Upsilon Andromedae (υ Andromedae, υ And) is a binary star located approximately 44 light-years from Earth in the constellation Andromeda. The primary star (Upsilon Andromedae A) is an F-type main-sequence star that is somewhat younger than the Sun. The second star (Upsilon Andromedae B) is a red dwarf in a wide orbit around the primary.
As of 2010, four confirmed exoplanets are known to orbit the primary star. All four are likely to be jovian planets that are comparable in size to Jupiter. Upsilon Andromedae was both the first multiple-planet system to be discovered around a main-sequence star, and the first multiple-planet system known in a multiple star system. Upsilon Andromedae A was ranked 21st in the list of top 100 target stars for NASA's cancelled Terrestrial Planet Finder mission.
Distance and visibility
Upsilon Andromedae is located fairly close to the Solar System: the parallax of Upsilon Andromedae A was measured by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite as 74.12 milliarcseconds, corresponding to a distance of 13.49 parsecs (44 light years). Upsilon Andromedae A has an apparent magnitude of +4.09, making it visible to the naked eye even under moderately light-polluted skies, about 10 degrees east of the Andromeda Galaxy. The dimmer star Upsilon Andromedae B is only visible with a telescope.
Upsilon Andromedae A is a yellow-white dwarf of spectral type F8V, similar to the Sun, but younger, more massive, and more luminous. According to its entry in the Geneva–Copenhagen survey, the star is around 3.1 billion years old, and has a similar proportion of iron relative to hydrogen to the Sun. At around 1.3 solar masses, it will have a shorter lifetime than the Sun. The amount of ultraviolet radiation received by any planets in the star's habitable zone would be similar to the ultraviolet flux the Earth receives from the Sun.
Upsilon Andromedae B is a red dwarf of spectral type M4.5V located at a distance (in the plane of the sky) of 750 AU from the primary star. The true separation between the two stars is unknown because the displacement along the line of sight between us and the Upsilon Andromedae stars is unknown, so this value is a minimum separation. It was discovered in 2002 in data collected as part of the Two Micron All Sky Survey. The star is less massive and far less luminous than the Sun.
The Washington Double Star Catalog lists two optical components; however, these do not share the system's proper motion and only appear close to Upsilon Andromedae because they happen to lie near the same line of sight.
The star rotates at an inclination of 58+9
−7 degrees relative to Earth.
The innermost planet of the Upsilon Andromedae system was discovered in 1996 and announced in January 1997, together with the planet of Tau Boötis and the innermost planet of 55 Cancri. The discovery was made by Geoffrey Marcy and R. Paul Butler, both astronomers at San Francisco State University. The planet, designated Upsilon Andromedae b, was discovered by measuring changes in the star's radial velocity induced by the planet's gravity. Because of its closeness to the parent star, it induced a large wobble which was detected relatively easily. The planet appears to be responsible for enhanced activity in the chromosphere of its star.
Even when this planet was taken into account, there still remained significant residuals in the radial velocity measurements, and it was suggested there might be a second planet in orbit. In 1999, astronomers at both San Francisco State University and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics independently concluded that a three-planet model best fit the data. The two outer planets were designated Upsilon Andromedae c and Upsilon Andromedae d in order of increasing distance from the star. Both of these planets are in more eccentric orbits than any of the planets in the Solar System (including Pluto). Upsilon Andromedae d resides in the system's habitable zone.
The system is not coplanar, with each other or with the stellar rotation. The mutual inclination between c and d is 30 degrees. In 2001, preliminary astrometric measurements suggested the orbit of the outermost planet is inclined at 155.5° to the plane of the sky. However, subsequent investigation of the data reduction techniques used suggests that the Hipparcos measurements are not precise enough to adequately characterize the orbits of substellar companions. Astrometry of the innermost planet, meanwhile, constrained its inclination to 30-90 degrees. Full publication is expected in 2008. The orbit of Upsilon Andromedae c gradually oscillates between circular and eccentric states every 6,700 years. The existence of further planets too small or distant to detect has not been ruled out, though the presence of Jupiter-mass planets as close as 5 AU from Upsilon Andromedae A would make the system unstable.
