Upper Egypt (Arabic: صعيد مصر Saʿīd Miṣr, shortened to الصعيد es-Ṣeʿīd/es-Ṣaʿīd pronounced [es.sˤe.ˈʕiːd, es.sˤɑ.ˈʕiːd]) is the strip of land, on both sides of the Nile valley, that extends between Nubia, and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile above modern-day Aswan, downriver (northwards) to the area between Dahshur and El-Ayait, which is south of modern-day Cairo. The northern (downriver) part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is also known as Middle Egypt.
In the Pharaonic times, Upper Egypt was known as Ta Shemau which means "the land of reeds." It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes. The first nome was roughly where modern-day Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih (Aphroditopolis), just to the south of Cairo.
For most of pharaonic Egypt's history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. After its devastation by the Assyrians, its importance declined. Under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou took over the role of Upper Egypt's capital city. Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, and its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge.
Artwork From Dynastic Egypt
This vase comes from Upper Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt from the Dynasties XXI-XXII. This vase was first shown at an exhibition of Egyptian art at Burlington House in London in 1895, it has been illustrated several times since as the most elaborate vessel ever made in the long history of ancient Egyptian glassmaking. It was molded of frit, powdered glass that had been made into a paste by adding water, and then fired at a low temperature so that the material became solid without turning into true glass. The ovoid body of the bottle has a bottom in the form of a lotus flower which is surmounted by deities and mythological symbols. The neck opens into a mouth decorated as a lotus blossom: an elegant crowning, yet so simple in contrast to the fancy work of the vessel's body. 
In the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis. It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the root cause of the migration.
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