Finno-Ugric peoples

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Notable Finno-Ugric individuals
Larin Paraske.jpg
EinoKaila.jpg
Ary Scheffer - Franz Liszt.jpg
Aili Keskitalo nyvalgt 2013.jpg
Charles simonyi.jpg
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Fadrusz.jpg
Alvar Aalto1.jpg
John Savio selfportrait.jpg
Arvo Pärt.jpg
LauriTorni2.jpg
Johan Turi.jpg
Lars Pirak 01.jpg
Aino Ackté.png
Arany.gif
Кузебай Герд.jpg
Teemu Selanne on the ice November 2010.jpg
Zsa Zsa Gabor - 1959.jpg
Georg Ots 1958 small.JPG
Kerli, Kanrocksas Music Festival, 2011 (tone).jpg
Simo hayha honorary rifle.jpg
Jussi JääskeläinenWHU.JPG
Erno Rubik Genius Gala 2014.jpg
Aki Kaurismäki.jpg
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Valentin Kolumb.jpg
Räikkönen-Trier-2010.jpg
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Timo Tolkki 2007.jpg
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Total population
26,505,000
Regions with significant populations
 Hungary 9,982,000
 Finland 4,948,400
 Russia 2,322,000
 United States 2,288,100
 Romania 1,227,623
 Estonia 936,000
 Slovakia 520,500
 Sweden 507,600
 Canada ~450,000
 Norway 60,000–100,000
Languages
Finno-Ugric, Russian, Tatar, Latvian, Romanian, Swedish, Norwegian
Religion
various Christian faiths
also Uralic Neopaganism
Related ethnic groups
Samoyedic peoples

The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis. [1]

Peoples[edit]

Existing Peoples

People Group Traditional language Language group Culture area[2] Numbers Most important territory Other traditional territories Subgroups
Khanty Ugric peoples Khanty language Ugric languages Arctic culture area 31,000[3] Khanty-Mansi Yamalo-Nenets
Mansi Ugric peoples Mansi language Ugric languages Arctic culture area 12,000[3] Khanty-Mansi
Hungarians Ugric peoples Hungarian language Ugric languages Danube culture area 14,500,000 Hungary Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine Székely, Csángó, Jász
Komis Permians Komi language Permic languages Arctic culture area 323,000[3] Komi Republic Perm Krai Komi-Permyaks
Udmurts Permians Udmurt language Permic languages Volga culture area 552,000[3] Udmurt Republic Besermyan
Maris Volga Finns Mari language Mari language Volga culture area 548,000[3] Mari Republic Bashkortostan Meadow Mari, Hill Mari, Eastern Mari
Mordvins Volga Finns Erzya and Moksha languages Mordvinic languages Volga culture area 744,000[3] Mordva Republic Samara Oblast, Penza Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Orenburg Oblast Erzyas, Mokshas
Finns Baltic Finns Finnish language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 6,500,000 Finland Leningrad Oblast, Karelia Republic, Sweden, Norway Tornedalians, Forest Finns, Kvens, Ingrian Finns
Karelians Baltic Finns Karelian language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 61,000 Karelia Republic Tver Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Leningrad Oblast Karelians (proper), Olonets Karelians, Ludic Karelians
Vepsians Baltic Finns Veps language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 5,900[3] Karelia Republic Leningrad Oblast, Vologda Oblast
Izhorians Baltic Finns Ingrian language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 300[3] Leningrad Oblast
Votes Baltic Finns Vote language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 60[3] Leningrad Oblast
Estonians Baltic Finns Estonian language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 1,000,000 Estonia Latvia, Leningrad Oblast, Pskov Oblast Setos, Võros
Livonians Baltic Finns Livonian language Baltic Finnic languages Baltic culture area 180 Latvia
Sámi Sami Sami languages Sami languages Arctic culture area 80,000 Norway Sweden, Finland, Murmansk Oblast Inari Sami, Skolt Sami
Pie chart showing the percentage rates of specific nations speaking languages of the Finno-Ugric family

Extinct Peoples

The Uralic peoples.

