Urban Transportation Development Corporation
The Urban Transportation Development Corporation Ltd. (UTDC) was an Ontario, Canada, Crown corporation created in the 1970s as a way to enter what was then expected to be a burgeoning market in advanced light rail mass transit systems. UTDC built a respected team of engineers and project managers. It developed significant expertise in linear propulsion, steerable trucks and driverless system controls which were integrated into a transit system known as the Intermediate Capacity Transit System or ICTS. It was designed to provide service at rider levels between a traditional subway on the upper end and buses and streetcars on the lower, filling a niche aimed at suburbs that were otherwise expensive to service.
Urban Transportation Development Company Ltd. was in fact a holding company. During its time it held several wholly owned subsidiary companies. Metro Canada Ltd. was established as the contracting, delivery and operating company for system sales. UTDC USA Inc. was a marketing company located in Detroit. UTDC Services Inc. provided transit service consulting to international clients and worked very closely with the experts from the TTC. UTDC Research and Development Ltd. was formed not only to support the continuing improvement of the group’s base technology but to repurpose it and apply it to different, non-transit markets. Buses that ran on rails, materials handling systems, steerable trucks for freight rail cars and extruded tunnel lining systems were some of the products researched. The Services and R&D companies were merged in the mid 80's to form Transportation Technology Ltd.
The Intermediate Capacity Transit System (ICTS) was successfully sold into three markets: the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) for its Scarborough RT line, Detroit's Detroit People Mover and Vancouver's famous SkyTrain system.
Further sales proved more difficult than initially hoped, but in the early 1980s, Hawker Siddeley Canada joined forces with UTDC in order to win a number of contracts with the TTC and GO Transit. Forming a joint operating company at their Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F) factories in Thunder Bay, Ontario and Kingston Ontario,Can-Car Rail built heavy-rail passenger cars, subway cars, streetcars and other vehicles. Now armed with a complete portfolio from light to heavy rail, UTDC had a number of additional "wins" across North America, becoming a major vendor in the mass transit market. It was eventually privatized in the 1980s, when it was purchased by Lavalin of Quebec. Lavlin ran into financial difficulties in the early 1990s and sold its interest in UTDC to Bombardier in 1991.
Bombardier operates UTDC as part of their Bombardier Transportation brand. Bombardier has had greater success marketing the product portfolio abroad, and the ICTS, now known as the Advanced Rapid Transit (ART), has been sold to a number of operators and is currently in operation or under expansion in seven cities around the world. Bombardier often relies on Lavalin's new owners, SNC-Lavalin, to plan the construction of the rights-of-way and set up the operations centers. The UTDC factories in Kingston, Ontario and Thunder Bay continue to produce rapid transit systems for use in Ontario and abroad.
- 1 History
- 2 UTDC Products
- 3 Major Clients
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Toronto grew extensively during the 1960s and 70s, and like many cities in North America, most of this growth was in the suburbs. In order to move workers to and from the business and industrial areas in the city centre, an extensive series of expressways was planned, and made their way into the city's Official Plan in 1966. As work on the new high ways started, a wave of public protest followed as many houses, and in some cases entire neighborhoods, were bulldozed to make way. The work became increasingly opposed in Toronto, especially after the cause was taken up by famous urban commentator, Jane Jacobs.
In 1971 Bill Davis won the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario leadership contest, replacing long-serving John Robarts as the official party leader and Premier of Ontario. Shortly after taking power, on 3 June Davis announced that he was canceling provincial support for the highly controversial Spadina Expressway in Toronto, rising in the legislature and stating that "Cities were built for people and not cars. If we are building a transportation system to serve the automobile, the Spadina Expressway would be a good place to start. But if we are building a transportation system to serve people, the Spadina Expressway is a good place to stop."
Davis felt that the future of urban transit lay not in the automobile, but mass rapid transit systems. In keeping with this, the street portion of the Spadina Expressway was canceled in 1971, but full funding remained for the subway line that shared the same right-of-way. However, subways were suitable only for high-density routes that could afford to pay for their expensive construction and operation. In 1980 this was estimated to be between $75 and $80 million a mile. The TTC suggested that all of the high-density routes suitable for subways were already being served.