Some simulations show that the eccentricity of the system's planets may have arisen from a close encounter between the outer planet and a fourth planet, with the result that the fourth planet was ejected from the system or destroyed. If so, the rogue planet would have had to eject immediately; it is unclear how likely this situation might be. Other models are possible. However, a fourth planet (Upsilon Andromedae e) was discovered in 2010. This planet is in a 3:1 resonance with Upsilon Andromedae d.
Upsilon Andromedae does not appear to have a circumstellar dust disk similar to the Kuiper belt in the Solar System. This may be the result of perturbations from the companion star removing material from the outer regions of the Upsilon Andromedae A system.
(in order from star)
|c||1.8±0.26[dubious ] MJ||0.832±0.048||241.26±0.64||0.260±0.079||—||—|
|d||3.75±0.54[dubious ] MJ||2.53±0.15||1276.46±0.57||0.299±0.072||—||—|
In Chinese, 天大將軍 (Tiān Dà Jiāng Jūn), meaning Heaven's Great General, refers to an asterism consisting of υ Andromedae, γ Andromedae, φ Persei, 51 Andromedae, 49 Andromedae, χ Andromedae, τ Andromedae, 56 Andromedae, β Trianguli, γ Trianguli and δ Trianguli. Consequently, υ Andromedae itself is known as 天大將軍六 (Tiān Dà Jiāng Jūn liù, English: the Sixth Star of Heaven's Great General.).
- van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
- "NLTT 5367 -- High proper-motion Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Object Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Lowrance, Patrick J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Beichman, Charles A. (2002). "A Distant Stellar Companion in the υ Andromedae System". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 572 (1): L79–L81. arXiv:astro-ph/0205277. Bibcode:2002ApJ...572L..79L. doi:10.1086/341554.
- McArthur, Barbara E. et al. (2010). New Observational Constraints on the υ Andromedae System with Data from the Hubble Space Telescope and Hobby Eberly Telescope (PDF). Bibcode:2010ApJ...715.1203M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/715/2/1203.
- Fuhrmann, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Michael J.; Bernkopf, Jan (August 1998), "F- and G-type stars with planetary companions: upsilon Andromedae, rho (1) Cancri, tau Bootis, 16 Cygni and rho Coronae Borealis", Astronomy and Astrophysics 336: 942–952, Bibcode:1998A&A...336..942F.
- van Belle, Gerard T.; von Braun, Kaspar (2009). "Directly Determined Linear Radii and Effective Temperatures of Exoplanet Host Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 694 (2): 1085–1098. arXiv:0901.1206. Bibcode:2009ApJ...694.1085V. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/1085.
- Takeda, Yoichi (April 2007), "Fundamental Parameters and Elemental Abundances of 160 F-G-K Stars Based on OAO Spectrum Database", Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 59 (2): 335–356, Bibcode:2007PASJ...59..335T, doi:10.1093/pasj/59.2.335.
- Kovtyukh, V. V. et al. (2003). "High precision effective temperatures for 181 F-K dwarfs from line-depth ratios". Astronomy and Astrophysics 411 (3): 559–564. arXiv:astro-ph/0308429. Bibcode:2003A&A...411..559K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031378.
- Simpson, E. K. et al. (November 2010), "Rotation periods of exoplanet host stars", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 408 (3): 1666–1679, arXiv:1006.4121, Bibcode:2010MNRAS.408.1666S, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17230.x., as "HD 9826".
- Barry, Don C.; Cromwell, Richard H.; Hege, E. Keith (April 1987), "Chromospheric activity and ages of solar-type stars", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 315: 264–272, Bibcode:1987ApJ...315..264B, doi:10.1086/165131.
- Mullen, Leslie (2 June 2011). "Rage Against the Dying of the Light". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Holmberg et al. (2007). "Record 970". Geneva-Copenhagen Survey of Solar neighbourhood. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D. (2006). "Ultraviolet Radiation Constraints around the Circumstellar Habitable Zones". Icarus 183 (2): 491–503. arXiv:astro-ph/0512291. Bibcode:2005astro.ph.12291B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.03.007.
