University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
|University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|
|Established||June 4, 1883|
|Dean||Arthur S. Levine, M.D.|
|Location||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA|
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (UPSOM) is a medical school located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The School of Medicine is also known as Pitt Med, and is ranked as a “top medical school” by U.S. News & World Report in the publication's categories of research (15th) and primary care (18th). The school encompasses both a medical program, offering the Doctor of Medicine, and graduate programs, offering Doctor of Philosophy and Master's degrees in several areas of biomedical science, clinical research, medical education, and medical informatics. The School of Medicine is one of sixteen schools that comprise the University of Pittsburgh and is located in the Oakland neighborhood of the city of Pittsburgh.
Pitt Med is a national leader in biomedical research, as evidenced by Pitt and its affiliates ranking fifth among all institutions in the amount of NIH funding received ($432 million) during the most recently analyzed fiscal year. Admissions to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is highly competitive; the incoming class averaged a score of 35 on the MCAT with an average GPA of 3.75 (median MCAT score of 36 and median GPA of 3.84). In 2011, 5003 people applied and 967 were interviewed for 146 positions in the medical school's entering class.
The School of Medicine is closely affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). UPMC is considered to be a leading American health care provider having been consistently ranked in U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" of approximately 15 to 20 best hospitals in America over the last decade. As of 2010, UPMC ranked 13th among the best hospitals by U.S. News and was ranked in 15 of 16 specialty areas, including seven specialties for which UPMC is in the top 10, not including Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC which was ranked among the top eight pediatric centers in a separate U.S. News ranking.
Chartered on June 4, 1883 as the Western Pennsylvania Medical College, the school opened with a class of 57 students in September, 1886. Originally a free-standing school formed by local physicians, the college founders had sought affiliation with the Western University of Pennsylvania even prior to its founding, and in 1892, the School became affiliated with the university becoming the Medical Department of Western University. By 1895 the college had begun a four-year course of study, and in 1908 the college was completely integrated into the Western University of Pennsylvania, the same year the university was renamed to the University of Pittsburgh. Abraham Flexner, a renowned educator, published his first report, Medical Education in the U.S. and Canada, in 1910 after he had visited 155 medical schools, including the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In his report, Flexner made the following comments relative to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine: “Since the present management took hold last fall, the admission of students has been more carefully supervised, the building has been put in excellent condition.... Whole-time instructors of modern training and ideals have been secured... A new building is in the process of erection...”
Flexner went on to cite the School as an example of what could be accomplished through sound University Management.
For the next four decades the School continued to evolve. At the end of World War II, active planning for a major change was initiated with the encouragement and assistance of the Mellons, a prominent Pittsburgh family. The University accepted the University Health Center concept and, in 1953, appointed the first vice chancellor of the Schools of the Health Professions. Plans were made to house the Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy in a new building contiguous to the principal teaching hospitals and the Graduate School of Public Health.
To generate the necessary capital, the University planned a fund drive to raise an endowment. A handsome beginning was made when, by mid-December 1953, $15 million was assured by grants of $5 million each from the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, the Richard King Mellon Foundation, and the Sarah Mellon Scaife Foundation.
The new building, Scaife Hall, was completed in 1956 and recruitment of additional full-time faculty was begun. With increased facilities and faculty, the School of Medicine began to be recognized as a major center for research in a number of areas. In turn, the faculty of the School of Medicine attracted appreciable support for research and training from the National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies. Moreover, the School became assured of financial support for medical education when, in 1967, the University became state related as part of the higher education system of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
The position of Senior Vice Chancellor for Health Sciences and Dean of the School of Medicine is a single leadership position.
The School of Medicine is one of six schools of the health sciences. The other five schools of the health sciences include; School of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Public Health, School of Nursing, School of Pharmacy, and School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences.
