Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)|
||This article may contain original research. (April 2011)|
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
Map indicating worldwide UNPO membership (click to enlarge and for legend).
|Headquarters||The Hague, Netherlands|
|-||Secretary-General|| Marino Busdachin
|-||President|| Ngawang Choephel Drakmargyapon
(since May 2010)
|-||Vice-President|| Mohamoud Daar
(since December 2012)
|Establishment||February 11, 1991|
|a.||Last updated September 2012.|
|b.||Combined total of members' populations according to UNPO website.|
|c.||Not putting any other organisations in the list.[clarification needed]|
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO), formed on the 11 February 1991 in The Hague, Netherlands, is an international democratic organisation that facilitates the voices of unrepresented and marginalised nations and peoples worldwide. Technically, it is not a non-governmental organisation (NGO) as some of its members are governments or government agencies of unrecognized states. Its members consist of indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognised or occupied territories. The organization trains groups in how to advocate their causes effectively. Some former members, such as Armenia, East Timor, Estonia, Latvia, Georgia and Palau, have gained full independence and joined the United Nations.
"UN" in its acronym does not stand for United Nations. UNPO is not an agency of the United Nations.
UNPO was conceived of in the 1980s by supporter of "Tibetan independence": Tsering Jampa, Uyghur Erkin Alptekin and Michael van Walt van Praag, long a lawyer for the 14th Dalai Lama. UNPO chose for its founding headquarters in 1991 The Hague in the Netherlands because the city aimed at becoming the International City of Peace and Justice and hosts international courts like the ICJ and ICC. UNPO has an advocacy office in Brussels, representation in Geneva and a network of associates and consultants based around the world. UNPO is funded by member contributions and donations from individuals and foundations. A key UNPO goal was to replicate the success of the 14th Dalai Lama's propagating of the Tibetan independence message, and they often mentioned his name in the early years of the organization, as well as including in publications pictures of him visiting UNPO and supporting statements he made of the organization.
To this end, UNPO trains its members in international law, international organizations, diplomacy, and public relations. UNPO has built its credibility by being the first organization to release on-ground information from remote areas, typically press releases from groups like MOSOP. Like Amnesty International, its techniques include issuing action alerts and being an objective source of information. UNPO is funded by member contributions and donations from individuals and foundations.
UNPO’s vision is to affirm democracy as a fundamental human right, implement human, civil and political rights worldwide, uphold the universal right to autonomy and self-determination and further federalism. It encourages nonviolent methodologies to reach peaceful solutions to conflicts and oppression. UNPO supports members in getting their human and cultural rights respected and in preserving their environments. The organization provides a forum for members to network and assists them in participating at an international level.
Although UNPO members often have different goals, they have one thing in common: they are generally not represented diplomatically (or only with a minor status, such as observer) in major international institutions, such as the United Nations. As a result, their ability to have their concerns addressed by the global bodies mandated to protect human rights and address conflict is limited.
UNPO is dedicated to the five principles enshrined in its Covenant:
- The equal right to self-determination;
- Adherence to the internationally accepted human rights standards as laid down in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international instruments;
- Adherence to the principles of democratic pluralism and rejection of totalitarianism and religious intolerance;
- Promotion of non-violence and the rejection of terrorism as an instrument of policy; and
- Protection of the natural environment.
(It should be noted that contrary to popular perception, self‐determination does not necessarily imply secession, separate nationhood, or even autonomy. It simply refers to the right of all peoples to freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. The exercise of this right can result in a variety of outcomes, ranging from political independence to full integration within an existing state.)
The following are the 42 members listed on the UNPO Nations & People page, the organizations that currently represent them, and the dates on which they joined the UNPO (original members listed with blue background):
||This section may contain parts that are misleading. (December 2012)|
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
||This section may contain original research. (October 2012)|
- Aboriginals of Australia, represented by National Committee to Defend Black Rights (member from 11 February 1991 to 7 July 2012)
- Dene, represented by Buffalo River Dene Nation (member from 19 December 2004 to 9 October 2009)
- Burma, represented by the National Council of the Union of Burma (member from 15 May 2008 to 13 February 2010)
- Buryatia, represented by the All-Buryat Association for the Development of Culture (member from 3 February 1996 to 13 February 2010)
- Greek Minority in Albania, represented by the Democratic Union of the Greek Ethnic Minority in Albania (member from 11 February 1991 to 7 Jul 2012)
- Cabinda (member from 17 April 1997 to 18 September 2011)
- Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (member from 6 August 1991 to 10 September 2010)
- Inkeri (member from 17 January 1993 to 9 October 2009)
- Kalahui Hawai'i, represented by Ka Lahui Hawaii (member from 3 August 1993 to 7 July 2012)
- Karenni State, represented by the Karenni National Progressive Party (member from 19 January 1993 to 7 July 2012)
- Khalistan (member from 24 January 1993 to 4 August 1993) (suspension made permanent 22 January 1995)
- Komi (member from 17 January 1993 to 9 October 2009)
- Maasai, represented by the Maasai Women for Education and Economic Development (member from 19 December 2004 to 7 July 2012)
- Mari (member from 6 August 1991 to 9 October 2009)
- / Mon, represented by the Mon Unity League (member from 3 February 1996 to 7 July 2012)
- Nahua del Alto Balsas (member from 19 December 2004 to 20 September 2008)
- Scania (member from 19 January 1993 to 18 September 2011)
- / Shan (member from 17 April 1997 to 6 February 2010)
- Tsimshian (member from 2 February 2007 to 18 September 2011)
- Tuva Republic (member from 3 February 1996 to 13 February 2010)
- West Papua (member from 11 February 1991 to 20 September 2008)
Some members of the UNPO have left because of United Nations recognition, autonomy agreements, or for other reasons.