The other vehicles in use with the TTC, buses and streetcars, would not be able to provide rapid transit unless they were given a separate right-of-way. This expense is easy to justify in the case of a subway with its large passenger capacity, but for a system like a bus the capital costs overwhelm the passenger numbers these systems could carry. What was needed was a new system that reduced the capital costs to be able to efficiently serve low-density routes in the suburbs, a system with flexible sizing somewhere between a small subway and large streetcar, an "intermediate" sized system.
Work on an "Intermediate Capacity Transit System", or ICTS, had already started in 1970. Several consulting firms were asked to provide separate feasibility reports with outlines of a basic system. At the time, new urban transit systems were a field of active research across North America due to U.S. federal funding under the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's (UMTA) plans to roll out new systems in cities across the country. UMTA was convinced that urban rail systems would only be able to compete with cars if they had more car-like capabilities, and they were primarily interested in the personal rapid transit (PRT) concept of automated car-like cabs that would pick up and drop off passengers as individual units and then link up into longer trains for travel at high speed between stations. A number of companies in the U.S. were in the process of developing systems for the UMTA, and many of these companies submitted a proposal for the ICTS project.
It was with the formation of the new Ministry of Transportation and Communications in May 1972 that serious development of the ICTS started. On 22 November the new policy was announced. The Davis government proposed a new rail network known as "GO-Urban" that would operate three routes in the Toronto area under the auspices of the recently created GO Transit, and asked for submissions for ICTS vehicles to service the routes. Fourteen designs were initially studied, but whittled down to eight formal proposals. Some were PRT systems, while others were more traditional subway-like systems. Three of the eight ran on rubber wheels, four were air cushion vehicles (hovercrafts) including a version of the famous French Aérotrain, while the German firm Krauss-Maffei entered their Transurban system, a smaller version of their Transrapid magnetically levitated train.
The space age maglev system immediately won the interest of the Davis government, and in the Phase II proposals they selected it for further study, along with Ford's ACT and Hawker Siddeley's entry, both of which used rubber tires. Ford withdrew when the ICTS varied too greatly from the system they wanted to develop, which was aimed primarily at sites in the U.S. With only Hawker Siddeley and Krauss-Maffei remaining, the 1 May 1973 announcement that the Krauss-Maffei design had won the contest was unsurprising.
In November 1974 Krauss-Maffei announced that they were forced to withdraw from the project. The West German government had been funding development of several maglev systems based on different technologies, and decided at that time that Krauss-Maffei's system was less interesting that ones from Thyssen-Henschel and Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm. There were also technical problems; in testing, the complex systems needed to switch trains on the magnetic tracks froze up, and would require a re-design. With Krauss-Maffei's financial support gone, and daunting technical problems remaining to be solved, the maglev project died. A test track being constructed on the grounds of the CNE was abandoned in place, with the foundations and a few support pillars already constructed. Krauss-Maffei continued development of the original inter-city Transrapid, but at a very slow pace and through a series of mergers with other companies involved in maglev technology. The first Transrapid system did not enter service until 30 years later.
On 14 April 1975 the Ministry of Transportation arranged financing for Phase I and II studies to develop a new system to replace the maglev. In June 1975 OTDC announced that it had arranged a consortium to continue the development of the ICTS, changing their name to Urban Transportation Development Corporation to avoid any "provinciality" during their efforts to market what would now be an entirely local design to other cities. The consortium consisted of SPAR Aerospace for the linear induction motor, Standard Elektrik Lorenz's "SelTrac IS" system for the automatic control system, Dofasco for an articulated bogie system, Alcan for the design of the car bodies and a set of prototypes, and Canadair for assembly and production.
A Transit Development Centre for UTDC was built on a 480-acre (1.9 km2) site in Millhaven, outside of Kingston, Ontario. Kingston had been home to the Canadian Locomotive Company that closed its doors in 1969, and the city lobbied hard for the new company to locate to their city. It was officially opened on 29 September 1978 by James Snow, the Minister of Transportation and Communications. The site included a 1.9 km oval test track that included at-grade, elevated and ramped sections, switches, and the automatic control center. Phase III of the ICTS program ended on 31 January 1980 when testing on the prototype was completed at the Millhaven site, by this point the government had invested about $57.2 million, of a total $63 million spent on the product by the government and its industrial partners.