The School of Medicine is home to 29 departments: Anesthesiology, Biomedical Informatics, Cell Biology and Physiology, Computational Biology, Critical Care Medicine, Dermatology, Developmental Biology, Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine, Immunology, Medicine, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Neurobiology, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Ophthalmology, Orthopedic Surgery, Otolaryngology, Pathology, Pediatrics, Pharmacology, Psychiatry, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Radiation Oncology, Radiology, Surgery, and Urology.
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Liaison Council on Medical Education. The residency programs of the medical school are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
Doctor of Medicine Program 
The doctor of medicine program is a full time four-year program providing a general professional education that prepares students to pursue any career option in medicine. The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine curricular infrastructure combines a lecture-and problem-based curriculum with early and in-depth clinical experiences and an integrated organ systems approach to the preclinical sciences. The clinical years are characterized by an integrated clerkship structure and an emphasis on student flexibility.
The current curriculum was implemented in 2004 and features active, participatory learning, a problem-based approach, an early introduction to the patient and the community, and the integration of a rigorous foundation in basic and clinical biomedical sciences with the social and behavioral aspects of medicine. Key subject matter is longitudinally integrated throughout the curriculum, building upon a foundation of prior learning while providing a level-appropriate and well-synchronized introduction of new content.
Scheduled instructional time in the first two years of the curriculum is apportioned approximately as one-third lecture; one-third small group learning (much of which is problem-based learning; the remainder includes demonstrations, faculty-directed problem-solving exercises, skill-practice sessions, and other activities); and one-third activities (which includes observation of and appropriate participation in patient care, community-site visits, experience with standardized patients, high-fidelity simulations, laboratory exercises, and other activities).
Patient focus in the curriculum begins on day one, in the introduction to being a physician course. Students interview patients about their experience of illness and experiences with their physicians, and they visit community settings to develop an understanding of their roles as medical professionals. Medical interviewing and physical examination courses follow, along with exercises examining the many facets of physician life—in society, ethical settings, and at the patient bedside. Throughout the first two years, students apply their new skills in local practices and hospitals one afternoon per week. The basic science block runs through three-fourths of the first year and provides language and concepts that underlie the scientific basis of medical practice. Organ system block courses integrate physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, and patient with concurrent courses in the patient care and patient, physician and society blocks. Weekly discussions, patient interviews, and examination of hospitalized patients reinforce essential clinical skills.
The third-year curriculum consists of seven required clerkships. They are designed to optimize the balance between out-of-hospital and in-patient learning opportunities, eliminate unintentional curriculum redundancy, and optimize opportunities for student-designed curricula in the junior and senior years.
Every student engages in a mentored scholarly project conducted longitudinally throughout the four-year curriculum. Completion and presentation of the scholarly project is due in the spring of the senior year and is a requirement for graduation. Students pursue their projects through several program options, which may include areas of concentration. An innovative system of Web-based learning portfolios facilitates learner-mentor communication and enriches the possibilities for collaboration within and beyond the University.
The medical school maintains the curriculum online via the Navigator system, a family of Web-based applications with domain-specific courseware to support student achievement of course objectives. Students have access to a host of online resources such as digitized images, syllabi, practice quizzes, podcasts, and other material associated with specific instructional units.
Specialty rankings 
- Women’s health #4
- Drug and alcohol abuse #8
- Geriatrics #8
- Pediatrics #13
- Internal medicine #14
General Requirements 
The medical school participates in the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The school considers currently enrolled students and graduates of accredited colleges for admission. Non United States citizens must hold a permanent resident visa (not conditional) or refugee/asylee status and have completed at least one full year of undergraduate education, including our prerequisites, in the United States.
