Upper Krishna Project

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The Upper Krishna Project is an irrigation project across the Krishna River to provide irrigation to the drought-prone areas of Bijapur District, Bagalkot district, Gulbarga District, Yadgir district and Raichur District in the state of Karnataka in southern India. The project had been designed by the Government of Karnataka to irrigate 1536,000 acres of land (6,220 km²).

Overview[edit]

The foundation stone for the Upper Krishna Project (UKP) was laid by former Indian prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri on 22 May 1964. The project was designed to irrigate 1536,000 acres of land in Gulbarga, Raichur, Bijapur, Bagalkot and now Yadgir. UKP intends to use the bulk of 173 thousand million cubic feet (tmcft) of water allocated to the state of Karnataka by the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal, headed by R.S. Bachawat, in May 1976. The initial estimation of the cost of the project was INR120 crore (US$20 million);[1] however, after many revisions, the final cost of the project reached INR10371.67 crore (US$1.7 billion),[2] and it took 42 years for the project to be completed. 201 villages were affected by the project and 136 villages were completely submerged in the backwaters of the reservoirs constructed as a part of the project.[1]

UKP-Stage I[edit]

Stage I of the UKP plans to utilise 119 tmcft of water and irrigate 4250 km² of land on the left bank of the Krishna River.It involves construction of Almatti Dam and Narayanpur Dam along with several other canals.[3]

Almatti Dam constructed as a part of the UKP project
UKP-Stage I[3]
Works Area irrigated (km²)
Narayanpur Dam and allied works Not Applicable
Almatti Dam up to 519 m FRL Not Applicable
Construction of Narayanpur Left Canal 472.23
Construction of Shapur Branch Canal 1221.2
Construction of Mudbal Branch Canal 510
Construction of Indi Branch Canal 1312.6
Construction of Jewargi Branch Canal 571
Construction of Almatti Left Bank Canal (77 km of Initial Work) 162
TOTAL 4249.03

UKP-Stage II[edit]

Stage II of the UKP plans to utilise 54 tmcft of water and irrigate 1971.20 km² of land. It involves irrigation on the right bank of the river by the flow and also by lifting the waters to higher levels on both left and right banks. The project mainly involved construction of channels.[3]

UKP-Stage II[3]
Works Area irrigated (km²)
Almatti Right Bank Canal 161.00
Rampur Lift Irrigation Scheme 202.35
Narayanpur Right Bank Canal up to 95 km 840.00
Indi Lift Irrigation Scheme 419.00
Mulwad Lift Irrigation Scheme 308.50
Almatti Left Bank Canal extension 47.35
TOTAL 1971.20

Hippagiri barrage

This project also includes construction of Hippagiri barrage (near 16°33′09″N 75°09′58″E / 16.55250°N 75.16611°E / 16.55250; 75.16611 ) in the upstream of Almatti dam with FRL 531.4 m MSL in Jamakhandi taluq of Bagalkot district.[4] Hippagiri barrage with 4.9 tmcft live storage capacity supplies irrigation water to nearly 60,000 acres by Ainapur and Halyal lift canals.

UKP-Stage III[edit]

The Karnataka government on 3 December 2011 unveiled a five-year action plan to fully utilise its share of water in the Krishna River basin. Stage 3 of UKP would utilise 130 tmcft of water. The Karnataka government would be spending INR17000 crore (US$2.9 billion) to complete the third stage of the project.[5]

Stage 3 consists of raising the height of Alamatti Dam to 524 metres (1,719 ft), and this would require the relocation of 30 villages. One lakh acres (405 km²) of land would be submerged.[5]

UKP stage 3 would involve lift irrigation schemes at Mulwad, Chimmalagi, and Indi and extension of the Narayanapura Right Bank Canal and Bhima diversion plan. Stage 3 would also involve the extension of lift irrigation schemes at Rampur, Mallabad, Koppal and Herakal.[5]

Major benefits[edit]

The major beneficiary of the project would be Gulbarga district with around 950,000 acres of land coming under irrigation.[1] A hydel power generation plant of installed capacity of 297 MW has been contemplated at Almatti, which it is estimated would generate about 672 million units annually. This work has been assigned to KPTCL, a Karnataka Government company. It is expected to increase the production of food grains and cash crops in the command area of the UKP, adding INR6000 crore (US$1.0 billion) to the country's economy annually and stimulating prosperity and growth in the otherwise drought-prone and economically backward districts of the north eastern part of Karnataka. The project is also intended to provide drinking water to 18 urban and several rural centres.[3]

Major difficulties[edit]

Financial[edit]

Delays[6] and the level of cost over-runs lead to charges of cronyism and corruption.[7][8][9] A first information report (FIR) was filed by police on 26 Oct 2011 in connection with alleged financial irregularities in awarding the contracts to the tune of INR400 crore (US$67 million) in the project during 1995-1998. The FIR filed did not name anyone and former prime minister H. D. Deve Gowda was the chief minister of the state of Karnataka during the period 1994-1996.[10]

Maintenance[edit]

Lack of proper maintenance has been a recurring concern, especially after disasters such as the collapse of a main gate at the Narayanpur Dam.[11]

Human[edit]

Human costs included the large number of displaced persons and the loss of community.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Suresh Bhat (21 August 2006). "President to dedicate Upper Krishna Project to the nation today". The Hindu (Bijapur). Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  2. ^ "Upper Krishna Project cost revised". The Hindu (Gulbarga). 14 March 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Upper Krishna Project". Krishna Bhagya Jala Nigam LTD. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Hippagiri barrage details". Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Rs 17,000 crore plan for utilisation of River Krishna water". Daily News and Analysis (Bangalore). 3 December 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Special correspondent (20 May 2000). "Stage I of UKP yet to be completed". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. 
  7. ^ Staff (18 October 2005). "World Bank report was not circulated among us, says Prakash". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 December 2005. 
  8. ^ Staff (13 March 2006). "Crest gate work awarded sans KBJNL nod". Deccan-Herald. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. 
  9. ^ Staff (29 November 2010). "CID to probe into corruption during Gowda's tenure: K'tka govt". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. 
  10. ^ "Rs 17,000 crore plan for utilisation of River Krishna water". Bangalore. OUTLOOKINDIA. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  11. ^ Special correspondent (8 October 2005). "Breach raises questions about safety, maintenance of dam". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. 
  12. ^ Sharma, Ravi (2006). "Ground Realities: The families displaced by the Upper Krishna Project in Karnataka are unhappy at the rehabilitation centres". The Hindu Frontline 23 (21). Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2013.