Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
|Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania|
|University of Pennsylvania|
|Dean||Dr. J. Larry Jameson|
|1,700 full time|
|Students||725 (MD students)
570 (PhD students)
160 (MD/PhD students)
|Location||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US
The Perelman School of Medicine, commonly known as Penn Med, is the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. It is located in the University City section of Philadelphia. Founded in 1765, Penn Med is the oldest medical school in the United States. Today, the Perelman School of Medicine is a major center of biomedical research and education, and it is widely regarded as one of the country's top medical schools. Penn Med consistently ranks among the highest recipients of NIH research awards, and it currently holds the #4 spot on U.S. News & World Report's "Best Medical Schools: Research" list.
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Medical advancements
- 4 Medical curriculum
- 5 Biomedical Graduate Studies
- 6 Governance
- 7 Departments
- 8 Notable alumni
- 9 Rankings
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The school's young co-founder, John Morgan, earned an A.B. from the College of Philadelphia (now University of Pennsylvania) and a MD from the University of Edinburgh Medical School. In 1765, after spending five years training in Edinburgh and touring Europe, Dr. Morgan and his friend Dr. William Shippen Jr. returned to Philadelphia and persuaded the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania to found the first medical school in America. Only months before the medical school was created, Morgan delivered an address to the Trustees and the citizens of Philadelphia, "Upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America" during which he expressed his desire for the new medical school to become a model institution:
Perhaps this medical institution, the first of its kind in America, though small in its beginning, may receive a constant increase of strength, and annually exert new vigor. It may collect a number of young persons of more ordinary abilities, and so improve their knowledge as to spread its reputation to different parts. By sending these abroad duly qualified, or by exciting an emulation amongst men of parts and literature, it may give birth to other useful institutions of a similar nature, or occasional rise, by its example to numerous societies of different kinds, calculated to spread the light of knowledge through the whole American continent, wherever inhabited.
That autumn, students enrolled for "anatomical lectures" and a course on "the theory and practice of physick." Modeling the School after the University of Edinburgh Medical School, the need for supplemental medical lectures with bedside teaching was emphasized, which was satisfied by practitioners at the Pennsylvania Hospital.
The School of Medicine's faculty was nationally renowned: Benjamin Rush (medicine), Philip Syng Physick (surgery), Robert Hare (chemistry), and, around the 1850s, William Pepper (medicine) and Joseph Leidy (anatomy). In 1847, the group of physicians who organized the American Medical Association effectively gave recognition to the School's fame by naming the AMA's first president Nathaniel Chapman, Professor of Medicine at the School.
On May 10, 2011 university president Amy Gutmann announced that the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine will be officially renamed the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in honor of a $225 million contribution made to the medical school by Raymond G. Perelman, 93, a Philadelphia based philanthropist and father of billionaire Ronald Perelman. This sets the record as the largest donation given in U.S. history to rename a medical school. Together with a $25 million contribution made in 2005 to create the Ruth and Raymond Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, the Perelman family contribution to the medical school to date is approximately $250 million. Note that the short version of the name, Perelman School of Medicine, is also an official name of the school.
In the 1870s, the university closed its campus in Center City, Philadelphia and established a new location across the Schuylkill River in West Philadelphia, just north of the Blockley Almshouse. As part of this move, the School of Medicine's faculty persuaded the University's trustees to build a teaching hospital on the new campus, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP). Today, the medical school is affiliated with the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, Pennsylvania Hospital, Chester County Hospital, and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with additional teaching at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center.
The Penn School of Nursing building and the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office are both located within the School of Medicine complex.
|Building Name||Year Built||Architect(s)||Area (sq. ft.)|
|Anatomy Chemistry Building||1928||Stewardson & Page||128114|
|Biomedical Research Building 2/3||1999||Perkins & Will, Francis Cauffman, Foley Hoffman||385000|
|Blockley Hall||1964||Supowitz & Demchick||166425|
|Claire M. Fagin Hall (Nursing)||1972||Fisher Associates||165600|
|Clinical Research Building||1989||Payette Associates, Venturi, Ranch, and Scott Brown||204211|
|Cyclotron||1987||Francis, Cauffman, Wilkinson, Pepper||8122|
|Edward J. Stemmler Hall
formerly the Medical Education Building, until 1990 
|1978||Geddes, Brecher, Qualls, and Cunningham||251344|
|John Morgan Building
formerly the Medical Laboratories, until 1987 
|1904||Cope & Stewardson||211140|
|Henry A. Jordan Medical Education Center (JMEC)||2015||Rafael Viñoly Architects PC||371000|
|Richards Medical Research Laboratories||1962||Louis Kahn||107103|
|Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion||1969||Alexander Ewing, Erdman & Eubank||161228|
formerly the Biomedical Research Laboratories, until 1995 
|1994||Bower Lewis Thrower||213620|
|Smilow Center for Translational Research (formerly Translational Research Center)||2010||Rafael Viñoly Architects PC||500000|
|Translational Research Laboratory (and addition)||1948
|Tsoi/Kobus & Associates||129418|
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the School of Medicine was one of the earliest to encourage the development of the emerging medical specialties: neurosurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and radiology. Between 1910 and 1939, the chairman of the Department of Pharmacology, Alfred Newton Richards, played a significant role in developing the University as an authority of medical science, helping the United States to catch up with European medicine and begin to make significant advances in biomedical science.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, Dr. Jonathon E. Rhoads of the Department of Surgery (which he would later go on to head for many years), mentored Dr. Stanley Dudrick who pioneered the successful use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for patients unable to tolerate nutrition through their GI tract.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Dr. C. William Schwab, a trauma surgeon, led numerous advances in the concept of damage control surgery for severely injured trauma patients.