In examining candidacy, the admissions committee will consider; 1) Undergraduate, post baccalaureate, and graduate records, 2) MCAT scores, 3) Independent and advanced study, 4) Research, 5) Work experience, 6) Extracurricular activities, including depth and breadth of your interests and activities outside the classroom, volunteer activities, community service, student government, hobbies, clubs, athletics, 6) Academic and personal recommendations, 7) Personal character: integrity, communication skills, leadership, motivation, creativity, 8) Supplemental essays and 9) Personal interviews
Academic Requirements 
In addition to thorough preparation in the basic sciences, applicants should have a strong liberal arts education with demonstrated accomplishment in the humanities and social sciences. A strong background in mathematics is highly recommended. Acceptance of courses taken at foreign universities is determined on an individual basis at the discretion of the Dean of Admissions and Financial Aid. Applicants should have completed most premedical requirements to receive serious consideration. All requirements must be met before matriculation.
Specific minimum course requirements (One year each of) include Biology, exclusive of botany (with lab), General or inorganic chemistry (with lab), Organic chemistry (with lab), Physics (with lab), and English (including W courses taken outside of the English department).
The school will accept AP credit if credit was awarded by your college/university and the course credit granted appears on your transcript.
Students and Student Life 
As of Fall 2008, the School of Medicine has 577 MD students: 290 men and 287 women. The School fosters an academic environment that encourages and supports a richness of diversity among students in various racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. Underrepresented minority students make up approximately 16 percent of the medical student body.
The structure of the curriculum promotes student interaction and collegiality. In addition, medical students get to know each other through involvement in organizations and extracurricular activities. Some of the many student groups on campus are the American Medical Student Association, the American Medical Association, specialty interest groups in most areas of medicine, Pitt Women in Medicine, and the History of Medicine Society. Medical students have access to all facilities of the University of Pittsburgh, including athletic facilities. Pittsburgh is an accessible and exciting city, and, although on-campus housing is available, most medical students choose to live off campus.
Graduate Programs 
The School of Medicine offers a variety of programs leading to the Doctor of Philosophy, the Master of Science, or a certificate. As of the Fall 2009 term, the graduate programs have 376 students. The school works with other schools of the University through collaborative graduate programs. The School of Medicine offers a joint MD/PhD program.
Doctoral Programs 
The medical school offers PhDs through the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Graduate Program, the Center for Neuroscience Graduate Training Program, the Biomedical Informatics Training Program, the Joint Program in Computation Biology, the Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology Graduate Program, the Program in Integrative Molecular Biology, and the program in Clinical and Translational Science.
Interdisciplinary Biomedical Science Graduate Program 
Students may be admitted into 6 PhD degree granting programs in the School of Medicine or the School of Arts and Sciences through the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Science Graduate Program. These programs include:
- Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics
- Cell biology and Molecular physiology
- Cellular and Molecular pathology
- Molecular pharmacology
- Molecular virology and Microbiology
The Interdisciplinary Biomedical Science Graduate Program is flexible and accommodates students whose research interests are still evolving by introducing them to a variety of fields through interdisciplinary courses and laboratory experiences. For those students who have a clearly defined research interest, the program offers the opportunity to move quickly into the laboratory and accelerate their study.
Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Graduate Program 
The PhD Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics is one of the six degree-granting programs offered to students entering the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Graduate Program in the School of Medicine. Faculty members are committed to developing the careers of young scientists, and are exploring questions that address fundamental issues in normal biology and human disease. Our research is at the cutting edge of many emerging technologies, including stem cell biology, proteomics and genomics, and has direct relevance to cancer, diabetes, muscular dystrophy, and other genetic disorders. Faculty research interests include regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, DNA replication and repair, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, human gene therapy, stem cell biology and early development, as well as protein structure and molecular dynamics.