Looking for a site in Ontario to serve as a testbed for the ICTS, the government focused on an extension of the eastern end of TTC's Bloor–Danforth line. The TTC had already started building a streetcar line that would extend from the end of the subway at Kennedy station to the Scarborough City Centre, a low-density route passing through industrial land. They were not interested in changing to the ICTS for this route, until the Ontario government, who provided about 80% of the capital costs, stepped in and demanded the ICTS be used. A smaller system in Hamilton was also considered, and there was a brief study for a similar system in Ottawa. Vancouver was interested in the system as part of the Expo 86 buildout in keeping with their theme, "Transportation and Communication". In spite of the UMTA program in the US being "de-funded" that year, Detroit pressed ahead with their plans and signed up in August. Hamilton, Ottawa, Miami, Los Angeles and Washington, DC were also in talks with UTDC. With three customers lined up, a manufacturing plant was added to the Millhaven site, VentureTrans Manufacturing, which opened in 1982.
In 1982 UTDC also entered a design to offer rail service to the suburbs east of Toronto, a system known as GO ALRT. ALRT was based on the ICTS technology, but used a longer car about the size of a conventional railway passenger car, and replaced the third rail power with an overhead pantograph. Given the larger sized cars that made mechanical placements easier, conventional motors replaced the linear motor in order to reduce capital costs (the linear motor requires an aluminum "fourth rail" for the entire line). However, due to changes in the laws governing the operation of GO trains on the freight railroads they ran on, GO was able to improve their schedules without having to build any new infrastructure. ALRT was cancelled in 1985 in favor of conventional heavy rail technology. UTDC would later play an important part in this buildout in spite of these changes, and, ironically, GO would eventually build their own twin-line line to Oshawa to allow for expanded scheduling.
Construction of the Toronto and Vancouver systems proceeded apace, with the Scarborough RT opening for service on 22 March 1985, followed by the Vancouver SkyTrain on 11 December 1985, with passenger service starting in January. The systems suffered from serious teething problems; snow froze to the third rail which required the Scarborough RT system to be fitted with protective covers. The braking system was too powerful and caused the wheels to rub flat in spots, which led to noisy running, the opposite of the design goal. Bugs in the automatic control software led to a number of problems with doors that would not open, "phantom cars" that would appear mid-line and cause the collision avoidance systems to turn on and freeze trains in place in spite of having a driver, and a host of other problems that seriously delayed scheduled operations. In Toronto, the Scarborough RT became a subject of ridicule, often closing in heavy snows. Most of the problems with the Toronto and Vancouver systems were worked out by the time the Detroit People Mover officially opened in July 1987.
Starting in 1972, the TTC contracted Hawker Siddeley Canada to design a new streetcar known as the "Municipal Surface Car". However, with the formation of the OTDC in the early 1970s, and with the TTC getting 75% of its capital funding from the provincial government, it was not entirely surprising that they demanded the TTC turn to OTDC for new vehicles, in spite of protests to the contrary.
In August 1973 the TTC placed an order for 200 new vehicles from OTDC, the Canadian Light Rail Vehicle (CLRV). The design was purchased from the Swiss company Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft (SIG), who were contracted to build the first 10 before turning over construction to OTDC, subcontracted at Hawker Siddeley's CC&F factory in Thunder Bay. The prototype run was cut to 6, in order to allow 4 to be converted into an articulated design, the Articulated Light Rail Vehicle (ALRV). UTDC unveiled the ALRV at a June 18–19, 1982 open house at its Transit Development Centre, which over 10,000 people attended.
In March 1983 Hawker Siddeley Canada sold a portion of their CC&F factory in Thunder Bay to the UTDC, creating the jointly owned Can-Car Rail. Hawker Siddeley had already developed a number of rail vehicles, and with its partnership with UTDC these became the favored products for a number of contracts in Ontario. In addition to the ICTS, UTDC now had a product portfolio that spanned everything from streetcars to subways to traditional heavy rail passenger cars and hoppers.
