Uranium mining in Kazakhstan
Uranium exploration in Kazakhstan began in 1943. Later, in 1970, mining began with positive results, leading to more exploration. Some underground mines from the 1950s remain, but are close to depletion. In the past half century, Kazakhstan has been a major source of uranium for the world's nuclear programs. In the decade from 2001 to 2011, Kazakhstan's uranium production increased by 17,428 tons. Kazakhstan has 15% of the world's uranium, and in 2011, Kazakhstan was responsible for 35% of world production. There are 17 uranium mines in the country, however, maximum output is capped at 20,000 tons per year.
Currently, 50 deposits are located in six provinces. The responsibility for uranium exploration falls upon two subsidiary organizations of the Ministry of Geology, “Stepgeology” in northern Kazakhstan and “Volkovgeology” in the southern part of the country. Though there is no nationally supported electrical grid, in northern areas of Kazakhstan, electricity comes from Russia, and in the south, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
Kazatomprom, the nationalized nuclear energy company, was started in 1997. It has oversight of all nuclear activities including mining, exploration, and import/export activities. The company has also formed strong ties with foreign nuclear powers and the company Westinghouse. Agreements are in place with the governments of Russia, Japan, China, Canada, India, and France. Comparing 2010 with 2009, it reported an over forty percent increase in uranium production, and a thirty percent increase in total uranium output.
- Inkai- discovered 1976. 2010 production: 1637 tons
- South Inkai - began production 2007. expected 2011 production: 1900 tons
- Akdala - began production: 2006. 2009 production: 1046 tons
- Central Mynkuduk - began production: 2007.
- West Mynkuduk - began production: 2006
- East Mynkuduk- began production: 2006
- Karatau - began production: 2008
- Akbastau - began production: 2009
- Zhalpak- began production: 2012
- Moinkum - began production: 2004
- Tortkuduk - began production: 2008
- Kharasan- began production: 2005
- Irkol - began production:2008
- Zarechnoye- began production:2006
- Semyibai- began production: 2009
- Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy (28 October 2011). The New Uranium Mining Boom: Challenge and Lessons Learned. Springer. pp. xvi, 111–. ISBN 978-3-642-22121-7. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Dahlkamp, Franz J. (16 September 2009). Uranium Deposits of the World: Asia. Springer. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-3-540-78557-6. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Uranium and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "1997-1998". Kazatoprom. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Kazakh uranium output continues to rise". World Nuclear News. August 9, 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2012.