|Stable release||4.5 / 14 October 2014|
|Available in||English, Korean, Chinese, Japanese|
|License||Proprietary; UDK free for noncommercial use|
The Unreal Engine is a game engine developed by Epic Games, first showcased in the 1998 first-person shooter game Unreal. Although primarily developed for first-person shooters, it has been successfully used in a variety of other genres, including stealth, MMORPGs, and other RPGs. With its code written in C++, the Unreal Engine features a high degree of portability and is a tool used by many game developers today.
Unreal Engine 1
Available for licensees: sometime 1996
|Initial release||Unreal v100 / May 1998|
|Stable release||Unreal Tournament v436 / November 2000|
|Written in||C++ , UnrealScript, Assembly|
|Platform||Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS and Mac OS X, Dreamcast, PlayStation 2|
Making its debut in 1998 with Unreal, the first generation Unreal Engine integrated rendering, collision detection, AI, visibility, networking, scripting, and file system management into one complete engine. Unreal Engine 1 provided an advanced software rasterizer and a hardware-accelerated rendering path using the Glide API, specifically developed for 3dfx GPUs, and was updated for OpenGL and Direct3D. Large parts of the game were implemented in a custom scripting language called UnrealScript. The initial network performance was also very poor when compared to its biggest competitor, Quake II. Epic used this engine for both Unreal and Unreal Tournament. The release of Unreal Tournament marked great strides in both network performance and Direct3D and OpenGL support.
Unreal Engine 2
Available for licensees: Unreal Warfare build 633 / January 2001
|Initial release||Unreal Tournament 2003 v927 / April 2002|
|Stable release||Unreal Tournament 2004 v3369 / November 2005|
|Written in||C++ , UnrealScript|
|Platform||Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Xbox, PlayStation 2, GameCube|
The second version made its debut in 2002 with America's Army. This generation saw the core code and rendering engine completely re-written. In addition, it featured UnrealEd 2, which debuted with the previous generation of the engine and was shortly followed later by UnrealEd 3, along with the Karma physics SDK. This physics engine powered the ragdoll physics in Unreal Tournament 2003 and Unreal Championship. Other engine elements were also updated, with improved assets as well as adding support for the GameCube and the Xbox. Support for the PlayStation 2 console was previously added in UE1. Taking Xbox aside, both GameCube and PS2 were never supported directly by Epic, support being instead farmed out to Secret Level said builds were stale and left behind, the last "official" build PS2 and GC saw was build 927 dated April 2002; last official UE2.5 build was build 3369. As such, third parties looking to use further Unreal Engine revisions had to do their own builds throughout the generation, as they had to in more recent years with the Wii, X360, PS3, PSP, and 3DS.
UE2.5, an update to the original version of UE2, improved rendering performance and added vehicles physics, a particle system editor for UnrealEd, and 64-bit support in Unreal Tournament 2004. A specialized version of UE2.5 called UE2X was used for Unreal Championship 2: The Liandri Conflict on the original Xbox platform. It featured optimizations specific to that console. EAX 3.0 is also supported for sound. Unreal Engine 2.X was build 2227, dated March 2004.
Unreal Engine 3
Available for licensees: March 2004
|Initial release||Roboblitz (UE3 v2306) / Nov 2006|
|Stable release||Unreal Development Kit 2014-05 beta (UE3 v12466.2243543) / August 2014|
|Written in||C++, C#, UnrealScript, GLSL, Cg, HLSL|
|Platform||Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Wii U, Android, iOS, Windows RT, PlayStation Vita, Adobe Flash Player, HTML5|
The first screenshots of Unreal Engine 3 were presented in 2004, at which point the engine was in development for 18 months already. Unlike Unreal Engine 2, which still supported fixed-function pipeline, Unreal Engine 3 was designed to take advantage of fully programmable shader hardware (in DirectX 9 terms, it required shader model 3.0). All lighting calculations were done per-pixel, instead of per-vertex. On the rendering side, Unreal Engine 3 also provided support for a gamma-correct high-dynamic range renderer. UE3 expected that content was authored in both high- and low-resolution version and baked normal maps for run-time; a major difference to previous generations where the game content was modeled directly (since normal mapping is a per-pixel operation and almost all the dynamic lighting in UE1 and 2 was calculated per-vertex using a Gouraud Shading technique)
Throughout the lifetime of the UE3, significant updates have been incorporated:
- Epic Games announced at Game Developers Conference (GDC) 2009 some improvements made to Unreal Engine 3. These included:
- Unreal Lightmass: a global illumination solver. Provides high-quality static lighting with next-generation effects, such as soft shadows with accurate penumbrae, diffuse, specular inter-reflection, and color bleeding.
