Shepard et al., 1974
Clinical significance 
It had also been associated with a number of diseases in humans, including non-specific urethritis (NSU), infertility, chorioamnionitis, stillbirth, premature birth, and, in the perinatal period, pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and meningitis.
However, given the relatively low pathogenicity of the organism its role in some of these diseases remains contentious.
There are six recognised Ureaplasma species, They have a GC content of 27–30%, and a genome size ranging between 0.76–1.17 Mbp, and cholesterol is required for growth. A defining characteristic of the genus is that they perform urea hydrolysis.
It is now recommended that some strains originally classified as Ureaplasma urealyticum should be treated as a new species, U. parvum.
Doxycycline is the drug of choice but Azithromycin is also used as a 5 day course rather than a single dose that would be used to treat Chlamydia; streptomycin is an alternative but is less popular because it must be injected. Penicillins are ineffective — U. urealyticum does not have a cell wall, which is the drug's main target.
- Kafetzis DA, Skevaki CL, Skouteri V, et al (October 2004). "Maternal genital colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum promotes preterm delivery: association of the respiratory colonization of premature infants with chronic lung disease and increased mortality". Clin. Infect. Dis. 39 (8): 1113–22. doi:10.1086/424505. PMID 15486833.
- Dieter RS (2000). "Sterile pyuria: a differential diagnosis". Compr Ther 26 (3): 150–2. doi:10.1007/s12019-000-0001-1. PMID 10984817.
- Long Term Effects of Ureaplasma
- Ureaplasma Infection at eMedicine
- Ureaplasma Genome Projects from Genomes OnLine Database
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