Uranium in the environment
Uranium in the environment refers to the science of the sources, environmental behaviour, and effects of uranium on humans and other animals. Uranium is weakly radioactive and remains so because of its long physical half-life (4.468 billion years for uranium-238). The biological half-life (the average time it takes for the human body to eliminate half the amount in the body) for uranium is about 15 days. Normal functioning of the kidney, brain, liver, heart, and numerous other systems can be affected by uranium exposure, because uranium is a toxic metal. The use of depleted uranium (DU) in munitions is controversial because of questions about potential long-term health effects.
Uranium is a naturally occurring element found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. This is the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on earth. According to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation the normal concentration of uranium in soil is 300 μg/kg to 11.7 mg/kg.
It is considered to be more plentiful than antimony, beryllium, cadmium, gold, mercury, silver, or tungsten and is about as abundant as tin, arsenic or molybdenum. It is found in many minerals including uraninite (most common uranium ore), autunite, uranophane, torbernite, and coffinite. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphate rock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazite sands in uranium-rich ores (it is recovered commercially from these sources).
Seawater contains about 3.3 parts per billion of uranium by weight (3.3 µg/kg)[not in citation given] as uranium(VI) forms soluble carbonate complexes. The extraction of uranium from seawater has been considered as a means of obtaining the element.
Sources of uranium
During the extraction of uranium ore and its processing, some releases of uranium occur. The releases of radium and other decay products of uranium are normally more important than the uranium in tailings ponds at the mines and ore processing centers. The ability of certain algea species, to bioremediate uranium in mining waste water has been researched. 
Depleted uranium (DU) is useful because of its very high density of 19.1 g/cm3 (68.4% denser than lead). Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography equipment, and containers used to transport radioactive materials. Military uses include defensive armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles.
Uranium metal can disperse into the air and water, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) study says in part:
- "The most important concern is the potential for future groundwater contamination by corroding penetrators (ammunition tips made out of DU). The munition tips recovered by the UNEP team had already decreased in mass by 10-15% in this way. This rapid corrosion speed underlines the importance of monitoring the water quality at the DU sites on an annual basis."
Studies of depleted uranium aerosol exposure suggest that uranium combustion product particles would quickly settle out of the air, and thus could not affect populations more than a few kilometres from target areas.
The U.S. has admitted that there have been over 100 "friendly fire" incidents in which members of the U.S. military have been struck by DU munitions, and that an unknown number have been exposed to DU via inhalation of combustion products from burning DU munitions.
Uranium metal reacts with water to form hydrogen gas, this reaction forms uranium dioxide and 2% to 9% uranium hydride. It is important to note that the rate of corrosion due to water is far greater than that caused by oxygen at temperatures around 100 °C (212 °F). At pH values below 2 the corrosion rate at 100 °C goes down greatly, while as pH values go from 7 upwards the corrosion rate declines. Gamma irradiation has little effect on the corrosion rate.
Oxygen gas inhibits the corrosion of uranium by water.
Note that while the vast majority of the uranium is removed by PUREX nuclear reprocessing, a small amount of uranium is left in the raffinate from the first cycle of the PUREX process. In addition because of the decay of the transplutonium minor actinides and the residual plutonium in the waste the concentration of uranium will increase on the waste. This will occur on a time scale of hundreds and thousands of years.
Soluble uranium salts are toxic, though less so than those of other heavy metals such as lead or mercury. The organ which is most affected is the kidney. Soluble uranium salts are readily excreted in the urine, although some accumulation in the kidneys does occur in the case of chronic exposure. The World Health Organization has established a daily "tolerated intake" of soluble uranium salts for the general public of 0.5 μg/kg body weight (or 35 μg for a 70 kg adult): exposure at this level is not thought to lead to any significant kidney damage.[not in citation given]
Depleted uranium exposure
The use of depleted uranium (DU) in munitions is controversial because of questions about potential long-term health effects. Normal functioning of the kidney, brain, liver, heart, and numerous other systems can be affected by uranium exposure, because uranium is a toxic metal. The aerosol produced during impact and combustion of depleted uranium munitions can potentially contaminate wide areas around the impact sites leading to possible inhalation by human beings. During a three-week period of conflict in 2003 in Iraq, 1,000 to 2,000 tonnes of DU munitions were used.
The actual acute and chronic toxicity of DU is also a point of medical controversy. Multiple studies using cultured cells and laboratory rodents suggest the possibility of leukemogenic, genetic, reproductive, and neurological effects from chronic exposure. A 2005 epidemiology review concluded: "In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU." The World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations which is responsible for setting health research norms and standards, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends, states that no risk of reproductive, developmental, or carcinogenic effects have been reported in humans due to DU exposure. This report has been criticized by Dr. Keith Baverstock for not including possible long term effects of DU on human body.
Most scientific studies have found no link between uranium and birth defects, but some claim statistical correlations between soldiers exposed to DU, and those who were not, concerning reproductive abnormalities.
