Upper Chinook language

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Upper Chinook
Kiksht
Native to United States
Region Columbia River
Native speakers
58, of which 7 monolingual  (2010 census)[1]
Chinookan
  • Upper Chinook
Language codes
ISO 639-3 wac
Glottolog wasc1239[2]

Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its only living dialect, is a highly endangered language of the US Pacific Northwest. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of which 7 were monolingual: five Wasco[3] and two Wishram. In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco.[4]

It was the last living Chinookan language. The last fully fluent speaker, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012.[5] She had been honored for her work by the Oregon Legislature in 2007.[6][7][8]

Two new speakers were teaching Kiksht at the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in 2006.[9] The Northwest Indian Language Institute of the University of Oregon formed a partnership to teach Kiksht and Numu in the Warm Springs schools.[10][11]

Audio and video files of Kiksht are available at the Endangered Languages Archive.[12]

Dialects[edit]

Kathlamet has been classified as an additional dialect; it was not mutually intelligible.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Upper Chinook at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Wasco-Wishram". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Culture: Language. The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. 2009 (retrieved 9 April 2009)
  4. ^ "Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Wasco Indians". National Geographic. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  5. ^ Kristian Foden-Vencil (2012-07-17). "Last Fluent Speaker Of Oregon Tribal Language 'Kiksht' Dies". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  6. ^ Last Fluent Speaker of Kiksht Dies
  7. ^ "Honors Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs elder Gladys Miller Thompson for her contribution to preserving Native languages of Oregon.". 74th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY--2007 Regular Session. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  8. ^ "Zelma Smith, 1926-2010". Spilyay Tymoo, Coyote News, the Newspaper of the Warm Springs Reservation. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  9. ^ Keith Chu (2006-07-30). "New speakers try to save language". The Bulletin (Bend, OR). Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  10. ^ Joanne B. Mulcahy (2005). "Warm Springs: A Convergence of Cultures" (Oregon History Project). Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  11. ^ Aaron Clark. "USA: Tribes Strive to Save Native Tongues". GALDU, Resource Centre for the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  12. ^ Nariyo Kono. "Conversational Kiksht". Endangered Languages Archive. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]