SM U-9

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For other ships of the same name, see German submarine U-9.
U9Submarine.jpg
U-9 ready for patrol.
Career (German Empire)
Name: U-9
Ordered: 15 July 1908
Builder: Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig
Cost: 2,140,000 Goldmark
Launched: 22 February 1910
Commissioned: 18 April 1910
Fate: Surrendered 26 November 1918. Broken up at Morecambe in 1919.
General characteristics
Class & type: German Type U 9 submarine
Displacement: 493 tonnes (485 long tons) surfaced
611 tonnes (601 long tons) submerged[1]
Length: 57.38 m (188.3 ft) (o/a)[1]
Beam: 6 m (19 ft 8 in)[1]
Draught: 3.13 m (10 ft 3 in)[1]
Installed power: 2 × Körting 6-cylinder and 2 × Körting 8-cylinder two stroke paraffin motors[2] with 900 PS (890 hp)[1]
2 × SSW electric motors[2] with 1,040 PS (1,030 hp)
550 rpm surfaced
460 rpm submerged[1]
Propulsion: 2 shafts
2 × 1.45 m (4 ft 9 in) propellers[2]
Speed: 14.2 knots (26.3 km/h; 16.3 mph) surfaced
8.1 knots (15.0 km/h; 9.3 mph) submerged[1]
Range: 3,250 nmi (6,020 km; 3,740 mi) at 9 kn (17 km/h; 10 mph)[1]
Test depth: 50 m (160 ft)[2]
Boats & landing
craft carried:
1 dingi
Complement: 4 officers, 25 men[2]
Armament: 4 × 45 cm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes (2 each bow and stern) with 6 torpedoes
1x 5 cm (2.0 in) SK L/40 gun
1 × 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Hotchkiss gun
12 P-Mines (March–December 1916)[2]
Service record
Part of: Imperial German Navy:
I Flottille
Commanders: Otto Weddigen
Johannes Spieß
Operations: 7
Victories: 13 ships sunk for a total of 8,636 GRT
5 warships sunk for a total of 44173 tons

SM U-9 was a German Type U 9 U-boat. She was one of 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy, and engaged in the commerce war (Handelskrieg) during World War I. Her construction was ordered on 15 July 1908 and her keel was laid down by Kaiserliche Werft in Danzig. She was launched on 22 February 1910 and commissioned on 18 April 1910.

Service History[edit]

On 16 July 1914 the crew of U-9 reloaded her torpedo tubes while submerged, the first time any submarine had succeeded in doing so. On 1 August 1914, Kapitänleutnant Otto Weddigen took command. On 22 September, while patrolling the Broad Fourteens, a region of the southern North Sea, U-9 found a squadron of three obsolescent British Cressy-class armoured cruisers (HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue, and HMS Cressy), (sardonically nicknamed the "Live Bait Squadron") which had been assigned to prevent German surface vessels from entering the eastern end of the English Channel. She fired all six of her torpedoes, reloading while submerged, and sank all three in less than an hour. 1,459 British sailors died.[3] It was one of the most notable submarine actions of all time. Members of the Admiralty who had considered submarines mere toys no longer expressed that opinion after this event.[citation needed]

On 15 October, U-9 sank the protected cruiser HMS Hawke. On 12 January 1915, Johannes Spieß relieved Weddigen, and commanded U-9 until 19 April 1916. During this period, she sank 13 ships totalling 8,635 GRT: 10 small fishing vessels and three British steamers (Don, Queen Wilhelmina and Serbino).

After April 1916, she was withdrawn from front-line duties to be used for training.

U-9 and the raider SMS Emden were the only ships which Kaiser Wilhelm II awarded an Iron Cross.

The men of U-9.
Propaganda postcard depicting victories of U-9.

Summary of Raiding Career[edit]

Date Ship Name Nationality Tonnage (GRT) Fate[4]
22 September 1914 HMS Aboukir  Royal Navy 12,000 Sunk
22 September 1914 HMS Cressy  Royal Navy 12,000 Sunk
22 September 1914 HMS Hogue  Royal Navy 12,000 Sunk
15 October 1914 HMS Hawke  Royal Navy 7,350 Sunk
3 May 1915 Bob White  United Kingdom 191 Sunk
3 May 1915 Coquet  United Kingdom 176 Sunk
3 May 1915 Hector  United Kingdom 179 Sunk
3 May 1915 Hero  United Kingdom 173 Sunk
3 May 1915 Iolanthe  United Kingdom 179 Sunk
3 May 1915 Northward Ho  United Kingdom 180 Sunk
3 May 1915 Progress  United Kingdom 273 Sunk
4 May 1915 Rugby  United Kingdom 205 Sunk
5 May 1915 Straton  United Kingdom 198 Sunk
6 May 1915 Merrie Islington  United Kingdom 147 Sunk
8 May 1915 Don  United Kingdom 939 Sunk
8 May 1915 Queen Wilhelmina  United Kingdom 3,590 Sunk
16 August 1915 Serbino  United Kingdom 2,205 Sunk
5 November 1915 Dagö (n.4)  Imperial Russian Navy 1,080 Sunk

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gröner 1985, p. 27.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Gröner 1985, p. 28.
  3. ^ "Sinking of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue by U-9". World War 1 Naval Combat. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  4. ^ "U-9 successes". UBoat.net. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Spindler, Arno (1932,1933,1934,1941/1964,1966). Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. 5 Vols. Berlin: Mittler & Sohn. Vols. 4+5, dealing with 1917+18, are very hard to find: Guildhall Library, London, has them all, also Vol. 1–3 in an English translation: The submarine war against commerce. 
  • Beesly, Patrick (1982). Room 40: British Naval Intelligence 1914–1918. London: H Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-10864-2. 
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, "U-Boats (1905–18), Volume 23, p. 2534. London: Phoebus Publishing, 1978.
  • Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85728-498-0. 
  • Roessler, Eberhard (1997). Die Unterseeboote der Kaiserlichen Marine. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5963-7. 
  • Schroeder, Joachim (2002). Die U-Boote des Kaisers. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-6235-4. 
  • Koerver, Hans Joachim (2008). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914–1918. Vol I., The Fleet in Action. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-76-3. 
  • Koerver, Hans Joachim (2009). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914–1918. Vol II., The Fleet in Being. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-77-0. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1985). "U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher". Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815–1945 III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4. 
  • Rössler, Eberhard (1985). "U-Bootbau bis Ende des 1. Weltkriegs, Konstruktionen für das Ausland und die Jahre 1935–1945". Die deutschen U-Boote und ihre Werften I (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-5213-7. 

External links[edit]