In the 1990s and 2000s, Dr. Paul Offit, a professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, lead the scientific advances behind the modern RotaTeq vaccine for infectious childhood diarrhea.
Benchmark changes in the understanding of medical science and the practice of medicine have necessitated that the school change its methods of teaching, as well as its curriculum. Large changes were made in 1968, 1970, 1981, 1987, and 1997. The last significant change in 1997 brought about the institution of Curriculum 2000, "an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum which emphasizes small group instruction, self directed learning and flexibility." Three themes, Science of Medicine, Art and Practice of Medicine, and Professionalism and Humanism, were developed by focus groups consisting of department chairpersons, course directors, and students.
- Core Principles
- Integrative Systems and Disease
- Technology and Practice of Medicine
- Required Clinical Clerkships
- Electives, Selectives, and Scholarly Pursuit
- Professionalism and Humanism
The MD program is a four-year program that can be described in relation to traditional semesters, with the modules for that semester and the courses taken for each. The first three semesters use about half the time for lectures and the other half for small group learning and problem-based learning.
- Semester 1
- Semesters 2, 3
- Semesters 4, 5
- Module 4: required clinical clerkships
- Module 6: doctoring, communication, and patient safety
- Semesters 6, 7, 8
- Module 5: electives, selectives, "frontiers in medicine," (during which updates to medical science are discussed) and the required scholarly pursuit
- Module 6: communication, and bioethics
In addition to the MD curriculum, the school offers certificate programs in global health, women's health, community health, clinical neuroscience, and aging. There is also a combined degree option with the MD degree in combination with Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Juris Doctor (JD), Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Bioethics (MBE), Master of Science in Clinical Epidemiology (MSCE), Master of Science in Translational Research (MTR), Master of Public Health (MPH), and Master of Science in Health Policy Research (MSHP). There also exists the option for an extra year to pursue various avenues, including research or finishing the requirements for a second degree.
Biomedical Graduate Studies
Biomedical Graduate Studies, contained within the Perelman School of Medicine, was established in 1985 and serves as the academic home within the University of Pennsylvania for roughly 700 students pursuing a PhD in the basic biomedical sciences. BGS consists of more than 600 faculty members across seven Penn schools and several associated institutes including Wistar Institute, Fox Chase Cancer Center, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. There are seven graduate programs, labeled by the school as "graduate groups," that lead to a Ph.D. in basic biomedical sciences.
- Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
- Cell and Molecular Biology with programs in
- Epidemiology and Biostatistics
- Genomics and Computational Biology
All students receive a stipend in addition to a full fellowship and tend to receive the degree within a median time frame of 5.4 years. There is also the option for students to pursue an additional certificate in medicine, public health, and environmental health sciences. Each graduate group has its own admission policy and training mission, and hence curriculum greatly varies.
"Penn Medicine" is the governing board that administers and coordinates the Perelman School of Medicine and the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS). The board reports directly to the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. It was created by Penn's former president, Judith Rodin, in response to a $300 Million financial crisis at the Health System.
The School of Medicine has departments in the following basic science subjects: Biochemistry and Biophysics, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cancer Biology, Cell and Developmental Biology, Genetics, Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Microbiology, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, and Physiology. The school also has departments in the following clinical practices: Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Dermatology, Emergency Medicine, Family Practice and Community Medicine, Medicine, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ophthalmology (See Scheie Eye Institute), Orthopaedic Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Pediatrics (See Children's Hospital of Philadelphia), Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Psychiatry, Radiation Oncology, Radiology, and Surgery.
Centers and institutes
The Perelman School of Medicine, in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania Health System, has contained within it many centers and institutes dealing with clinical medicine, clinical research, basic science research, and translational research.
