University of São Paulo
|University of São Paulo|
Shield of the University of São Paulo
|Motto||Scientia Vinces (Latin)|
|Motto in English||With knowledge, you will conquer.|
|Budget||R$ 4 725 126 513.00|
|Dean||João Grandino Rodas|
|Location||São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Carlos, Ribeirão Preto, Bauru, Lorena, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil|
The University of São Paulo (Portuguese: Universidade de São Paulo; USP) is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian university and the country's most prestigious educational institution. According to reports by the Ministry of Science and Technology, more than 25% of the articles published by Brazilian researchers in high quality conferences and journals are produced at the University of São Paulo.
USP is one of the largest institutions of higher education in Latin America, with approximately 90,000 enrolled students. It has eleven campuses, four of them in São Paulo (the main campus is called Campus Armando de Salles Oliveira, with an area of 7,443,770 m²). The other campuses are in the cities of Bauru, Lorena, Piracicaba, Pirassununga, Ribeirão Preto and two in São Carlos. USP is involved in teaching, research and university extension in all areas of knowledge.
In 1934, during a period known for the "search for alternatives", along with political centralisation, efforts were carried out to provide Brazil with modern administrative, educational and military institutions. One of the main initiatives included the creation, that same year, of the University of São Paulo. Its nucleus was the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Languages, with professors coming from France, Italy, Spain, Germany and other European countries.
USP brought together several independent research and higher-education institutions. Those were already famous in Brazil, such as the Faculty of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina), the Polytechnic School (Escola Politécnica), "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture (Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz), and the College of Law (Faculdade de Direito).
After the defeat of São Paulo in the Revolution of 1932, the state found itself needing a new elite capable of contributing to the improvement of institutions, government and advance of the country. With this aim, a group of businessmen founded the Free School of Sociology and Politics (ELSP) (the current Foundation of the School of Sociology and Politics in São Paulo) in 1933. The intervenor of São Paulo (which corresponded to the governor) Armando de Sales Oliveira engender the creation of the University of São Paulo (USP) in 1934. In the words of Sergio Milliet (a Brazilian writer from this time):
"From São Paulo does not leave more anarchic civil wars, but after all a scientific and intellectual revolution capable of changing economic and social conceptions of the Brazilians."
The ELSP assumed the goal of administrative elites to form a new model in which they noted an increasing role of the state, while the USP returned to train teachers for secondary schools, experts in sciences, engineers, lawyers, physicians and professors. The sociological American model was the example to ELSP, while the French academic world was the main source of inspiration for the new USP.
Foreign professors such as Claude Levi-Strauss (France), Fernand Braudel (France), Roger Bastide (France), Heinrich Rheinboldt (Germany), Paul Arbousse Bastide (France), Jean Magüé (France), Martial Gueroult (France), Emilio Willems (Germany), Donald Pierson (USA), Gleb Vassielievich Wataghin (Russia), Pierre Monbeig (France), Giacomo Albanese (Italy), Luigi Fantappiè (Italy), Giuseppe Ungaretti (Italy) and Herbert Baldus (Germany), broadcast in various institutions new standards for teaching and research, creating new generations of scientists in Brazil.
Since your foundation USP received professors and researchers from all over the world. Due to different motives came later professors such as David Bohm (USA), Giuseppe Occhialini (Italy), François Châtelet (France), Anatol Rosenfeld (Germany), Helmi Nasr (Egypt), Gérard Lebrun (France), Fritz Köberle (Austria) and Heinz Dieter Heidemann (Germany).
The USP arose from the union of the newly created Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters (FFCL) with institutions like the existing Polytechnic School of Engineering (founded in 1893), the "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture (Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz) (founded in 1901), the Faculty of Medicine (founded in 1912), the traditional School of Law (founded in 1827), the old Faculty of Pharmacy and Dentistry (founded in 1898), the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences (founded in 1886) and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (founded in 1919).
The FFCL emerged as the integrating element of the university, bringing together courses in various areas of knowledge. Also in 1934 was created the School of Physical Education (sports science) of the State of São Paulo, the first civil school of physical education in Brazil, and this would be incorporated years later in the USP. In 1944 was established a university hospital (Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo). Following was created the School of Engineering of Sao Carlos – EESC and in the subsequent years several other research units were created by the university, like a second School of Medicine in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo's rural area) in 1952.
