reference Services, and the Research Consultation Program, which features one-on-one research assistance. The Peer Information Counseling Program also is located in Shapiro, and allows students to get research advice from fellow undergraduates. Café Shapiro is an annual forum for students, nominated by their professors, to read their creative work in a casual, coffeehouse-style environment. The UGLi is also home to Bert's Café, which opened in February 2008. The café was donated by Bertram Askwith (LSA '31), who is also the donor of the Askwith Media Library.
- Shapiro Science Library is housed on the third and fourth floor of Shapiro and is the primary university research center for astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, natural resources, mathematics, physics, and statistics. The Shapiro Library contains over 400,000 print volumes and subscribes to over 2,000 journals.
- Askwith Media Library, formerly the Film and Video Library, was recently renamed and moved to the second floor of the Shapiro Library Building. The Askwith Media Library contains over 25,000 titles, including feature films, documentaries, and instructional programs available for checkout or on-site viewing. Especially strong in foreign, animated, and documentary film, Askwith serves the entertainment and instructional needs of the university community.
Other Central Campus libraries
The University Library contains collections that support the university's museums:
- The Fine Arts Library, located on the second floor of Tappan Hall (the History of Art building) serves the History of Art department, the University of Michigan Museum of Art, the Kelsey Museum of Archeology. It holds over 100,000 volumes on "history, theory, and criticism of the visual arts," including works on painting, drawing, sculpture, graphic arts, decorative arts, architectural history and photography.
- The Museums Library is located in the Ruthven Museums building. It holds more than 130,000 cataloged volumes, with a focus on taxonomy, botany, zoology, behavioral biology, paleontology, and anthropology.
- The Herbarium Library collection is housed in the University of Michigan Herbarium on Varsity Drive.
Taubman Health Sciences Library
One of the largest medical libraries in America with comprehensive collections in all facets of health care and medical research, the Taubman Health Sciences Library also has extensive online collections and is a member of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, a gateway for access to over a thousand medical libraries nationwide. The Taubman Health Sciences Library has recently introduced the Clinical Librarian Service for the growing information needs of health professionals within the University of Michigan Health System who cannot easily leave their units, clinics or health centers.
The Alfred Taubman Health Sciences Library Rare Book Room, located in Room 5919, contains rare volumes of significance to the history of medicine. Access is by appointment only. The Rare Book Room contains approximately 6,300 titles dating from 1470 to the early 20th century, consisting primarily of pre-1850 imprints. It includes 82 incunabula, 52 magical medical amulets, as well as medical fugitive sheets, manuscripts, letters, medical cartoons, medical portraits, medical illustrations, and medical artifacts. Particular strengths of the collection are early 19th-century American medical literature; anatomy; surgery; homeopathy; pharmacy and materia medica; obstetrics and gynecology; cardiology; pathology; and hernia treatment.
North Campus libraries
Two University Libraries are located on the UM North Campus: the Music Library and the Art, Architecture & Engineering Library. The Music Library is located on the third floor of the Earl V. Moore Music Building. The Music Library's collections feature extensive materials in performance, musicology, composition, theory, and dance. It also includes scores, serials, and sound and video recordings in many formats. The Art, Architecture & Engineering Library, located in the Duderstadt Center, features over 600,000 volumes, thousands of periodicals, and over 200 databases in the disciplines of art and design, architecture, engineering, and urban planning. The library has especially strong collections in early twentieth-century art and design, with many materials on the Bauhaus school, Le Corbusier, Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright.
There are also several collections that are affiliated with the university, but are not part of the University Library system. Two historical libraries are the Bentley Historical Library and the William L. Clements Library. The former is home of the University of Michigan's archives as well as the Michigan Historical Collections, while the latter houses original resources for the study of American history and culture from the 15th to the early 20th century. The Clements Library is believed to be the first stand alone rare books collection at a public university.
Other libraries include the Law School Library, the Ronald and Deborah Freedman Library of the Population Studies Center, and the Transportation Research Institute Library. The last library is one of the world's most extensive collections of literature on traffic safety. There is also a large number of independent departmental libraries, as well as small libraries in many student dormitories.
The only off-campus library in the University of Michigan system is the Biological Station Library. Its collection consists of over 16,000 cataloged volumes and more than 50 paper journals. It specializes in limnology, ornithology, ecology, systematics, taxonomy, and natural history. Located in Pellston, Michigan, near the northern tip of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the University of Michigan Biological Station is dedicated to education and research in field biology and environmental science.
Not considered an independent library, but nevertheless a key facility for the entire U-M library system, the Buhr Remote Shelving Facility stores in a preservation-sensitive environment over two million items too fragile or rarely-used to be kept in the main libraries.
Challenges and opportunities
Major activities of MPublishing include: "publishing monographs in print and electronic forms; hosting and publishing journals, with an emphasis on online, open-access formats; developing new digital publishing models with the potential to become community portals for wider knowledge sharing; creating permanent, accessible versions of faculty publications and related materials; publishing and copyright consultation and education; rights advocacy for University of Michigan authors; reissuing materials from our collections and our faculty in new forms (reprints, electronic editions)."
MPublishing hosts and helps operated 25 University of Michigan-based journals and scholarly conference proceedings in a variety of fields. It also operates Deep Blue, the university's institutional repository.