- Mason, Brian D.; Wycoff, Gary L.; Hartkopf, William I. "Washington Double Star Catalog". United States Naval Observatory. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Butler, R. Paul et al. (1997). "Three New 51 Pegasi-Type Planets". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 474 (2): L115–L118. Bibcode:1997ApJ...474L.115B. doi:10.1086/310444.
- Kürster, M. (2005). "Hot Jupiters and Hot Spots: The Short- and Long-term Chromospheric Activity on Stars with Giant Planets". The Astrophysical Journal 622 (2): 1075–1090. arXiv:astro-ph/0411655. Bibcode:2005ApJ...622.1075S. doi:10.1086/428037.
- Butler, R. Paul et al. (1999). "Evidence for Multiple Companions to υ Andromedae". The Astrophysical Journal 526 (2): 916–927. Bibcode:1999ApJ...526..916B. doi:10.1086/308035.
- Butler, R. P. et al. (2006). "Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets". The Astrophysical Journal 646 (1): 505–522. arXiv:astro-ph/0607493. Bibcode:2006ApJ...646..505B. doi:10.1086/504701. (web version)
- Han, Inwoo; Black, David C.; Gatewood, George (2001). "Preliminary Astrometric Masses for Proposed Extrasolar Planetary Companions". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 548 (1): L57–L60. Bibcode:2001ApJ...548L..57H. doi:10.1086/318927.
- Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F. (2001). "Screening the Hipparcos-based astrometric orbits of sub-stellar objects". Astronomy and Astrophysics 372 (3): 935–944. arXiv:astro-ph/0104412. Bibcode:2001A&A...372..935P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010597.
- Benedict, George F.; McArthur, B. E.; Bean, J. L. (2007). "The υ Andromedae Planetary System - Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry and High-precision Radial Velocities". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 38: 185. Bibcode:2007AAS...210.7802B. Announced American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, #78.02
- Lissauer, J.; Rivera, E. (2001). "Stability analysis of the planetary system orbiting υ Andromedae. II. Simulations using new Lick observatory fits". The Astrophysical Journal 554 (2): 1141–1150. Bibcode:2001ApJ...554.1141L. doi:10.1086/321426.
- Ford, Eric B.; Lystad, Verene; Rasio, Frederic A. (2005). "Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system". Nature 434 (7035): 873–876. arXiv:astro-ph/0502441. Bibcode:2005Natur.434..873F. doi:10.1038/nature03427. PMID 15829958.
- Rory Barnes; Richard Greenberg (2008). "Extrasolar Planet Interactions". arXiv:0801.3226v1 [astro-ph].
- Curiel, S. et al. (2011). "A fourth planet orbiting υ Andromedae". Astronomy & Astrophysics 525: A78. Bibcode:2011A&A...525A..78C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015693.
- Trilling, D. E.; Brown, R. H.; Rivkin, A. S. (2000). "Circumstellar dust disks around stars with known planetary companions". The Astrophysical Journal 529 (1): 499–505. Bibcode:2000ApJ...529..499T. doi:10.1086/308280.
- Wright, J. T. et al. (2009). "Ten New and Updated Multi-planet Systems, and a Survey of Exoplanetary Systems". The Astrophysical Journal 693 (2): 1084–1099. arXiv:0812.1582. Bibcode:2009ApJ...693.1084W. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/693/2/1084.
- Ligi, R. et al. (2012). A new interferometric study of four exoplanet host stars : θ Cygni, 14 Andromedae, υ Andromedae and 42 Draconis. arXiv:1208.3895. Bibcode:2012A&A...545A...5L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219467.
- (Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 10 日
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Upsilon Andromedae.|
- "A Triple-Planet System Orbiting Ups Andromedae". San Francisco State University. Lick Observatory. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "Mystery Solved: How The Orbits Of Extrasolar Planets Became So Eccentric". SpaceDaily. 2005-04-14. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "Upsilon Andromedae". The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "Upsilon Andromedae". The Planet Project. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "Upsilon Andromedae 2". SolStation. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "The Upsilon Andromedae Planetary System". Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "υ Andromedae". AlcyoneEphemeris. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- HR 0458
- CCDM 01367+4125
- Hypothetic object ups And e
- Extrasolar Planet Interactions by Rory Barnes & Richard Greenberg, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona
- Sky map