Later in 1960, the university was gradually transferring the headquarters of some of its units to the City University Armando de Salles Oliveira, in Sao Paulo. In 1963 was established the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo. Thereafter new institutes and schools were created, for instance the School of Journalism, Communication and Arts (ECA) in 1966. Over the years, some of the university's old departments were transformed into autonomous faculties or institutes, such as the Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICB), the Institute of Geosciences (IGc) and the Institute of Biosciences (IB) in 1969.
Besides the political Armando de Sales Oliveira, another man of great importance in the founding of USP was the journalist Julio de Mesquita Filho.
Military dictatorship 
During the 1970s and part of 1980, some critics believe that the USP has undergone an intellectual dissection, both in terms of knowledge production and the quality of human resources. During the past decades, the university served as the stage for the discussion of a new country project, bringing together many leftist intellectuals (such as Florestan Fernandes, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Boris Fausto, Paul Singer, Antonio Candido, Gioconda Mussolini among others) in their multiple units (but especially in the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters). With the limitation of democratic freedoms promoted by the Brazilian military regime (that was in their most rigid), a large number of professors from USP are disenfranchised (and many are forced to leave the country), as a part of the students involved- with resistance (armed and political) to the dictatorship, which led to compulsory removals of his faculties.
This situation led to a lower production of knowledge in Brazil, even though some progress, especially concerning the technological point of view (which came to be financed by the old undemocratic government) have been obtained. It also promoted a systematic increase in the total number of graduate vacancies, encouraged by the state government. This fact is pointed out by some critics as a response to the student movement prior to its politicization, when he mobilized only educational issues.
The gap caused by the removal of teachers and students chased by the military regime was interrupted with the campaign of political amnesty, since the early 1980s. In several units of USP was celebrated the return of the professors deposed, although many of them have been rehired in poor conditions (old full professors took positions of assistant professors).
Democratization and expansion of the Units 
Parallel to the resulting intellectual emptiness of political repression occurred at USP in the 1960s, 70s and 80s a process of fragmentation of their units, new faculties were created and new institutes, which resulted in new courses, new lines of research and graduate programs. The dissolution of the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters (FFCL) is often cited as a paradigmatic symbol of this process.
Originally conceived as the academic core of the university, gathering itself the various fields of pure knowledge, the FFCL, over time, saw their departments to gain autonomy and become full units (autonomous and administratively separate from your original drive). The Institute of Physics was the first department to extricate itself from the old FFCL, followed also by other departments of exact and biological sciences. Thus, with only the permanence of the majors in the humanities, there was an internal reform drive and it was renamed as the Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities (FFLCH).
In 2004, the university founded the Institute of International Relations, with the aim to study global matters in a multidisciplinary (law, political science, economy and history) environment with Brazilian and international students and professors. In 2005, was built in the East Zone of the city of São Paulo a new School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities (EACH), taking a few courses that go beyond traditional Brazilian university model and aim to diversify the areas of the consolidated institution.  On 21 March 2006, USP approved the merger of a second School of Chemical Engineering (FAENQUIL) in the city of Lorena (rural area), at the Paraíba Valley (State of São Paulo's rural area), with about 1,600 students in total and of these 1,200 at graduation. In 2007 was established a second School of Law in the city of Ribeirão Preto, also in the State of São Paulo's countryside.
USP have today five hospitals and offers 247 undergraduate programs and 239 graduate programs in all areas of study. The university houses altogether 24 museums and galleries – with half a million visitors a year – two theaters, a cinema, a TV channel and an orchestra. The University of Sao Paulo welcomes people from all continents, and stimulates this process via networks and consortiums (International Office – USP), such as Erasmus Mundus, Associação das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa, Rede Magalhães (SMILE - Student Mobility in Latin America, Caribbean and Europe), among others.
SIR World Report 2012 from SCImago Institutions Rankings classified the university in the 11th place in the world. In 2012, according to the University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), the University of Sao Paulo is the best university in Ibero-America and 28th university in the world. Mines ParisTech ranked USP in the 19th place. Ranking Web of Universities classified USP in the 19th place. USP is ranked among the top 70 universities in the world, in the Ranking "Top Universities by Reputation 2013" published by Times Higher Education. Taiwan classified the university in the 53th place. According to the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities, USP is placed in the group of the 101–151 top world universities. In the 2012 QS World University Rankings University of Sao Paulo ranked 139th and is the best classified in the specific ranking of South America's universities. In 2012, the University of Sao Paulo is the first Ibero-American institution in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings's top-200 (Position 158 in the World). According to ARWU, USP was classified in the first place, regarding the number of doctorates awarded during 2011.