MPublishing operates several print-on-demand programs. The University of Michigan Faculty Reprints (FRS) returns out-of-print books written by university faculty back into circulation on an openly accessible and affordable basis, both online and in print. The library also has an Espresso Book Machine on the first floor of the Shapiro Undergraduate Library.
Since the early 1990s, the University of Michigan Library has been a leader among research libraries in efforts to digitize its vast collections. The Digital Library Production Service (DLPS) of the U-M Library oversees the digitization of Library materials, and the development of online access systems for these digitized materials. In furtherance of this goal, DLPS developed its own digital library software, called Digital Library Extension Service (DLXS), that provides a uniform interface for its digitized items. DLPS oversees the scanning and optical character recognition of about 5,000 texts per year, many of them rare, brittle, or delicate.
The Digital Library Production Service hosts many searchable digital collections. Among them are:
- The Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse, a collection of 54 Middle English texts variously digitized for the project by the university's Humanities Text Initiative and collected from University of Michigan faculty and texts provided by the Oxford Text Archive.
- The University of Michigan Historical Mathematics Collection, a collection of works of mathematics published in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
- Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS UM)
- American Verse Project
- Making of America
- Michigan County Histories and Atlases
- Middle English Compendium
DLPS is also affiliated with the Text Creation Partnership (TCP) to create searchable, full-text versions of works digitized in the Early English Books Online, Evans Early American Imprints, and the Eighteenth Century Collection Online projects. TCP, when its work is concluded, will have produced over 40,000 XML-encoded text files—making it one of the largest collections of its kind.
Google and HathiTrust
In December 2004 the University Library and Google announced their plans to digitize the over 7 million print volumes held by the Library. Especially old and fragile items, or items in special collections, will not be handled by Google; these the Library will scan itself. It is estimated that it will take approximately six years for Google to complete the scanning process; without Google, the U-M Library was on pace to have their entire collection scanned in about 1000 years. All costs for the project are borne by Google, and the company has developed special scanning technology to ensure that the books are not damaged during the process. All books that are out of copyright will be available for the public to read online; those still in copyright will be searchable, but only brief excerpts will be available to read. Copyright holders, such as publishers and authors, who do not want their books to be scanned can request to have their works excluded from the project, though the Library and Google both maintain that authors and publishers benefit from having their works digitized, since it will make them easier to find and will potentially bring more sales.
Though the project has been revolutionary, it is not without controversy. In September 2005 a lawsuit was filed against Google charging copyright infringement. The lawsuit is still pending, but the scanning goes on.
On June 6, 2007, twelve universities cooperating as the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) announced a new partnership with Google whose explicit goal was to offer a public, shared digital repository of all the open access content. That shared repository of library partners became HathiTrust. The University of Michigan, which developed the MBooks platform for its own digitized books, partnered with Indiana University and the CIC libraries and the University of California system to create governance and models for financial support. The partnership has grown to include more than 60 institutions.
Using a variety of metrics such as accessibility, materials expenditures, volumes held, and staff size, the Association for Research Libraries (ARL) has consistently ranked the UM library system among the top ten in the nation. Although Michigan ranks 8th among academic libraries as to total volumes held, it ranks 1st for unique titles held among all institutions reporting that statistic.
|Year||Volumes Held||Volumes Added Gross||Current Series||Total Expenditures||Total Staff||Investment Index Score||Investment Index Rank|
- Statistical Highlights | MLibrary
- Libraries, University of Michigan Library.
- Libraries & Archives, University of Michigan Library.
- DigitalKoans » Blog Archive » The Google Print Controversy: A Bibliography
- "EBM Locations: List View". OnDemandBooks.com. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- A Brief History of the University of Michigan Library
- Collections at the Graduate Library
- Department Directory of the Hatcher Graduate Library.
- About Asia Library, University of Michigan Library.
- Clark Library.
- Clark Library Map Collections, University of Michigan Library.
- Map Collection Highlights.
- Clark Library Government Information Collection.
- Spatial and Numeric Data Services (SAND).
- About the Special Collections Library
- Special Collections Library - Collections
- The Galileo Manuscript
- The Worcester Philippine History Collection.
- Area Programs Libraries
- Near East Division.
- Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Divisions.
- About Us.
- Fine Arts Library.
- Museums Library
- Museums Library
- Taubman Health Sciences Library Rare Book Room.
- Biological Station Library (Pellston): About Us
- About Us, MPublishing.
- Journal Services, MPublishing.
- Deep Blue at MPublishing; Deep Blue.
- Print on Demand Services, MPublishing.
- University of Michigan Press.
- University of Michigan digital collections
- Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse; About the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse
- University of Michigan Historical Mathematics Collection
- Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC)
- CIC: Partnership Announced Between CIC Libraries And Google
- HathiTrust: About
- Martha Kyrillidou and Mark Young (2006). "ARL Statistics 2004-05 A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Twenty-three Members of the Association of Research Libraries". Association of Research Libraries.
- University Library
- Libraries & Archives Directory for University of Michigan
- Michigan Digitization Project ("Google Books") online FAQs
- University of Michigan Press
- Deep Blue: UM's Archive
- Advanced Papyrological Information System
- Association of Research Libraries
- CAAS Information Resources Center
- Center for the Education of Women Library UM
- Center for the Education of Women Library LS&A
- Henderson Ophthalmology Library
- Patient Education Resource Center
- Tanner Philosophy Library