Governments may alter the flow or course of an urban stream to prevent localized flooding by river engineering: lining stream beds with concrete or other hardscape materials, diverting the stream into culverts and storm sewers, or other means. Some urban streams, such as the subterranean rivers of London, run completely underground. These modifications have often reduced habitat for fish and other species, caused downstream flooding due to alterations of flood plains, and worsened water quality.
Some communities have begun stream restoration projects, using techniques such as daylighting, in an attempt to correct the problems caused by alteration, and fix stream bank erosion caused by heavy stormwater runoff.
- Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) - U.S. research program
- Nonpoint source pollution
- Subterranean river
- Water pollution
- Walsh, Christopher J. et al.(2005)."The urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure." Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 2005, 24(3):706–723. doi:10.1899/04-028.1, ISSN 0887-3593
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC (2007). "National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Hydromodification." Document No. EPA 841-B-07-002. July 2007.
- California Department of Water Resources. "Urban Streams Restoration Program". Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- Revkin, Andrew C. (16 July 2009). "Rolling Back Pavement to Expose Watery Havens". New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- Riley, Ann L.; Leopold, Luna B. (1998). Restoring Streams in Cities: A Guide for Planners, Policymakers, and Citizens. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-042-9.
- Ecosystem Effects of Urban Stream Restoration (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)