USP's admittance exam, the vestibular, is prepared and administered by FUVEST (University Foundation for Vestibular), subject to regulations approved by the university's Undergraduate Studies Council. In 2012, 159,603 students signed up for Fuvest's vestibular, for a total of 10,982 openings. USP is a public university therefore students do not have to pay any tuition fees.
Academic career 
- Teaching Assistant (Auxiliar de Ensino) – MS-2 (must have a Master's degree and be enrolled in a doctoral program). Undergraduate students can also be a teaching assistant for a semester, with scholarships from each department.
- Professor Doctor (Professor Doutor) – MS-3 (must have a doctoral or equivalent degree).
- Associate Professor (Professor Associado) – MS-5 (must have a Livre Docente title; equivalent to the German Habilitation).
- Full Professor (Professor Titular) – MS-6 (top rank, only MS-6 professors are allowed to hold positions such as the Dean of a Faculty/School or the Dean of the University).
Undergraduate programs 
The USP currently offers 229 courses, each subject to their respective unit, except for some interdisciplinary courses. For example, the course in Biomedical Informatics, offered by Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto together with the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto. In the first half of 2004, 3,225 courses were offered. Undergraduate courses are classified by the University in three major areas: Humanities Biological Sciences and Physical Sciences.
Schools, Faculties and Institutes 
- Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism
- Bauru Faculty of Odontology
- Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Faculty of Law of the University of São Paulo
- Faculty of Law of Ribeirão Preto
- Faculty of Economy, Business and Accounting
- Faculty of Economy, Management and Accounting of Ribeirão Preto
- Faculty of Education
- Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Languages of Ribeirão Preto
- Faculty of Philosophy, Languages and Humanities
- Faculty of Medicine
- Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto
- Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
- Faculty of Odontology
- Faculty of Public Health
- Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering
- Lorena School of Engineering
- Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture
- Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo
- Ribeirão Preto School of Nursing
- Ribeirão Preto Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Ribeirão Preto Faculty of Odontology
- São Carlos School of Engineering
- School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities
- School of Communications and Arts
- School of Physical Education and Sports
- School of Nursing
- School of Economics, Business and Accounting of the University of São Paulo
- School of the Future
- Institute of Oceanography
- Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences(International page)
- Institute of Biosciencies
- Institute of Biomedical Sciences
- Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science (São Carlos)
- Institute of Physics
- Institute of Physics of São Carlos
- Institute of Geosciences
- Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
- Institute of Psychology
- Institute of Chemistry
- Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos
- Institute of Foreign Affairs
- Institute of Architecture and Urbanism (São Carlos)
Museums and art galleries 
The University of São Paulo inherited a rich set of museums and important art galleries, most of them located in the central campus in São Paulo, such as:
- Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo (Museum of Contemporary Art)
- Museu Paulista (Historical Museum of São Paulo)
- Museu de Zoologia (Museum of Zoology)
- MAE-USP – Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (Museum of Archeology and Etnology)
- University of São Paulo Faculty of Medicine Clinics Hospital
- Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo
- Clinics Hospital of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo
Notable alumni 
See also 
- Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp)
- Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp)
- Rankings of universities in Brazil
- Universities and Higher Education in Brazil
- "Universidade de São Paulo – Usp em números 2010". Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- "Evolução das Liberações Financeiras do Tesouro do Estado de São Paulo Para a Usp". Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Baty, Phil. "The goals will come". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- "COCESP". Usp.br. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- http://www.usp.br/internationaloffice/en/index.php/admissions/undergraduate USP's International Office Webpage
- http://www.usp.br/internationaloffice/en/index.php/admissions/undergraduate USP's International Office
- http://www.usp.br/internationaloffice/en/ USP's International Office
- http://scimagoir.com/ SIR – SCImago Institutions Rankings
- http://www.mines-paristech.fr/Actualites/PR/EMP-ranking.html International Professional Ranking of Higher Education Institutions
- "Ranking Web of Universities – World". Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2013/reputation-ranking Top Universities by Reputation 2013
- http://nturanking.lis.ntu.edu.tw/DataPage/OverallRanking.aspx NTU Ranking 2012 (there is an English version)
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2010". Shanghai Jiaotong University. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2012-13/world-ranking The World Universities Ranking 2012–2013
- "(Text in Portuguese)". Retrieved 2012-02-25.
- University of São Paulo. "At USP". Retrieved 20 March 2011.
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- University of São Paulo social networking site
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