One study concluded that epidemiological evidence is consistent with an increased risk of birth defects in the offspring of persons exposed to DU. Environmental groups and others have expressed concern about the health effects of depleted uranium, and there is some debate over the matter. Some people have raised concerns about the use of this material, particularly in munitions, because of its mutagenicity, teratogenicity in mice, and neurotoxicity, and its suspected carcinogenic potential. Additional concerns address unexploded DU munitions leeching into groundwater over time.
Several sources have attributed the increase in the rate of birth defects in the children of Gulf War veterans and in Iraqis to depleted uranium inhalation exposure, A 2001 study of 15,000 February 1991 U.S. Gulf War combat veterans and 15,000 control veterans found that the Gulf War veterans were 1.8 (fathers) to 2.8 (mothers) times more likely to have children with birth defects. In a study of UK troops, "Overall, the risk of any malformation among pregnancies reported by men was 50% higher in Gulf War Veterans (GWV) compared with Non-GWVs". The conclusion of the study stated "We found no evidence for a link between paternal deployment to the Gulf war and increased risk of stillbirth, chromosomal malformations, or congenital syndromes. Associations were found between fathers' service in the Gulf war and increased risk of miscarriage and less well-defined malformations, but these findings need to be interpreted with caution as such outcomes are susceptible to recall bias. The finding of a possible relationship with renal anomalies requires further investigation. There was no evidence of an association between risk of miscarriage and mothers' service in the gulf."
It has been reported that uranium has caused reproductive defects, and other health problems in rodents, frogs and other animals. Uranium was shown to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects in animal studies. It has been shown in rodents and frogs that water soluble forms of uranium are teratogenic.
It has been shown that bacteria, and proto bacteria such as Geobacter, can reduce and fix uranium in soil and ground water.   These bacterium change soluble U(VI) into the highly insoluble complex forming U(IV) ion, hence stopping chemical leaching.
Behavior in soil
It has been suggested that it is possible to form a reactive barrier by adding something to the soil which will cause the uranium to become fixed. One method of doing this is to use a mineral (apatite) while a second method is to add a food substance such as acetate to the soil. This will enable bacteria to reduce the uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) which is much less soluble. In peat-like soils the uranium will tend to bind to the humic acids, this tends to fix the uranium in the soil.
- Georgia State University. "Biological Half Lives".
- E. S. Craft, A. W. Abu-Qare, M. M. Flaherty, M. C. Garofolo, H. L. Rincavage, M. B. Abou-Donia (2004). "Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and toxicological effects". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews 7 (4): 297–317. doi:10.1080/10937400490452714. PMID 15205046.
- Miller AC, McClain D.; McClain (2007 Jan–Mar). "A review of depleted uranium biological effects: in vitro and in vivo studies". Rev Environ Health 22 (1): 75–89. doi:10.1515/REVEH.2007.22.1.75. PMID 17508699.
- Pattison, John E.; Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Green, Stuart (2010). "Enhancement of Natural Background Gamma-radiation Dose around Uranium Micro-particles in the Human Body". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 7 (45): 603–611. doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0300.
- United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (1993). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations. ISBN 92-1-142200-0. Unknown parameter
- Mark Winter (1993–2010). "Uranium: the essentials". WebElements: the periodic table on the web.
- Kalin M, Wheeler WN, Meinrath G (2005). "The removal of uranium from mining waste water using algal/microbial biomass.". journal of environmental radioactivity.
- "UNEP confirms low-level DU contamination". United Nations Environment Programme. March 22, 2002.
- "Depleted uranium". Department of Defense.[dead link]
- C. Mitsakou, K. Eleftheriadis, C. Housiadas & M. Lazaridis (April 2003). "Modeling of the dispersion of depleted uranium aerosol". Health Physics 84 (4): 538–544. doi:10.1097/00004032-200304000-00014. PMID 12705453.
- E. R. Trueman, S. Black, D. Read & M. E. Hodson (7 – 12 September 2003). "Alteration of depleted uranium metal" (PDF abstract). Goldschmidt Conference. Kurashiki, Japan.
- "Schoepite Mineral Data". Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- M. McD Baker, L. N. Less & S. Orman (1966). "Uranium + water reaction. Part 1.—Kinetics, products and mechanism". Transactions of the Faraday Society 62: 2513–2524. doi:10.1039/TF9666202513.
- M. McD Baker, L. N. Less & S. Orman (1966). "Uranium + water reaction. Part 2.—Effect of oxygen and other gases". Transactions of the Faraday Society 62: 2525–2530. doi:10.1039/TF9666202525.
- B.E. Burakov, M.I Ojovan,W.E. Lee. Crystalline Materials for Actinide Immobilisation, Imperial College Press, London, 198 pp. (2010). http://www.icpress.co.uk/engineering/p652.html
- "Focus: Depleted Uranium". International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- O. Braun, C. Contino, M.-H. Hengé-Napoli, E. Ansoborlo and B. Pucci (1999). "Development of an in vitro test for screening of chelators of uranium". Analusis 27: 65–68. doi:10.1051/analusis:1999108.