Cell Biology and Molecular Physiology Graduate Program 
The PhD Program in Cell Biology and Molecular Physiology is one of the six degree-granting programs offered to students entering the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Graduate Program in the School of Medicine. Graduates will be trained in cell function, physiology, cell interactions, and development from the molecular to the organ level. The faculty are drawn from both basic science and clinical departments. The following fields are currently under investigation: epithelial cell biology including investigating the devastating effects of impaired salt transport in inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis; the intracellular transduction of signals that cause diabetes; identification of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias; the mechanisms by which membranes and cargo are transported into and through the cell; water transport and barrier epithelia and on the biology of ion channels; and chromatin structure and dynamics as well as the study of dystrophin to develop novel treatments for muscular dystrophy. In addition, the hormonal regulation of reproduction and fertility is being investigated by members of the Center for Reproductive Physiology. Topics in reproduction research include the use of rhesus monkeys as a model of human neuroendocrine control of puberty, the regulation of gene expression by sex hormones, signal transduction mechanisms required for male fertility, the cellular and molecular basis of ovarian function, and the molecular pathways initiating labor.
Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program 
The Cellular and Molecular Pathology (CMP) Program is a PhD-granting program in the School of Medicine. Admission into the program occurs through the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Graduate Program or the Medical Scientist Training Program. CMP emphasizes tissue biology in both health and disease with focus on specific organs as well as general biological disciplines. The faculty research interests include pathobiology of the liver, lung, kidney, brain, bone, prostate, and breast with an accent on cancer biology, tissue regeneration, stem cells, development, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Members of our program come from the Divisions of Experimental Pathology and of Neuropathology within the Department of Pathology, and also include faculty from other basic and clinical departments in the School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, and Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute. Our faculty consists of MDs, PhDs, and MD/PhDs who are engaged in multidisciplinary research that encompasses basic and translational research with prominent clinical relevance. Graduate students use state of the art technologies (i.e. imaging, microarrays, proteomics) and in vitro/in vivo models to study normal and disease processes, in basic and applied contexts. Broad organ based-CMP research areas include: cancer biology; embryonic development and organogenesis; tissue and organ regeneration; molecular basis of disease and treatment; stem cells; neurodegeneration; and angiogenesis.
Immunology Graduate Program 
The immunology program focuses on six areas of research: cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, infectious disease immunology, autoimmunity, immunology of lung diseases, and basic immunologic mechanisms. Cancer immunology studies include tumor antigen discovery and presentation, in vivo vaccination strategies to develop safe and effective treatments for cancer, and the search for underlying genetic or biochemical defects that lead to cell transformation and tumorigenesis that may also influence tumor immunogenicity. These studies emphasize intracellular signal transduction, programmed cell death, and oncogene function. Transplantation immunology concentrates on weakening the immune response to allow foreign organ and tissue transplants. Program members focus on the basic biology of immune cell non-reactivity (tolerance) to foreign organs and tissues, as well as on the use of new immunomodulatory drugs to promote transplant acceptance without endangering patients' abilities to resist infections.
Studies of the immune response to infectious disease focus on mechanisms the immune system uses to eliminate viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections as well as the immune evasion mechanisms employed by pathogens. Investigation of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosis, and type-1 diabetes involve detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying the autoimmune response and of the development of novel therapeutic and preventive measures for these often-fatal diseases.
Immunology of lung diseases studies both basic mechanisms of dendritic cell maturation and their influence on T-cell differentiation and the relevance of these interactions in disease second in tolerance. Some foci of basic immunologic mechanisms include cell and organ development and homeostasis, cellular activation and inactivation signaling cascades, and the use of gene therapy to modulate immune responses.
Molecular Pharmacology Graduate Program 
The program is focused on molecular and cellular mechanisms of intracellular signaling using a combination of biochemical, molecular biological, biophysical, ultra structural, and imaging approaches. Basic information on cellular communication in health and disease provides the basis for the development and testing of novel therapeutic agents. Applications of this common theme are directed toward research in drug discovery, cancer, pharmacology, signal transduction, neurodegenerative diseases, and cell and organ system pharmacology. Formal interactions with the Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, the Center for Neuroscience, the Pittsburgh Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases (PIND), the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, the Drug Discovery Program, and the Center for Biological Imaging provide a broad multidisciplinary approach to training in modern molecular pharmacology.
