University of Montana
|The University of Montana|
Seal of the University of Montana
|Motto||Lux et Veritas|
|Motto in English||Light and Truth|
|Type||Public university (state university)|
|Academic staff||581 full-time, 250 part-time|
|Students||14,946 total (Fall 2012)|
|Undergraduates||10,189 total (Fall 2012)|
|Location||Missoula, Montana, U.S.|
220 acres (89 ha)
|Colors||Maroon and Silver 
Previously Gold, Silver and Copper
|Athletics||NCAA Division I
Big Sky Conference
|Sports||14 school-sponsored Teams|
|Nickname||Grizzlies and Lady Griz|
The University of Montana (often simply referred to as the U; U of M, and UM) is a public research university located in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the flagship campus of the four-campus University of Montana System and is its largest institution. The main campus is located at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the mountain bearing Missoula's most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter "M." It is a major source of research, continuing education, economic development and fine arts, as well as a driving force in strengthening Montana's ties with countries throughout the world.
The university calls itself a "city within a city," and contains its own restaurants, medical facilities, banking, postal services, police department, and ZIP code. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among public universities in producing Rhodes Scholars, with a total of 28 such scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars, 14 Goldwater Scholars and 37 Udall Scholars to its name.
The University of Montana's Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the "most scenic campus in America" and Outside magazine called it "among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality and outdoor recreation".
Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8, 1889, and the Montana Legislature soon began to consider where the state's permanent capital and state university would be located. To be sure that the new state university would be located in Missoula, the city's leaders made an agreement with the standing capital of Helena that Missoula would stay out of the bidding for the new capital and would support Helena over its leading competitor, Anaconda. The cities' bids were supported by the rival "Copper Kings," William A. Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively.
Missoula won the legislative vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893. The University was formally opened in 1895. While plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School. The South Missoula Land Company, owned by A.B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, joined with the Higgins family in donating land for the new campus. In June 1898 the cornerstone for A.J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became "the University City."
The University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools: College of Humanities & Sciences; Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences; College of Forestry and Conservation; College of Health Professions and Biomedical Sciences; College of Visual and Performing Arts; UM School of Law; UM School of Business; UM School of Journalism; UM School of Extended and Lifelong Learning; Missoula College and the Bitterroot College.
Creative Writing, Organismal Biology and Ecology, and Wildlife Biology were named UM Programs of National Distinction in 2013. These academic programs are broadly recognized as being amongst the best in the nation, and in the world.
The Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments and the Institute of Educational Research and Service. In 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association.
The original plan of the University campus was designed by one of its first professors, Frederich Scheuch, who called for the central oval to be surrounded by immediate and future University buildings. Although Scheuch's plan called for all building entrances to face the center of the Oval, forming a radiating building pattern, buildings were later constructed with three-story in the Renaissance Revival style, with hipped roofs and Spanish green roof tiles.
The first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895. Since that time, various campus plans and architectural styles have been used. Today the campus consists of 220 acres (89 ha) and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel and the north by the Clark Fork River. The main campus comprises 64 buildings, including nine residence halls and various athletic venues, including Washington–Grizzly Stadium, a 26,500-seat football stadium and the Adams Center (formerly, Dahlberg Arena), a 7,500-seat multi-purpose arena where the university's basketball teams play.
A 3 acres (1.2 ha) swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting brick-laid paths, though originally the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, but many of the trees have since died and are in the process of being replanted. The original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has also been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this plan proved difficult and an a new plan was created in 1935.
On the western extreme of the Oval is a life-sized grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist and sculptor Rudy Autio in 1969. The bronze statue is 7-feet tall and weighs 5000 pounds and took one year to create. Many photographs of the university picture the bear with the Oval, University (Main) Hall, and Mount Sentinel's 'M' in the background.