- Mitsakou C, Eleftheriadis K, Housiadas C, Lazaridis M Modeling of the dispersion of depleted uranium aerosol. 2003 Apr, Retrieved January 15, 2009
- Paul Brown, Gulf troops face tests for cancer guardian.co.uk 25 April 2003, Retrieved February 3, 2009
- Rita Hindin, Doug Brugge & Bindu Panikkar (2005). "Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective". Environmental Health 4 (1): 17. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-4-17. PMC 1242351. PMID 16124873.
- World Health Organization. "World Health Organization".
- World Health Organization. "Depleted uranium".
- World Health Organization. "Depleted uranium".
- Keith Baverstock. "Depleted Uranium Weapons".
- A. L. Kennedy (July 10, 2003). "Our gift to Iraq". The Guardian.
- Marjorie Monleau, Michel De Méo, François Paquet, Valérie Chazel, Gérard Duménil & Marie Donnadieu-Claraz (January 2006). "Genotoxic and inflammatory effects of depleted uranium particles inhaled by rats". Toxicological Sciences 89 (1): 287–295. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfj010. PMID 16221956.
- Darryl P. Arfsten, Kenneth R. Still & Glenn D. Ritchie (June 2001). "A review of the effects of uranium and depleted uranium exposure on reproduction and fetal development". Toxicology and Industrial Health 17 (5–10): 180–191. doi:10.1191/0748233701th111oa. PMID 12539863.
- J. L. Domingo (2001). "Reproductive and developmental toxicity of natural and depleted uranium: a review". Reprod. Toxicol. 15 (6): 603–9. doi:10.1016/S0890-6238(01)00181-2. PMID 11738513.
- W. Briner & J. Murray (2005). "Effects of short-term and long-term depleted uranium exposure on open-field behavior and brain lipid oxidation in rats". Neurotoxicology and Teratology 27 (1): 135–44. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2004.09.001. PMID 15681127.
- S. C. Sheppard, M. I. Sheppard, M. O. Gallerand & B. Sanipelli (2005). "Derivation of ecotoxicity thresholds for uranium". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 79 (1): 55–83. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.05.015. PMID 15571876.
- Q. Y. Hu & S. P. Zhu (July 1990). "Induction of chromosomal aberrations in male mouse germ cells by uranyl fluoride containing enriched uranium" (PDF). Mutation Research 244 (3): 209–214. doi:10.1016/0165-7992(90)90130-C. PMID 2366813.
- H. Kang, C. Magee, C. Mahan, K. Lee, F. Murphy, L. Jackson & G. Matanoski (October 2001). "Pregnancy outcomes among U.S. Gulf War veterans: a population-based survey of 30,000 veterans". Annals of Epidemiology 11 (7): 504–511. doi:10.1016/S1047-2797(01)00245-9. PMID 11557183.
- Pat Doyle, Noreen Maconochie, Graham Davies, Ian Maconochie, Margo Pelerin, Susan Prior & Samantha Lewis (February 2004). "Miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital malformation in the offspring of UK veterans of the first Gulf war". International Journal of Epidemiology 33 (1): 74–86. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh049. PMID 15075150.
- R. H. Lin, L. J. Wu, C. H. Lee & S. Y. Lin-Shiau (November 1993). "Cytogenetic toxicity of uranyl nitrate in Chinese hamster ovary cells". Mutation Research 319 (3): 197–203. doi:10.1016/0165-1218(93)90079-S. PMID 7694141.
- A. C. Miller, C. Bonait-Pellie, R. F. Merlot, J. Michel, M. Stewart & P. D. Lison (November 2005). "Leukemic transformation of hematopoietic cells in mice internally exposed to depleted uranium". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 279 (1–2): 97–104. doi:10.1007/s11010-005-8226-z. PMID 16283518.
- Joanna C. Renshaw, Laura J. C. Butchins, Francis R. Livens, Iain May, John M. Charnock & Jonathan R. Lloyd (2005). "Bioreduction of uranium: environmental implications of a pentavalent intermediate". Environmental Science & Technology 39 (15): 5657–5660. Bibcode:2005EnST...39.5657R. doi:10.1021/es048232b. PMID 16124300.
- Anderson RT, Vrionis HA, Ortiz-Bernad I, Resch CT, Long PE, Dayvault R, Karp K, Marutzky S, Metzler DR, Peacock A, White DC, Lowe M, Lovley DR. (2003). "Stimulating the in situ activity of Geobacter species to remove uranium from the groundwater of a uranium-contaminated aquifer.". Applied Environmental Microbiology.
- Christopher C. Fuller, John R. Bargar & James A Davis (November 20, 2003). "Remediation of uranium-contaminated waterat Fry Canyon, Utah". Stanford University.
- "Geochemistry".[dead link]