The four largest Finno-Ugric peoples are Hungarians (14,500,000), Finns (6,500,000), Estonians (1,000,000) and Mordvins (744,000). Three of them (Hungarians, Finns, and Estonians) have their independent states – Hungary, Finland, and Estonia.

The traditional area of the indigenous Sami people is in Northern Fenno-Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula in Northwest Russia and is known as Sápmi.

Some other Finno-Ugric peoples have autonomous republics in Russia: Karelians (Republic of Karelia), Komi (Komi Republic), Udmurts (Udmurt Republic), Mari (Mari El Republic), and Mordvins (Moksha and Erzya; Republic of Mordovia).

Khanty and Mansi peoples live in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug of Russia. Komi subgroup Komi-Permyaks used to live in Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, but today this area is a territory with special status within Perm Krai.

Finno-Ugric identity[edit]

In Finnic- and Ugric-speaking countries such as Finland, Estonia and Hungary, which find themselves surrounded by unrelated tongues, language origins and language history have long been relevant to national identity.[4]

Mythology[edit]

Main article: Uralic mythologies

Shamanism has had a historically important influence on the mythologies of Siberian peoples, including the Finnic, Ugric, Yeniseian, Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, and other northern Eurasia and Central Asian peoples. Central concepts in their cosmologies is the myth that the world was created from an egg, myths about the Milky Way, ideas about the existence of the World tree or pillar, and the idea that asterisms represent animal spirits.[5] Myth about a bird floating on the primary ocean and dives for the ground is a central Uralic cosmogonic myth.[6]

International Finno-Ugric societies[edit]

Established in Syktyvkar in 1992,[7] the World Congress of Finno-Ugrian Peoples is convoked at least once in four years.[8] The members of the Finno-Ugric Peoples' Consultative Committee include the Erzyas, Estonians, Finns, Hungarians, Ingrian Finns, Ingrians, Karelians, Khants, Komis, Mansis, Maris, Mokshas, Nenetses, Permian Komis, Saamis, Tver Karelians, Udmurts, Vepsians; Observers: Livonians, Setos.[9]

The first Festival of the Finno-Ugric Peoples was held in Yoshkar-Ola in 1990. The tradition continued covering turn by turn all regions of the Finno-Ugric world: the Republic Mari El, Mordovia, Hanty-Mansijsk, Estonia, Udmurtia, Hungary.[10] In 2007 the festival was hosted by the President of Russia and visited by the leaders of Finland and Hungary, Finnish President Tarja Halonen and Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány.[11]

Population genetics[edit]

A study of Population Genetics of Finno-Ugric speaking humans in North Eurasia carried out between 2002–2008 in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the University of Helsinki showed most of the Finno-Ugric speaking populations possess amalgamation of West and East Eurasian gene pools, genetic drift, and recurrent founder effect. North Eurasian Finno-Ugric-speaking populations were found to be genetically a heterogeneous group showing lower haplotype diversities compared to more southern populations. North Eurasian Finno-Ugric-speaking populations possess unique genetic features due to complex genetic changes shaped by molecular and population genetics and adaptation to the areas of Boreal and Arctic North Eurasia.[12]

The proposal of a Finno-Ugric language family has led to the postulation not just of an ancient Proto–Finno-Ugric people, but that the modern Finno-Ugric–speaking peoples are genetically related.[13] Such hypotheses are based on the assumption that heredity can be traced though linguistic relatedness.[14] However, Finno-Ugric has not been reconstructed linguistically; attempts to do so have been indistinguishable from Proto-Uralic.[15] Like in any other human population, individual groups within the Finno-Ugric language family have a diverse array of cultural, environmental, and genetic influences. However, modern genetic studies have shown that the Y-chromosome haplogroup N3, and sometimes N2, having branched from haplogroup N, which, itself, probably spread north, then west and east from Northern China about 12,000–14,000 years ago from father haplogroup NO (haplogroup O being the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup in Southeast Asia), is almost a specific trait, though certainly not restricted, to Uralic- or Finno-Ugric-speaking populations, especially as high frequency or primary paternal haplogroup.[16][17]