The 'M' Trail
A 3/4 mile long trail with 13 switchbacks that rises 620 feet (from 3,200 feet to 3,820) from the University of Montana at the base of Mount Sentinel. The trail offers sweeping views of the city below.
There is debate of when "The 'M'" was first placed on Mount Sentinel. Around 1908, members of the Forestry Club forged a zigzag trail up the mountain and students carried up stones to shape the symbol of the University of Montana. Originally made of whitewashed rocks and only measuring 25 feet by 25 feet, the very first "M" was poorly constructed and ultimately replaced by a wooden "M" in 1912, which cost $18. That "M," unlike today's "M," stood upright on the face of Mount Sentinel. A larger wooden version of the "M" was built in 1913 and upkeep of the structure was formally charged to each year's freshman class.
When the large wooden "M" was destroyed by a blizzard in 1915, an even larger version was constructed of whitewashed granite. Once again the freshman class was tasked with annual renovation of the symbol, beginning a new tradition. Each year from then on, University of Montana freshmen made the hike up to the "M" to apply a fresh coat of whitewash and remove any weeds and grass that had grown in and around the structure.
The annual tradition ended in 1968 when a 125-by-100-foot concrete "M" was built at a cost of $4,328. Behind the decision to replace rock with concrete were maintenance issues; with the coming of the 1960s, UM students exhibited waning enthusiasm for the annual trek up the hill and for annual upkeep of the "M." Although the annual whitewashing went by the wayside, one tradition that lives on today is the lighting of the "M" during the University's annual Homecoming celebration each fall. Originally lit by a group of students on October 9, 1919 following the fall whitewashing, the event was so popular that students have continued to light the "M" each year during Homecoming week; special beacons light up the giant letter, welcoming former students back to the University.
On the north side of campus, 29 Evergreen trees stand in two columns forming Memorial Row along what used to be the path of Van Buren Avenue. The trees, running from the corner of the Oval to Eddy Avenue, were planted in 1919 following the end of the Great War to honor UM students, alumni, and faculty who died in the war, some to combat and many more to the influenza epidemic. The trees are Pinus ponderosa (Western Yellow Pines or Ponderosa Pine), the state tree of Montana. Originally, a white T-board stood in front of each tree, with the name of the person whom it honors; in 1925, these were replaced with 35 brass nameplates atop concrete markers. At the same time, the university added a memorial tablet on a boulder near the edge of the Oval closest to Memorial Row. It lists 21 of the 31 honorees from 1919. By 1925, the university had increased the number of names on the official list to 35, and sometime later, it grew to 37.
Points of interest include:
- Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library
- Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation
- Philip L. Wright Zoological Museum
- University of Montana Herbarium
- Washington-Grizzly Stadium
- spectrUM Discovery Area
Organization and administration
The University of Montana is the main campus for the University, which includes four other campuses. The public university system is one of two in Montana; the other is Montana State University. Both systems are governed as the Montana University System by the Montana Board of Regents, which consists of seven members appointed by the state governor, and confirmed by the state Senate to serve seven-year staggered terms. The Governor and Superintendent of Public Instruction, both statewide elected officials, are ex officio members of the Board, as is the Commissioner of Higher Education, who is appointed by the Board of Regents.
The total operating budget for the University of Montana for fiscal year 2009 was approximately $345 million. Of $135 million comes from the General Funds budget (app. $90 million from tuition, $45 million from the state) and $210 million from restricted funds (about $80 million), auxiliary funds ($46 million), designated funds ($44 million), and plant funds ($37 million).
Over the past 20 years, state support for higher education has dropped dramatically. In 1990, the State of Montana provided for 69% of the educational and general funds budget. It now supports 36% of the general fund or 17% of the university's operating budget. This decrease in funding has, in part, been made up by the university successfully competing for sponsored research money with a growth from $12 million in 1994 to $71 million in 2009 and salaries as low as 3/5 the national average.