Molecular Virology and Microbiology Graduate Program 
The Molecular Virology and Microbiology (MVM) Program features cutting-edge research in molecular virology, the pathogenesis of infectious disease, and the nature of host-pathogen interactions. This research is highly interdisciplinary, combining molecular biology, immunology, biochemistry, pharmacology, structural and computational biology, and clinical science to provide a broad understanding of microbiology as an integrated discipline in the biomedical sciences. Current research foci include the immunology of infectious disease, the biology of persistent infections, oncogenic viruses, the regulation of host and pathogen gene expression during infection, development of viral vectors for gene therapy, development of vaccines and microbicides to prevent infection, and discovery and development of drugs to treat infectious diseases. Research in these areas ranges from basic science through translational research to clinical studies in order to expedite the application of new discoveries in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Faculty members are located in numerous departments (clinical and basic science) and the Schools of Medicine, Public Health, and Arts and Sciences throughout the campus. The MVM program offers courses, seminars, laboratory rotations, and research training opportunities to provide a stimulating and supportive environment for the education of independent scientists who will make significant research contributions toward advancing the understanding of host-pathogen relationships.
Center for Neuroscience Graduate Training Program 
Neuroscience is the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. Understanding the nervous system provides key insights into human nature as well as treatments for a host of devastating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The CNUP graduate program introduces students to the fundamental issues and experimental approaches in neuroscience and trains them in the theory and practice of laboratory research.
Biomedical Informatics Training Program 
The Biomedical Informatics Training Program, in the Department of Biomedical Informatics, prepares individuals for research and development careers emphasizing the application of modern information technology to health care, biological and clinical research, and education of health professionals. The program offers master’s and doctoral degrees in biomedical informatics. Specific concentrations of study can be obtained in the areas of bioinformatics, dental informatics, health services research, and infectious disease and public health informatics (biosurveillance). A Certificate Program is also available to serve students with a wide variety of goals and backgrounds. At the discretion of the director of the program, short-term traineeships can be arranged. Such training can be done on a part-time basis. The program also offers non-degree postdoctoral fellowships (such applicants must have a doctoral degree in the health sciences), designed to provide two years of full-time fellowship training.
Joint Program in Computational Biology 
This program is offered collaboratively by the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. It is designed to develop expertise in the use of computational methods to identify and solve biological problems.
Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology Graduate Program 
An interdisciplinary program that trains students in the use of a broad range of technologies to study the physical function of biological macromolecules and covers a diversity of research topics in molecular biophysics and structural biology.
Program in Integrative Molecular Biology 
A cross-campus program that provides training with a focus on the structure and function of molecules that compose complex cellular pathways and systems. Focus areas include genomics, proteomics, gene function, and cellular and developmental dynamics.
Clinical and Translational Science 
This program is offered through Pitt's Institute for Clinical Research Education and is a rigorous, multidisciplinary program designed to train an elite group of scientists in conducting high quality clinical and translation research. A certificate is also available to students enrolled in other health science doctoral programs.
MD/PhD Program 
The MD/PhD Program, established in 1983 and funded partly by the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program, is a collaborative training program involving the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. For students who have a clearly defined interest in biomedical research, the MD/PhD program serves as a bridge between the medical curriculum and the large number of graduate programs at the two universities. Students enrolled in the program complete the entire medical school curriculum as well as the curriculum of a field of study for the PhD degree. Graduates receive a dual degree. The program takes advantage of the highly developed curricula of the medical and graduate programs as well as the large depth and breadth of research available at the two universities. MD/PhD students typically complete the first two years of medical school before entering a program leading to the PhD degree. The students then enter a track in a selected field of study. Students choose from the basic sciences at the School of Medicine, School of Engineering, Graduate School of Public Health, and Faculty of Arts and Sciences and similar programs at Carnegie Mellon University. The estimated time to completion of the entire dual degree program is 7.6 years, ranging from six to ten years.