- Caspar Wistar, Class of 1782: president of the American Philosophical Society and President of the Society for the Abolition of Slavery
- Charles Caldwell, Class of 1796: founder of the University of Louisville School of Medicine
- Nathaniel Chapman, Class of 1800: first President of the American Medical Association
- William P. C. Barton: author of A Treatise Containing a Plan for the Internal Organization and Government of Marine Hospitals in the United States... and Dean of Jefferson Medical College
- Reuben D. Mussey, Class of 1809: in 1862, wrote the first definitive history of tobacco documenting its dangers
- Samuel A. Cartwright: improved sanitary conditions during the American Civil War and was honored for his investigations into yellow fever and Asiatic cholera
- Clement Finley, Class of 1818: 10th Surgeon General of the United States Army
- George McClellan, Class of 1819: founder of Jefferson Medical College, now Thomas Jefferson University
- John Light Atlee, Class of 1820: one of the organizers of, and past President of the American Medical Association
- Joseph Pancoast, Class of 1828: surgeon and department chairman at Jefferson Medical College; author of A Treatise on Operative Surgery
- Thomas R. Potts, Class of 1831: first mayor of St. Paul, Minnesota
- David Hayes Agnew, Class of 1838: surgeon and author of The Principles and Practice of Surgery
- Crawford Long, Class of 1839: surgeon and pharmacist; first person to use inhaled ether as an anesthetic
- Isaiah D. Clawson, Class of 1843: Opposition Party and Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New Jersey
- Samuel W. Crawford, Class of 1850: United States Army surgeon and a Union general in the American Civil War
- John Daniel Clardy, Class of 1851: Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Kentucky
- Ephraim L. Acker, Class of 1852: Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania
- Joseph Janvier Woodward, Class of 1853: 34th President of the American Medical Association, pioneer in photomicrography, surgeon, performed the autopsies of Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth, and contributed two volumes to the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion
- Hiram R. Burton, Class of 1868: Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Delaware
- Lewis Heisler Ball, Class of 1885: Republican member of the U.S. Senate from Delaware
- Alfred Stengel, Class of 1889: One of the students that commissioned Thomas Eakins' The Agnew Clinic
- Josiah McCracken, Class of 1901: American football player, and founder and president of the University Medical School in Canton, China (1907–1913) and dean of the Pennsylvania Medical School of St. John's University in Shanghai (1914–1942)
- William Carlos Williams, Class of 1906: poet, pediatrician, and general practitioner
- Isaac Starr, Class of 1920: developed the first practical ballistocardiograph; 1957 Albert Lasker Award, 1967 Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians, 1977 Burger Medal of the Free University of Amsterdam
- William Holmes Crosby Jr., Class of 1940: one of the founding fathers of modern hematology
- Gerald Edelman, Class of 1954: 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the structure and mode of action of antibodies; founder and director of The Neurosciences Institute; also noted for his theory of secondary consciousness
- David E. Kuhl, Class of 1955: 2009 Japan Prize, best known for his pioneering work in positron emission tomography
- Walter Bortz II, Class of 1955: one of America's leading scientific experts on aging
- Michael Stuart Brown, Class of 1966: 1985 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Marvin Makinen, Class of 1968: Biophysicist and human rights advocate at the University of Chicago
- Stanley B. Prusiner, Class of 1968: 1997 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Arnold Klein, Class of 1971: Beverly Hills dermatologist and television/news medical expert
- Ann Arvin, Class of 1972: Vice Provost and Dean of Research at Stanford Univ.
- Robert Barchi, Class of 1973: 20th President of Rutgers University, former President of Thomas Jefferson Univ; former Provost of Penn
- Robert Grossman, Class of 1973: CEO, NYU Medical Center, neuroradiologist, formerly at Penn.
- Mark Groudine, Classes of 1974, 1976: EVP, U Washington Cancer Research Center.
- Richard Besser, Class of 1986: ABC News medical editor, former acting director for the CDC and the ATSDR
- Mehmet Oz, Class of 1986: cardiothoracic surgeon and host of The Dr. Oz Show; also alumnus of the Wharton School
- David Agus, Class of 1991: co-founder of Navigenics, a personal genetic testing company, and Oncology.com
- Rajiv Shah, Class of 2001: director of USAID, formerly at Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; also alumnus of the Wharton School
United States Medical School Ranking Systems
|U.S. News, Research||2||2012|
|National Institutes of Health, by funding||3||2012|
|U.S. News, Primary Care||11||2012|
- Medical schools in Pennsylvania
- List of Ivy League medical schools
- University of Pennsylvania Health System
- University of Edinburgh Medical School
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- "C. William Schwab, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.R.C.S. Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care and Emergency Surgery". Penn Medicine.
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- "About". Biomedical Graduate Studies. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.|
Texts on Wikisource:
- A History of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania (1869) by Joseph Carson, M.D.
- The History of the University of Pennsylvania (1834) by George B. Wood, M.D.
- A Discourse upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America (1765) by John Morgan, M.D.