Recent study found that haplogroup NO of the Finno-Ugric peoples and their descendants probably spread north, then west and east from Northern China about 12,000–14,000 years ago from father lineage and today is found in Eastern Europe.[18] The Department of Forensic Medicine at the University of Helsinki showed most of the Finno-Ugric speaking populations possess an amalgamation of West and East Eurasian gene pools supporting the idea of mixed origins in these modern populations.[12]

R1a1a7-M458

R1a1a7-M458 frequency peaks among Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples.[19]

R1a1a1i (Z280+)

This group seems to have connection with among others the Finno-ugric peoples.[20] It is the North-East European subclade of R1a1a1 and spread from the Baltic to the Ural Mountains as well as the Carpathian Basin. The majority of the Steppe Magyars likely belonged to this haplogroup, carrying the Ugric Hungarian language.[21]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

Sinor, Denis (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 229–252. ISBN 0-521-24304-1. 

  1. ^ Peter Hajdu, 1975, Finno-Ugrian Languages and Peoples, Andre Deutsch Ltd (translated by G.F. Cushing); Toivo Vuorela, 1997, The Finno-Ugric Peoples, RoutledgeCurzon
  2. ^ Korhonen, Mikko: Uralin tällä ja tuolla puolen. In the book Laakso, Johanna (edit.): Uralilaiset kansat, p. 23.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Demoskop Weekly No 543-544
  4. ^ "A 'Paradigm Shift' in Finnish Linguistic Prehistory". Merlijn de Smit. ButterfliesandWheels.com. 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  5. ^ Leeming, pp. 136
  6. ^ Vladimir Napolskikh. Earth-Diver Myth (А812) in northern Eurasia and North America: twenty years later
  7. ^ Council of Europe (2007). Parliamentary Assembly. Council of Europe. p. 162. ISBN 92-871-6191-7. 
  8. ^ "Statutes of the Consultative Committee of Finno-Ugrian peoples". Finno-Ugric Peoples' Consultative Committee. Retrieved 2009-03-05.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ "Finno-Ugric Peoples' Consultative Committee, Members". Finno-Ugric Peoples' Consultative Committee. World Congresses of the Finno-Ugric Peoples. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  10. ^ "IX International Festival of the Finno-Ugric Peoples". Ministry of Culture of the RK. 24 May 2001. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  11. ^ Herald Tribune (July 19, 2007). "Putin hosts leaders at Finno-Ugric festival". Retrieved 5 March 2009. 
  12. ^ a b Pimenoff, Ville (2008). Living on the edge: population genetics of Finno-Ugric-speaking humans in North Eurasia. Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki. pp. 27–28. ISBN 952-92-4331-6. 
  13. ^ Sámuel Gyarmathi (1 January 1983). Grammatical Proof of the Affinity of the Hungarian Language with Languages of Fennic Origin. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 90-272-0976-6. 
  14. ^ Origin of Finnish and related languages- thisisFINLAND
  15. ^ Salminen, Tapani (2002): Problems in the taxonomy of the Uralic languages in the light of modern comparative studies
  16. ^ European Journal of Human Genetics – Abstract of article: A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe
  17. ^ "Journals Home". Journals.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
  18. ^ Siiri et al. (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (2): 204–211. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388. 
  19. ^ European Journal of Human Genetics. "European Journal of Human Genetics - Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a". Nature.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
  20. ^ Joseph Pashka, poshka@hotmail.com (2008-11-17). "BALTIC LANGUAGES & PROTO-BALTIC | The Baltic & Uralic in Vedic | Balto-Slavic | Uralic Soma |". Suduva.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
  21. ^ "Hungarian_Magyar_Y-DNA_Project". Family Tree DNA. Retrieved 2014-01-16. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Mile Nedeljković, Leksikon naroda sveta, Beograd, 2001.

External links[edit]