- Former socialist republics of the Soviet Union, with UN recognition, withdrew after independence was restored in 1991:
- Others with UN recognition:
- Timor-Leste joined 17 January 1993, withdrew 27 September 2002; former Portuguese colony annexed by Indonesia in 1975 and independent since 2002
- Palau joined 11 February 1991, withdrew 15 December 1994; formerly part of the US–administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and independent since 1994
- Left for other reasons:[dead link]
- Aceh joined 6 August 1991, membership discontinued 1 March 2008; reached autonomy agreement with Indonesia in 2005
- Albanians in Macedonia joined 16 April 1994, membership discontinued 1 March 2008; reached agreement on wider rights with Macedonia in 2001
- Bashkortostan joined 3 February 1996, withdrew 30 June 1998
- Bougainville joined 6 August 1991, membership discontinued 1 March 2008; reached autonomy agreement with Papua New Guinea in 2000
- Chuvash joined 17 January 1993, membership discontinued 1 March 2008
- Gagauzia joined 16 April 1994, membership discontinued 1 December 2007; reached autonomy agreement with Moldova in 1994
- Ingushetia joined 30 July 1994, membership discontinued 1 March 2008
- Kumyk joined 17 April 1997, membership discontinued 1 March 2008
- Lakotah Nation joined 30 July 1994, membership discontinued 1 December 2007; followed by the declaration of the Republic of Lakotah
- Maohi joined 30 July 1994, membership discontinued 1 December 2007
- Nuxalk joined 23 September 1998, membership discontinued 1 March 2008
- Rusyn joined 23 September 1998, membership discontinued 1 December 2007
- Sakha joined 3 August 1993, withdrew 30 June 1998
- Talysh joined 26 June 2005, membership discontinued 1 March 2008
- Tatarstan joined 11 February 1991, membership discontinued 1 March 2008
- Michael van Walt van Praag - (Netherlands) 1991-1998
- Tsering Jampa - (Tibet) 1997–1998
- Helen S. Corbett - (Australian Aboriginals) 1998–1999
- Erkin Alptekin - (Uyghurs) 1999–2003
- Marino Busdachin – (Italy) since 2003
- Karl Habsburg-Lothringen – (Austria) 19 January 2002 - 31 December 2002
Chairmen of the General Assembly
- Linnart Mäll - (Estonia) 1991-1993
- Erkin Alptekin - (Uyghurs) 1993-1997
- Seif Sharif Hamad - (Zanzibar) 1997-2001
- John J. Nimrod - (Assyrians) 2001-2005
- Göran Hansson - (Scania) 2005-2006
- Federal Union of European Nationalities
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- Universal Declaration of the Rights of Peoples
- List of national liberation movements recognized by intergovernmental organizations
- European Free Alliance
- International Organizations N - W
- http://www.worldstatesmen.org/International_Organizations2.html#UNPO World Statesman.org. Retrieved February 7, 2012
-  UNPO official website 'About UNPO'. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- Barbara Crossette, Those Knocking, Unheeded, at U.N.'s Doors Find Champion, New York Times, 18 December 1994.
- Tishkov, Valerie, An Anthropology of NGOs, Eurozine, July 2008
- UNPO 20 th Anniversary Publication: Twenty Years of Promoting Nonviolence, Human Rights and Self Determination. The Hague, Netherlands: UNPO. 2011.
- Gluckman, Ron (1998). "World's wanna-be republics find a home with UNPO". Asiaweek. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- Bob, Clifford (2005). The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–48, 76–77.
-  UNPO official website, Members of the UNPO
- http://www.worldstatesmen.org/International_Organizations2.html#UNPO World Statesman.org. Retrieval date unknown
- Although it is not in the UNPO website, World Statesmen lists it as part of the UNPO, accepted in 7 Jul 2012. This source is reliable because it lists suspended members who have been removed from the Official UNPO Members List by July 7.
- International Organizations N - W
- http://www.unpo.org/map.html[dead link]
- "worldstatesmen International Organizations". Retrieved 9-7-2012.
- UNPO Presidency & Secretariat, UNPO web site.