As of July 1, 2009 the School of Medicine had 2028 volunteer faculty. In addition to eight emeritus members, sixty-seven faculty from throughout the school are active members of the Academy of Master Educators, which was developed to recognize and reward excellence in medical education.
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is an important center for medical research. This level of support places Pitt at #6 (behind Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Penn, UCSF, and Washington) out of the 123 American medical schools that received Federal research funding in fiscal year 2006. In addition, the School of Medicine received nearly $135 million of support through a synergistic relationship with its associated hospital system: the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. A major aim of the School of Medicine's research in coming years, among others, is to monitor gene expression and its consequences on a cell, in vivo, on a molecular scale using nuclear magnetic resonance. A focus on translational research - moving recent biomedical research from the laboratory into mainstream clinical practice - is also emphasized.
The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) supports the educational, research, clinical, and service activities of the health sciences community of the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) through development and provision of innovative information resources and services. The Health Library System serves as a regional medical library for the Middle Atlantic region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, which makes it one of only eight institutions in the nation serving as a regional medical library for the United States National Library of Medicine.
HSLS includes the following libraries:
Falk Library of Health Sciences serves as the flagship of the HSLS, with a wide-ranging collection of biomedical and health-related journals and monographs, as well as a specialized collection of rare and historical materials. The Computer and Media Center (CMC) offers computing and Internet access to qualified library users, as well as videotapes, audiotapes, slide sets and software packages. The CMC has more than 75 available computers, as well a classroom equipped for group computer instruction. The University’s wireless network is available throughout the library. The Falk Library is open 110 hours per week.
The James Frazer Hillman Health Sciences Library and the Hopwood Library: A Health Resource Center for Patients and Families at UPMC Shadyside provide books, journals, audiovisuals, and computers to support clinical practice and patient/family education. This combined library facility is open 50 hours per week.
The Blaxter Medical Library, the Family Resource Center, and the Moulis Children’s Library at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh contain specialized collections in clinical pediatrics, child health and wellness, recreational reading and videotapes for hospitalized children, as well as computers available to employees of Children’s Hospital and patient families. This combined library facility is open 53 hours per week.
The HSLS staff includes 26.6 FTE librarians, 37.7 FTE paraprofessional and technical staff, and 5.6 FTE student assistants. The HSLS serves more than 55,000 primary clients, including health sciences faculty, staff, students, residents, and employees of UPMC hospitals.
Pitt Med Magazine 
Pitt Med magazine is the school's quarterly magazine, produced by the Office of Public Affairs. It has been in publication since 2000. Pitt Med highlights the current research at the School of Medicine, and showcases the achievements of its doctors and alumni. Each magazine contains several feature stories, brief informative clips of information, and an alumni section. Pitt Med is free and available to all University of Pittsburgh students and alumni, as well as anyone who requests a copy or a subscription.
Scaife Hall 
Originally residing in cramped Pennsylvania Hall and Allen Hall, ground was broken on a new School of Medicine building on June 28, 1954 and it opened in 1956. Construction of the building, designed by the architectural firm Schmidt, Garden and Erickson, was interrupted by a fire in June, 1955 that destroyed girders and concrete work. The School of Medicine began relocating to the facility from Pennsylvania and Allen halls in the fall of 1955. The ten-story structure's original construction costs were $15 million ($128.6 million today). By 1958, the building received its current moniker in honor of one of the school's primary benefactors. The building is attached to UPMC Presbyterian Hospital and contains classrooms, lecture halls, laboratories, and the Falk Library of the Health Sciences.
Old Engineering Hall
|University of Pittsburgh Buildings
See also 
- "PA Higher/Adult Ed.: State-Related Universities". Pennsylvania Department of Education. April 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-06.