Colleges, schools, and centers
The University of Montana comprises five colleges and three independent schools:
- College of Humanities and Sciences (1893)
- Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences (2009)
- College of Forestry and Conservation (1913)
- College of Health Professions and Biomedical Sciences
- Skaggs School of Pharmacy (1907)
- School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
- School of Social Work
- School of Public and Community Health Sciences
- Missoula College University of Montana (1956)
- College of Visual and Performing Arts
- School of Art
- School of Theatre and Dance
- School of Media Arts
- School of Music (1893)
- School of Business Administration (1918)
- School of Journalism (1914)
- School of Law (1911)
The University of Montana is also home to a variety of projects, research centers, and institutes.
The Montana Kaimin, founded in 1898, is the student-run college newspaper. It is independent of the university. It attracted national attention in 2009, when football coach Bobby Hauck refused to take questions from the paper in retaliation for a story about an alleged assault by two Grizzly football players. The Montanan is the University's alumni newsletter, published by the University Relations office. CutBank, founded in 1973 by the Creative Writing Program, is a literary magazine. Camas: The Nature of the West, is a literary journal run by graduate students of the Environmental Studies Program.
KBGA (89.9 FM) is the college radio station. KUFM-FM is the flagship and founding station of Montana Public Radio. Founded in 1965, its studios are located in the Broadcast Media Center, of the Performing Arts/Radio Television Building. KUFM-TV (Channel 11) is the local Montana PBS station
A variety of student organizations exist on campus. Seven fraternities and four sororities have chapters on campus. The fraternities are Phi Delta Theta (1921), Sigma Nu (established at UM in 1904), Sigma Chi (1905), Sigma Phi Epsilon (1918), Sigma Alpha Epsilon (1927), and Kappa Sigma (1927). The sororities are Kappa Alpha Theta (1909), Kappa Kappa Gamma (1909), Delta Gamma (1911), and Alpha Phi (1918).
The University of Montana's International Program began as the International Student club in 1924. It was founded by Alex Stepanzoff and four other Russians who were the first foreign exchange students at the university and is the oldest student organization at the university. The first study abroad programs were created with programs to France, Germany, and Spain in 1971. In 1981, the Mansfield Center was established and certification in teaching of English as a second language (TESL) began. As of 2010, the university has partnerships established with over 90 universities in over 40 countries. The largest number of partnership are with universities in Japan (eight), China (seven), and Chile (seven).
Programs on Central and Southwest Asia was created in 1997. UM is currently the only American university offering a Bachelor of Arts in Central and Southwest Asian Studies. In September 2010, the Montana Board of Regents unanimously approved the creation of the Center for the Study of Central and Southwest Asia at The University of Montana.
- A parking decal can be purchased for $185.00 or day passes for $3.00. The UM website states "On an average school day 15,000–17,000 students, teachers, and staff are coming to campus and competing for only 4,500 parking spaces." It is recommended that students carefully consider the value of paying for campus parking, as it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain parking spaces.
- Buses are free for anyone with a University ID (known as a GrizCard) and up to $1.00 for the general public.
- The University can be reached on the Mountain Line bus system on routes 1,8, & 12. Buses do not run on Sundays.
- The University has three Park and Ride lots located to the north, south, and east of campus. Shuttles run every 10–20 minutes 7:25 am–6:15 pm M-F during Fall & Spring semesters.
- UDASH is the late night shuttle service that runs every half hour from campus to Lewis & Clark (student housing), back to campus and then downtown.
- The ASUM Cruiser Co-op program allows students to check out yellow cruiser bike (unisex, with lights, basket, and lock) for up to two days for free with a Griz Card.
The athletic teams are nicknamed the Montana Grizzlies, often shortened to Griz or Lady Griz (when referring to women's teams). The University has competed in the NCAA's Big Sky Conference since the conference was formed in 1963. From 1924 to 1950, the University of Montana was a member of the Pacific Coast Conference (precursor to today's Pac-12). The University of Montana has an ongoing rivalry with Montana State University, most notably the cross-state football matchups, known as the "Brawl of the Wild."