- The ability to add fracture effects to static meshes to simulate destructible environments
- Soft body dynamics (physics)
- Large crowd simulation
- In December 2009, Epic demoed UE3 running on Apple's 3rd generation iPod Touch. They said that this will also support iPhone 3GS, and also an unknown mobile platform which has been revealed to be webOS at CES 2010. It has been revealed so far to be something on Nvidia's Tegra platform, and also Palm's webOS running PowerVR's SGX chip.
- In March 2010, Steamworks was integrated into the software, and is offered to licensees.
- In June 2010, Epic Games revealed Epic Citadel, a tech demo to showcase Unreal Engine 3 on iOS devices (iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad devices).
- In June 2010 during the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2010, Mark Rein (vice president of Epic Games) showcased a tech demo of Gears of War 2 in stereoscopic 3D running on an Xbox 360 thanks to the TriOviz for Games Technology. "This technology's great because it works on normal HD TVs, as well as the very high end 3DTVs," Rein commented to Computer and Video Games. "We're not planning to re-release this in 3D – unless Microsoft want us to – but I'm sure it's technology may be keen to put in the games developed by our partners."
- In October 2010, TriOviz for Games Technology has been officially integrated in Unreal Engine 3, allowing to easily convert in stereoscopic 3D, numerous past and upcoming games developed on Xbox 360 and PS3 with this engine.
- As of March 2011, the Unreal 3 Engine supports DirectX 11. Epic Games showcased it with a real-time demonstration video, entitled "Samaritan". Additions include tessellation and displacement mapping, advanced hair rendering with MSAA, deferred shading with MSAA, screen space subsurface scattering, image-based lighting, billboard reflections, glossy reflections, reflection shadows, point light reflections, and bokeh depth of field. The Samaritan demo was unveiled during GDC 2011 as a proof of concept and target for the "3.5" version of Epic's Unreal Engine 3, ostensibly aimed at next-generation platforms. It was built by Epic Games in a close partnership with NVIDIA, with engineers working around to country to push real-time graphics to a new high point.
- In July 2011, Geomerics announced that their real-time global illumination solution Enlighten is now integrated with Unreal Engine 3 and available to licensees.
- In October 2011, Epic Games announced that a version of the engine would be compatible with Adobe Flash Player.
- In May 2012, UE3 added support for the RealD 3D stereoscopic technology.
In addition to the game industry, UE3 has also seen adoption by many non-gaming projects, for instance:
- The popular children's TV show LazyTown used UE3 during filming to generate virtual sets for real-time integration with footage of actors and puppets performing in front of green screens.
- In March 2012, the FBI licensed Epic's Unreal Development Kit to use in a simulator for training.
- The animation software "Muvizu Play", which was released in April 2013, uses UE3.
Unreal Development Kit
|Initial release||version 5860, November 2009|
|Stable release||version 12466, changelist 2243543 / August 2014|
|Written in||C++, C#, UnrealScript, GLSL, Cg, HLSL|
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows|
|Platform||Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iOS|
|Type||Level editor / Software development kit|
|License||Free for noncommercial use|
UDN for UDK
While Unreal Engine 3 has been quite open for modders to work with, the ability to publish and sell games made using UE3 was restricted to licensees of the engine. However, in November 2009, Epic released a free version of UE3's SDK, called the Unreal Development Kit (UDK), that is available to the general public. According to the current EULA, game developers can sell their games by paying Epic the cost of $99 USD, and 25% royalty on UDK related revenue above US$50,000 from all UDK-based games or commercial applications. The December 2010 UDK release added support for creating iOS games an apps. As of the September 2011 release, iOS, OS X, and Windows platforms all support UDK-created games. The February 2014 UDK release contained enhancements specific to mobile development, including iOS 7 and Xcode 5 support, shader upgrades and the addition of distortion.
Unreal Engine 4
Available for licensees: May 2012
|Initial release||Unreal Engine 126.96.36.1997741 / March 19, 2014|
|Stable release||Unreal Engine 4.5.0 / October 14, 2014|
|Written in||C++, C#, GLSL, Cg, HLSL,
|Platform||Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, HTML5, iOS, Android|
On August 17, 2005, Mark Rein, the vice-president of Epic Games, revealed that Unreal Engine 4 had been in development since 2003. Until mid-2008, development was exclusively done by Tim Sweeney, founder and technical director of Epic Games. The engine targets the eighth generation of consoles, PCs and Tegra K1-based devices running Android announced in January 2014 at CES.
In February 2012, Mark Rein said "people are going to be shocked later this year when they see Unreal Engine 4". Unreal Engine 4 was unveiled to limited attendees at the 2012 Game Developers Conference, and video of the engine being demonstrated by developer Alan "Talisman" Willard was released to the public on June 7, 2012 via GameTrailers TV. This demo was created on a PC with triple GeForce GTX 580 (tri SLI) and can be run on a PC with a GeForce GTX 680.