In December 1983 the TTC announced they were buying 126 subway cars from UTDC, and followed this in February 1984 with an order for 52 ALRV's. The subway cars were built at Can-Car, but after the first ten ALRV's, streetcar production moved to the Millhaven plants which were winding down their ICTS production.
A further run of a modified double-ended ALRV's followed for the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority, and then a run of 58 subway cars for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority in Boston. These were the first of many such orders, and eventually hundreds of subway cars were delivered to various U.S. transport services over the next two decades.
Since the early 1970s, Hawker Siddeley had been designing a new two-level railcar for GO Transit, which they started delivering in 1976 as the BiLevel. GO continued placing additional orders, eventually buying 470 for their service in southern Ontario, where the BiLevel is widely associated with GO.
When downsizing hit GO in the early 1990s, a number of these coaches were leased out to various operators in Canada and the US. They were received to rave reviews, and quickly generated orders from operators across North America. Several hundred additional BiLevel cars were built, and over 700 are currently in service.
UTDC's Can-Car also produced a number of other products for sales to the Canadian Forces, including versions of the Volkswagen Iltis, the medium-sized M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck and the larger Steyr Percheron.
Sale to Lavalin
In spite of these successes, as early as 1981 the government had considered selling UTDC to the private sector. Their concern was that without a manufacturing business, UTDC would find it difficult to make enough income to justify its Kingston operations. If the company did start a manufacturing side, it would be inappropriate for the company to remain government owned.
In 1986 the new Ontario government announced their intention to sell UTDC to Lavalin, a large engineering company in Montreal. Lavalin purchased the company for only CAD$50 million, less than the $70 million spent on the UTDC by the government up to 1981. The sale was highly controversial at the time, due to several non-performance payments due to the early problems on the ICTS that had to be paid out by the government, to the tune of $39 million. Soon after, Hawker Siddeley announced that they were selling their remaining interest in CC&F to Lavalin as well.
This was during a period of rapid conglomeration by Lavalin, which included purchases of the Bellechasse Hospital in Montreal, MétéoMédia's television services, and many other businesses that were unrelated to its core engineering strengths. By the early 1990s this aggressive expansion plan led to a massive debt load and serious financial difficulties. In 1991, Lavalin's bankers put it under pressure to be acquired by its chief rival, SNC. Lavalin announced its intent to sell off its stake in UTDC, and several companies expressed an interest, including Asea Brown Boveri and Westinghouse. Before this was completed, the company went bankrupt.
Sale to Bombardier Transportation
As part of the proceedings, UTDC was returned to the Ontario government, who quickly sold it to Bombardier in 1991. SNC purchased the engineering portions of the company and became SNC-Lavalin, while most other business were sold off to other firms.
Bombardier quickly re-branded the UTDC products under their growing Bombardier Transportation marque. Bombardier Transportation is the company's railroad equipment division, started in 1970 with their purchase Rotax, which made engines used in their snowmobiles as well as making trams. Now in the train business, in 1975 they added the Montreal Locomotive Works and their LRC high-speed train design. Although the LRC was never the success Bombardier hoped, the company continued to buy other rail companies in North America and Europe, dramatically expanding division until it became the largest supplier of rail equipment in the world with its purchase of ADtranz in 2001.
Bombardier was much more aggressive in marketing the UTDC product line than either the Crown or Lavalin had been, especially the ICTS. Bombardier re-designed the cars, expanding the passenger capacity and updating their look, re-introducing the product as the Bombardier Advanced Rapid Transit (ART). ART won the contest for the AirTrain JFK project, which is widely considered a great success in spite of predicitions to the contrary.
After winning SkyTrain, Bombardier further improved the design by introducing an articulating section between adjacent cars, replacing the coupling and doors of the older (retroactively named) Mark I design. The articulation allows passengers to move freely between the cars, as well as adding more internal space for passenger seating. These versions of the Mk.II design have won several new contests, and are currently operating on the Kelana Jaya Line in Kuala Lumpur, the Airport Express in Beijing (in four-car trains), and on the EverLine outside of Seoul.
