Upper middle class in the United States

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See American Professional/Managerial middle class for a complete overview of the American middle classes.

The upper middle class in the United States is a sociological concept referring to the social group constituted by higher-status members of the middle class. This is in contrast to the term lower middle class, which refers to the group at the opposite end of the middle class scale. There is considerable debate as to how the upper middle class might be defined. According to Max Weber, the upper middle class consists of well-educated professionals with graduate degrees and comfortable incomes.

The American upper middle class is defined using income, education, occupation and the associated values as main indicators.[1] In the United States, the upper middle class is defined as consisting of white-collar professionals who have above-average personal incomes, advanced educational degrees[1] and a high degree of autonomy in their work, leading to higher job satisfaction.[2] The main occupational tasks of upper middle class individuals tend to center on conceptualizing, consulting, and instruction.[3]

Professions[edit]

Certain professions can be categorized as "upper middle class," though any such measurement must be considered subjective because of people's differing perception of class. Most people in the upper-middle class strata are highly educated white collar professionals such as physicians, lawyers, economists, urban planners, university professors, architects, psychologists, scientists, engineers, optometrists, dentists, pharmacists, high-level civil servants and the intelligentsia. Other common professions include corporate executives and CEOs, as well as some moderately successful business owners. Generally, people in these professions have an advanced post-secondary education and a comfortable standard of living.[1]

Values[edit]

Education is probably the most important part of middle-class childrearing as they prepare their children to be successful in school. Upper middle-class parents expect their children to attend college. Along with hard work, these parents view educational performance and attainment as necessary components of financial success. Consequently, the majority of upper middle-class children assume they will attend college. For these children, college is not optional - it's essential. This thought can be seen even more so from parents with higher education, whose greater appreciation for autonomy leads them to want the same for their children. Most people encompassing this station in life have a high regard for higher education, particularly towards Ivy League colleges and other top tier schools throughout the United States. They probably, more than any other socio-economic class, strive for themselves and their children to obtain graduate or at least four-year undergraduate degree, further reflecting the importance placed on education by middle-class families.[4]

Members of the upper middle class tend to place a high value on foreign travel, the arts, and high culture in general. This value is in line with the emphasis placed on education, as foreign travel increases one's understanding of other cultures and helps create a global perspective.

Most mass affluent households and college-educated professionals tend to be center-right or conservative on fiscal issues.[5] A slight majority of college-educated professionals, who compose 15% of the population and 20% of the electorate, favor the Democratic Party.[6] Among those with six figure households incomes,[7] a slight majority favor the Republican Party. Academia and those with graduate degrees overall favor the Democratic Party.[8][9] In 2005, 72% of full-time faculty members at four-year institutions, the majority of whom are upper middle class,[1] identified as liberal.[10]

The upper middle class is often the group that shapes society and brings social movements to the forefront. Movements such as the Peace Movement, The Anti-Nuclear Movement, Environmentalism, the Anti-Smoking movement, and even in the past with Blue laws and the Temperance movement are all products of the upper middle class. Some claim this is because this is the largest class (and the lowest class) with any true political power for positive change, while others claim some of the more restrictive social movements (such as with smoking and drinking) are based upon "saving people from themselves."[3]

American upper middle class[edit]

See American Professional/Managerial middle class for a complete overview of the American middle classes.
Advanced education is one of the most distinguishing features of the upper middle class.
The American upper middle class consists mostly of salaried white collar professionals.

In the United States the term middle class and its subdivisions are an extremely vague concept as neither economists nor sociologists have precisely defined the term.[11] There are several perceptions of the upper middle class and what the term means. In academic models the term applies to highly educated salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed. Many have graduate degrees with educational attainment serving as the main distinguishing feature of this class. Household incomes commonly exceed $100,000, with some smaller one-income earners household having incomes in the high 5-figure range.[1][7]