- Montana Grizzlies football – Since the 1990s, the Griz have established themselves as one of the most dominant football teams in both the Big Sky Conference and in the NCAA Football Championship Subdivision (known as Division I-AA football before 2006). They have won or shared 11 of the last 16 Big Sky football championships since 1990, and won the I-AA national title in 1995 and 2001.
- Montana Grizzlies men's basketball – The men's basketball team has established itself in recent years as a power in the Big Sky, and was the conference representative to the NCAA Division I Men's basketball tournament in 2005 and 2006. At the 2006 tournament, the 12th-seeded Griz upset fifth-seeded University of Nevada, Reno, 87-79, the school's first win in the tournament in 31 years. The Cinderella run ended against the fourth-seeded Boston College Eagles.
- Montana Grizzlies women's basketball – The women's basketball team is the most successful team in the Big Sky Conference. The Lady Griz have won 17 conference titles in 25 years, most recently in 2012, and have competed in the NCAA Women's tournament 17 times. The Lady Griz have been coached since 1978 by Robin Selvig (Montana, 1974), who has an overall record of 645–188 (.774 winning percentage) as head coach of the Lady Griz. Selvig earned his 600th win in just 772 games—sixth fastest of any NCAA coach (men or women).
- Montana Grizzlies women's soccer – Recently hired a new head coach in Mark Plakorus. Plakorus becomes the third head coach of a program that will be entering its 18th season of play in the fall of 2011. He was stationed at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Great Falls from 1994–1999, has begun the head coach and director of the Flathead Soccer Camp in Kalispell since 1998, has been coaching in the collegiate ranks since 2022 when he chose to end an 11-year Air Force Career to pursue a career in coach soccer full-time. He spent two seasons from 2002–2003 as an assistant at University of Iowa and one year at University of Tulsa before joining the Texas Christian University staff as an assistant coach.
Other intercollegiate sports include men's and women's cross country, women's golf, men's and women's track and field, men's and women's indoor track and field, men's and women's tennis, and women's volleyball.
Intramural sports include men's lacrosse (won 2007 national championship in their division, MCLA-B) and women's lacrosse, the Alpine Ski Team (went to the national championships in winter 2006), rowing, dance and cheer, men's and women's ice hockey, men's soccer, the Woodsman Team, rodeo, the Missoula Footbag Alliance. triathlon, cycling, fencing, Jesters Rugby, and Betterside Women's Rugby. baseball is a club sport at the university. Led by James R. "Pops" Jones since 1997, the team won three Big Sky Championships in 2003, 2004, and 2005 as a player/coach. The team is currently a member of the National Club Baseball Association and finished second in the 2004 National Tournament.
The mascot of the university is Monte, a Grizzly Bear. In 1897, a live bear cub traveled with UM's football team, then known as the "Bears" (the "Grizzlies" name was adopted in 1923). Numerous live bear cubs who served as university mascots, first named Teddy, then Fessy and finally, in the 1960s, Cocoa. UM's costumed mascot during the 1980s, dubbed Otto, donned a variety of fun-loving outfits to entertain crowds at Grizzly football games. Monte (short for Montana) was born in the mountains of Missoula in the fall 1993. The 2002–03 and 2004–05 National Champion Mascot of the Year (Capital One/ESPN) has evolved into a "motorcycle-riding, break-dancing, back flipping, slam-dunking, movie-making, crowd-surfing, goal post smashing, prank-pulling superstar that makes the women of Montana swoon."
Presidents of the school
- Colt Anderson, NFL football player; Philadelphia Eagles safety.
- Josh Barnett, former UFC Heavyweight Champion, current mixed martial artist.
- Kroy Biermann, NFL football player; Atlanta Falcons defensive end.
- Dan Carpenter, NFL football player; Buffalo Bills placekicker.