Vancouver continues to be the largest operator of the ICTS system, with 49.5 km of operational lines. The SkyTrain system uses a mix of MK I and MK II trains.
Bombardier also continues to win sales with its other light rail vehicles, including a major expansion of the TTC's network using a derivative of the Flexity platform, which will be built at the CC&F plants.
- H6 subway cars (Toronto Transit Commission), modified version also used by Ankara Metro
- #3 (01700 series) subway cars (Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority) for the Red Line
- ICTS Mark I; 2, 4 or 6 car working model (Toronto Transit Commission, TransLink (British Columbia), Detroit People Mover)
- CLRV L2 (Toronto Transit Commission)
- ALRV L3 (Toronto Transit Commission)
- Santa Clara VTA Light-rail Cars (Santa Clara VTA, now in secondhand use in Sacramento and Salt Lake City) - Double ended articulated variant of the ALRV L3 cars
- Bi-Level III and IV coaches - originally developed by Hawker Siddeley Canada - GO Transit, Altamont Commuter Express and various other North American operators
- GO ALRT, a lengthened and articulated version of the ITCS.
Military & Other
- UTDC 24M32 - HLVW military trucks based on the Steyr Percheron
- MLVW military trucks based on the M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck
- Volkswagen Iltis scout car
- Multi-Purpose Small Bus, a handicap transit vehicle developed with Rek-Vee Industries in Scarborough and FunCraft Vehicles in Cambridge
- Canadian Forces
- Toronto Transit Commission
- GO Transit
- Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority
- Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
- Vancouver SkyTrain
- Detroit People Mover
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 104 - the first mention puts it at $80 million, but the very next page puts it at $75
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 72
- Ken Avidor, "A Brief History of Personal Rapid Transit in Minnesota", Minnesota2020
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 75
- Filey, pg. 39
- "1934 - 1977 From the idea to the system decision", Transrapid International
- Harald Maas, "Schanghai stutzt den Transrapid", Tagesspiegel, 1 February 2008
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 93
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 99
- James Bow, "UTDC Kingston Transit Development Centre", Transit Toronto
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 103
- Litvak & Maule, pg. 105
- Peter Drost, "The GO-ALRT Program", Transit Toronto, 10 November 2006
- "TTC Rapid Transit and Streetcar Official Opening Dates", TTC
- Heather Conn, "On track: the SkyTrain story", B.C. Transit, 1996
- "Scarborough RT back in service", Toronto Star, 18 January 2009
- "PURCHASE OF TTC VEHICLES", Hansard, 24 May 1983
- Ray Corley, "CLRV: Canadian Light Rail Vehicle", The Toronto Transit Commission, October 1996
- "UTDC for sale", Northern Ontario Business, June 1991
- "Hon Ms Wark-Martyn", Hansard (HIGHWAY TRAFFIC AMENDMENT ACT (FIREFIGHTERS)), 7 December 1994, pg. 2330
- Philip Hopkins, "Rail industry spooked by international suppliers", The Age, 19 February 2007
- "Toronto picks Flexity Outlook", Railway Gazette International, 27 April 2009
- Isaiah Litvak and Christopher Maule, "The Light-Rapid Comfortable (LRC) Train and the Intermediate Capacity Transit System (ICTS): Two Case Studies of Innovation in the Urban Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry", University of Toronto/York University Joint Program in Transportation, 1982
- John Sewell, "The Shape of the Suburbs", University of Toronto Press, 2009, ISBN 0-8020-9587-9
- Jüri Pill, "Planning and Politics", MIT Press, 1979, ISBN 0-262-16073-0
- Mike Filey, "Toronto Sketches 5: The Way We Were", Dundurn Press, 1997, ISBN 1-55002-292-X, pg. 38-40
- R. C. Baker, "The Intermediate Capacity Transportation System for Toronto", Transportation Planning and Technology, Volume 4 (1972)
- William Middleton, "Metropolitan railways: Rapid Transit in America", Indiana University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-253-34179-5
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- James Bow, "The Scarborough Rapid Transit Line", Transit Toronto