In addition to having autonomy in their work, above-average incomes, and advanced educations, the upper middle class also tends to be influential, setting trends and largely shaping public opinion.[3][7] Overall, members of this class are also secure from economic down-turns and, unlike their counterparts in the statistical middle class, do not need to fear downsizing, corporate cost-cutting, or outsourcing—an economic benefit largely attributable to their graduate degrees and comfortable incomes, likely in the top income quintile or top third.[1] Typical professions for this class include professors, accountants, architects, urban planners, engineers, economists, pharmacists, executive assistants, political scientists, physicians, optometrists, and lawyers.[3][12]

Income[edit]

While many Americans see income as the prime determinant of class, occupational status, educational attainment, and value systems are equally important. Income is in part determined by the scarcity of certain skill sets.[1] As a result an occupation that requires a scarce skill, the attainment of which is often achieved through an educational degree, and entrusts its occupant with a high degree of influence will usually offer high economic compensation. The high income is meant to ensure that individuals obtain the necessary skills (e.g. medical or graduate school) and complete their tasks with the necessary valor.[13] There are also differences between household and individual income. In 2005, 42% of US households (76% among the top quintile) had two or more income earners; as a result, 18% of households but only 5% of individuals had six figure incomes.[14] To illustrate, two nurses each making $55,000 per year can out-earn, in a household sense, a single attorney who makes a median of $95,000 annually.[15][16]

Sociologists Dennis Gilbert, Willam Thompson and Joseph Hickey estimate the upper middle class to constitute roughly 15% of the population. Using the 15% figure one may conclude that the American upper middle class consists, strictly in an income sense, of professionals with personal incomes in excess of $62,500, who commonly reside in households with six figure incomes.[1][7][14][17] The difference between personal and household income can be explained by considering that 76% of households with incomes exceeding $90,000 (the top 20%) had two or more income earners.[14]

Data Top third Top quarter Top quintile Top 15% Top 10% Top 5%
Household income[18]
Lower threshold (annual gross income) $65,000 $80,000 $91,705 $100,000 $118,200 $166,200
Exact Percentage of households 34.72% 25.60% 20.00% 17.80% 10.00% 5.00%
Personal income (age 25+)[19]
Lower threshold (annual gross income) $37,500 $47,500 $52,500 $62,500 $75,000 $100,000
Exact Percentage of individuals 33.55% 24.03% 19.74% 14.47% 10.29% 5.63%

SOURCE: US Census Bureau, 2006[18][19]

See also[edit]

US-specific[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-41365-X. 
  2. ^ Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 0-313-26111-3. 
  3. ^ a b c d Ehrenreich, Barbara (1989). Fear of Falling, The Inner Life of the Middle Class. New York, NY: Harper Collins. 0-06-0973331. 
  4. ^ Doob, Christopher B. (2013). "The Badly Besieged Middle Class". Social Inequality and Social Stratificatin in US Society. New Jersey: Pearson. pp. 157–167. 
  5. ^ ", R. & Saad, L. (9 December 2004). Marketing to the Mass Affluent. Gallup Management Journal.". Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  6. ^ "Judis, B. J. (11 July 2003). The trouble with Howard Dean. Salon.com.". Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing. 0-534-50520-1. 
  8. ^ "CNN. (2004). Exit Poll.". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  9. ^ "CNN. (2006). Exit Poll.". Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  10. ^ "Kurtz, H. (29 March 2005). College Faculties A Most Liberal Lot, Study Finds. The Washington Post.". 2005-03-29. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  11. ^ "Middle class according to The Drum Major Institute for public policy". Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  12. ^ "Professional Occupations according to the US Department of Labor". Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  13. ^ Levine, Rhonda (1998). Social Class and Stratification. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 0-8476-8543-8. 
  14. ^ a b c "US Census Bureau, income quintile and top 5% household income distribution and demographic characteristics, 2006". Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  15. ^ "US Department of Labor, median income of registered nurses". Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  16. ^ "Bureau of Labor statistics data published by Monster.com, 20 highest paying jobs". Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  17. ^ "US Census Bureau, distribution of personal income, 2006". Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  18. ^ a b "US Census Bureau, overall household income distribution, 2006". Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  19. ^ a b "US Census Bureau, personal income distribution, age 25+, 2006". Retrieved 2006-12-28. 

External links[edit]