|Classification and external resources|
|Patient UK||Urethral syndrome|
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Urethral syndrome is a set of symptoms that may suggest a lower urinary tract infection. However, urethral syndrome is different since there is no significant presence of bacteriuria with a conventional pathogen. Typically, the syndrome can be linked to non-infective causes such as trauma, allergies, anatomical features such as diverticula, and post-surgical scarring and adhesions.
Signs indicative of urethral syndrome include a history of chronic recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in the absence of both conventional bacterial growth, and pyuria (more than 5 white blood cells per High Power Field). Episodes are often related to sexual intercourse.
Some physicians believe that urethral syndrome may be due to a low grade infection of the Skene's glands on the sides and bottom of the urethra. The Skene's glands are embryologically related to the prostate gland in the male, thus urethral syndrome may share a comparable etiology with chronic prostatitis.
Treatment of acute urethral syndrome involves antibiotics.[vague] For chronic urethral syndrome, a long term, low-dose antibiotic treatment is given on a continuous basis or after intercourse each time if intercourse appears to trigger symptoms.
As a hormonal imbalance may also be considered a source for urethral syndrome, hormone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptive pill (birth-control pills) are also used to treat the symptoms of this condition.
- Hamilton-Miller JM (May 1994). "The urethral syndrome and its management". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33. Suppl A: 63–73. PMID 7928838.
- Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM, Gillespie WA (July 1991). "The mysterious "urethral syndrome"". BMJ 303 (6793): 1–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.303.6793.1. PMC 1670265. PMID 1859947.
- Terris, Martha K. "Urethral Syndrome". eMedicine. Retrieved 2008-09-25.