- Scott Curry, NFL football player; Green Bay Packers, Offensive Line.
- Dave Dickenson, Canadian football player; BC Lions and Calgary Stampeders quarterback, CFL MVP (2000) and Grey Cup MVP (2006).
- Terry Dillon, NFL football player; Minnesota Vikings defensive back.
- Lex Hilliard, NFL football player; Miami Dolphins running back.
- Trumaine Johnson, NFL football player; St. Louis Rams cornerback.
- Larry Krystkowiak, former NBA player and coach.
- Marc Mariani, NFL football player; Tennessee Titans wide receiver, selected for 2011 Pro Bowl as a return specialist for AFC setting two records
- Marty Mornhinweg, played football at Montana before becoming coach in the NFL; currently Philadelphia Eagles assistant head coach and offensive coordinator.
- Dallas Neil, NFL football player; Atlanta Falcons, Special Teams.
- Cory Procter, NFL football player; Miami Dolphins guard/center.
- Chase Reynolds, NFL football player; St. Louis Rams Running Back
- Micheal Ray Richardson, NBA player; played for the New York Knicks and New Jersey Nets.
- Shann Schillinger, NFL football player; Atlanta Falcons safety.
- Wayne Tinkle, former professional basketball player in Europe and current head coach for the university's men's basketball team
Entertainment and the Arts
- Jeff Ament, founding member of the band Pearl Jam; studied art and played basketball at UM before quiting college in the middle of his sophomore year after the university told him they were no longer offering its graphic design program*
- Eric Braeden – Best known for portraying Victor Newman on The Young and the Restless.
- Colin Meloy, lead singer and songwriter for The Decemberists
- George Montgomery, actor, stuntman, painter, and wood craftsman; attended for one year before heading to Hollywood
- Carroll O'Connor, actor; graduate from the journalism school, best known for his role as Archie Bunker in All in the Family.
- J. K. Simmons, actor; known for roles on televisions shows including Law & Order, The Closer, and Oz, and on film in Spider-Man (as J. Jonah Jameson) and in Juno.
- Sahir Lodhi, Film and T.V actor, radio show host in Pakistan also working in the areas of primary health care, education, motivation and legal aid.
Law and politics
- Forrest H. Anderson, 17th Governor of Montana
- Gordon Belcourt, former Executive Director of the Montana-Wyoming Tribal Leaders Council
- Charles E. "Chip" Erdmann, Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, former Associate Justice of the Montana Supreme Court
- Mike Mansfield, U.S. Representative (1943–1953); U.S. Senator (1953–1977); Senate Majority Leader (1961–1977). Received both B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Montana, and taught Latin American and Far Eastern History at the university before beginning political career.
- Jim Messina, political staffer, White House Deputy Chief of Staff for President Barack Obama from 2009–2011.
- Jeannette Rankin, first female elected to the US Congress, elected from Montana
- Ted Schwinden, 23rd Lieutenant Governor of Montana and the 19th Governor of Montana.
- Sidney Runyan Thomas, graduate of the School of Law, federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, considered by President Obama as possible Supreme Court nominee.
- Jennifer Servo, 22-year-old broadcast journalist; murdered in Abilene, Texas in 2002 in an unsolved crime
- Meg Oliver, Anchor of the CBS overnight news program "Up to the Minute".
- Molly Wood, executive editor for CNET, host of the popular podcast "Buzz Out Loud"
- Hank Green, editor in chief of EcoGeek.org, a website about environmental technology
Science and Academia
- Mark Angelo, founder of World Rivers Day
- Helen M. Duncan, geologist and paleontologist
- R. Thomas Flynn, college administrator who has served at Rutgers University, Ocean Community College and Monroe Community College.
- Martin V. Melosi, earned B.A. and M.A. from the University, environmental historian and director of the Institute for Public History at the University of Houston
- Harold Urey, physical chemist, won Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for work on isotopes; Harold C. Urey Lecture Hall at the University is named in his honor.