- University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2010/11 Fact Book. University of Pittsburgh. 2010. p. 4. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- "America's Best Graduate Schools 2013". U.S. News & World Report. 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2010/11 Fact Book. University of Pittsburgh. 2010. p. 15. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- "Admissions & Financial AId: Our Students". University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- "AAMC Medical School Admission Requirements (MSAR® )". Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- Levine, Arthur S; Detre, Thomas P.; McDonald, Margaret; Roth, Loren H.; Huber, Jeffrey A.; Brignano, Mary Germann; Danoff, Sandra N.; Farner, David M. et al. (2008-09). "The relationship between the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center--a profile in synergy". Academic Medicine (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 83 (9): 815–826. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318181d1a8. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 18728434. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- Comarow, Avery (2010-07-14). "Best Hospitals 2010-11: The Honor Roll". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- "UPMC Named to U.S. News & World Report Honor Roll of America’s Best Hospitals for the 11th Time" (Press release). UPMC Media Relations. 2010-07-15. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- Paull, Barbara I. (1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: The History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association. pp. 11–12. ASIN BB0006EI9Q2. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Paull, Barbara I. (1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: The History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association. pp. 9–10. ASIN BB0006EI9Q2. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Diller, Theodore (1927-05). "Hospitals, Schools and Journals". Pioneer Medicine in Western Pennsylvania. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. p. 217. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
- Starrett, Agnes Lynch (1937). Through one hundred and fifty years: the University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 355.
- Alberts, Robert C. (1986). Pitt :the story of the University of Pittsburgh, 1787-1987. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 41.
- Medical Education in the U.S. and Canada
- "Medicine: Millions from Mellon". Time (New York, NY) 63 (4). 1954-01-25. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- History. School’s Web site. Retrieved on November 02, 2007.
- Health Sciences Portal. Message from the SVC/Dean. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Departments. School’s Web site. Retrieved on April 22, 2008.
- Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs, Liaison Council on Medical Education. Retrieved on February 19, 2008 http://www.lcme.org/directry.htm http://www.acgme.org/acWebsite/home/home.asp
- MD Program. School’s Web site. Retrieved on November 02, 2007.
- Hart, Peter (2010-04-29). "Some Pitt grad programs climb in most recent U.S. News rankings". University Times 42 (17). Retrieved 2010=04-29.
- MD Program. School’s Admissions Web site. Retrieved on November 02, 2007
- The Princeton Review. Medical School Profile. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Fact Book. University of Pittsburgh Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
- GRADUATE Graduate and Professional Bulletin. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
- Graduate and Professional Bulletin. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
- Graduate and Professional Bulletin. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved on December 16, 2009.
- School’s Graduate Program Web site. Retrieved on December 16, 2009.
- University of Pittsburgh Center for Neuroscience Web site. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
- 2009-10 Fact Book University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
- University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine: Academy of Master Educators: Academy Members, accessdate=2009-01-14
- Levine, A.: "State of the School Address". 9 May 2007.
- "HSLS to serve as regional medical library". University Times 43 (20) (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh). 2011-06-09. p. 11. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
- 2008 Health Sciences Library System Overview
- Pitt Med, University of Pittsburgh
- Fitzgerald, R. H. (Summer, 1954). "Schools of the Health Professions". Pitt (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh) (52): 6. Retrieved 05-01-2011.
- "Pitt Building Fire Damage Being Studied". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA). 1955-06-30. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- Paull, Barbara I. (1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: The History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association. p. 205. ASIN BB0006EI9Q2. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Construction of Scaife Hall, Historic Pittsburgh Image Collection, accessdate=2008-08-17
Further reading 
- Paull, Barbara I. (c1986). A Century of Medical Excellence: the History of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. University of Pittsburgh Medical Alumni Association.
- Brignano, Mary (2009). Beyond the Bounds: A History of UPMC. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing Co. ISBN 978-1-4349-0283-2.
- University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine website
- MDPhD Program Website
- University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 2012/13 Fact Book
- 2012 State of the School Address
- Pitt Med Magazine
- Scaife Hall on Pitt's virtual Campus Tour
- Health Sciences Library System Overview