One of the major features planned for UE4 was real-time global illumination using voxel cone tracing, eliminating pre-computed lighting. However, this feature has been replaced with a similar but less computationally-expensive algorithm prior to release for all platforms including the PC because of performance concerns on next-generation consoles. UE4 also includes new developer features to reduce iteration time, and allows updating of C++ code while the engine is running. The new "Blueprint" visual scripting system (a successor to UE3's "Kismet") allows for rapid development of game logic without using C++, and includes live debugging. The result is reduced iteration time, and less of a divide between technical artists, designers, and programmers.
"[In older engines], if you wanted to change the relationship between your weapon damage and how long it'll take to kill a creature, you may spend a couple of days iterating, but if you have to spend a lot of time waiting for a build every time, you're talking one change, waiting 15 minutes for the compile to complete, and then play the game, get to the point where you can test it, test it, exit the game, change, compile. Now, since all of that can be done very quickly within the tools, it's 'Make the change, play, when it compiles, finish, shoot the guy, and then escape, make the change, play'. The iteration time is down to 30 seconds instead of 15 minutes. Our ability to kind of roll through and see how the game is playing out is much faster."
On March 19, 2014, at the 2014 Game Developers Conference, Epic Games opened Unreal Engine 4 to the world, releasing all of its leading-edge tools, features and complete C++ source code to the development community through a new subscription model. Anyone can sign up for UE4 for PC, Mac, iOS and Android by paying $19 per month, plus 5% of gross revenue resulting from any commercial products built using UE4. CEO and founder of Epic Games, Tim Sweeney, said that the new business model is a reflection of changes in the industry. Epic Games has traditionally made its Unreal Engine available to large AAA game development teams at a cost of millions of dollars. But as the industry has evolved, Epic has had to "really rethink our whole business as to how we make the engine available to teams." "Looking at the new shape of the industry now, we realize that's an outdated tool," Sweeney said. "Looking at the possibilities for the engine, we started from scratch and thought 'How can we make the engine available to more people?'". According to the Unreal Engine website, subscribers to the engine will be able to cancel their subscription, or renew it at any time. They will be able to retain access to UE4 tools, but will not receive access to future releases of Unreal Engine 4.
On September 3, 2014, Epic Games launched the Unreal Engine Marketplace, allowing UE4 subscribers to buy and sell community-created content of all shapes and sizes. In addition to all of the previously released free content, the new marketplace was launched with a variety of asset packs including full-scale environments, props, characters, sounds, materials, animated meshes, prefab C++ code and a number of other asset types as well as free demos and tutorials. On September 4, 2014, Epic released Unreal Engine 4 to schools and universities for free, including personal copies for students enrolled in accredited video game development, computer science, art, architecture, simulation, and visualization programs.
Games using the Unreal Engine
Unreal Engine 2
- Licenses for education
- Licenses for education for Construction Simulations and Interior Designs
- Bentheim Interior Design
Unreal Engine 2 Runtime Custom License is used in many non-gaming projects including construction simulations and designs, training simulations, driving simulations, educations, virtual reality shopping malls, movie storyboards, continuities, pre-visuals, etc.
Until October 2007, more than 500 companies had Unreal Engine 2 Runtime Licenses.
Unreal Engine 3
- Licenses for education
- Norwich University of the Arts
- The Jim Henson Company
- University of Advancing Technology
- Louisiana State University in Shreveport
- Centennial College
- Expression College for Digital Arts
- Digital Media Arts College
- The Art Institute of California
- Stanly Community College
- University of Teesside
- San Jacinto College South
- University of Wisconsin Stout
- University of Derby
- Singapore Polytechnic
- Licenses for Training Simulation
- U.S. Army
- U.S. Air Force
- ROK Navy
- Chinese Army
- U.S. Government
- PB Project Visualization, (U.S. Department of Transportation)
- Department of Homeland Security(DHS)/George Washington University
- Virtual Heroes, a division of Applied Research Associates, Inc.
- IPKeys Technologies/Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Gaming and Modeling Environment (I-GAME)
- Opaque Multimedia
- Licenses for Construction Simulation
- Luigi Russo
- Licenses for VR Techniques
- Yost Engineering, Inc/YEI Technology
- Licenses for CG animation
- Unreal, the original game featuring the engine
- UnrealScript, the scripting language used in Unreal Engine
- UnrealEd, the Unreal level editor
- List of Unreal Engine games
- Game engine
- List of game engines
- Video game development
- TriOviz for Games Technology
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unreal Engine 3.|
- Official website
- Mozilla Brings Unreal Engine 3 To Firefox
- The official Unreal Developer Network documenting the Unreal Engine
- Unreal Technology
- Unreal Engine 1 Features
- Unreal Engine 2 & 2X
- Unreal Development Kit
- Unreal on-line tutorials
- UDK Tutorial Series
- IGN interview, September 2011 - Tim Sweeney talks about the future of gaming