- Reynold C. Fuson, chemist
- Raymond R. Rogers, geology professor
- John P. Grotzinger, geology professor
- James Welch – award-winning author
- A.B. Guthrie, Jr. – Pulitzer Prize–winning author, screenwriter, historian.
- Richard Hugo – poet and Creative Writing Professor whose work reflected the economic depression in the Northwest.
- Judy Blunt – writer
- Dan Flores – historian of the American West; holds A.B. Hammond Chair at UM
- Deirdre McNamer – writer
- J. Robert Lennon – writer
- Ed Skoog – writer and poet
- Allie Brosh, blogger, webcomic artist, author; author/illustrator of Hyperbole and a Half. Graduated in 2009.
- List of forestry universities and colleges
- Montana State University System
- University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band
- University of Montana School of Journalism
- University of Montana System
- As of June 30, 2013. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Official Graphic Standards Manual for The University of Montana". Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- The name of the campus is the University of Montana ‒ Missoula. See "The University of Montana Campuses," Montana University System.
- "University of Montana | Best College | US News". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. February 27, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Drake, Laure (April 10), UM Student Wins Prestigious Award, UM News, retrieved April 30, 2014
- "UM External Scholarship Recipients 1904–Present". Retrieved March 28, 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Grizzly, (sculpture)". Save Outdoor Sculptures!. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "2010 Logo Information – NCUR 2010 – The University Of Montana". Umt.edu. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- The Story of Missoula's "M"
- "Memorial Row – Memorial Row – The University Of Montana". Umt.edu. November 22, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "Montana University System Website". Mus.edu. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Accreditation 2010 Self-Study Report Standard Six: Governance and Administration
- Accreditation 2010 Self-Study Report Standard Seven: Finance
- data from http://www.umt.edu/urelations/info/highlights.aspx
- Moy, Chelsi (October 24, 2009). "Bobby Hauck, Kaimin feud goes viral". Missoulian (Missuola, MT). Retrieved November 10, 2009.
- "Guide to the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. Delta Omicron Chapter (State University of Montana) Records 1916–1978". Nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu. May 21, 2004. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "History of International Activities at the University of Montana," University of Montana International Programs.
- UM International Partners," University of Montana International Programs.
- "Home – Central and Southwest Asian Studies Center – The University Of Montana". Umt.edu. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- [dead link]
- UM International Partners:
- ASUM – Office of Transportation
- Mountain Line Fares and Passes
- Mountain Line Routes with interactive map
- UM Park 'n' Ride
- "UDASH – The University of Montana". Life.umt.edu. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- UM Bicycle Information[full citation needed]
- Montana Grizzlies website
- University of Montana's Past Presidents
- "The Sky I Scrape: Pearl Jam FAQ". theskyiscrape.com.
- Heaney, John. "Meet: Jeff Ament: Pearl Jam's Ament Plays for Love of Game". Missoulian. January 6, 2008.
- Ho, Jeff. "Interview with Jeff Ament". Juice Magazine. 2006.
- "The Montanan – The Magazine of The University of Montana". Umt.edu. May 18, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "Montana Governor Forrest H. Anderson". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Devlin, Vince (2013-07-17). "Gordon Belcourt remembered as advocate for Indian Country". The Missoulian. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "MANSFIELD, Michael Joseph (Mike), (1903 - 2001)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "Jeannette Rankin". Women in Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "Ted Schwinden". National Governors Association. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Čeština. "World's Largest Professional Network". LinkedIn. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. The biographical dictionary of women in science: pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century. Taylor & Francis US. pp. 384–. ISBN 978-0-415-92038-4. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Loudon, Bennett J (June 26, 2008). "Retiring Flynn oversaw time of rapid growth at Monroe Community College". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Martin Melosi". vi.uh.edu. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article about University of Montana.|
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