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Urethral syndrome is defined as symptoms suggestive of a lower urinary tract infection but in the absence of significant bacteriuria with a conventional pathogen. There are other non-infective causes that should be considered such as trauma, allergies, anatomical features such as diverticula, and post-surgical scarring.
Most women will give a history of chronic recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) but the cultures seem to not show any conventional bacterial growth, and pyuria (more than 5 white blood cells per High Power Field) is absent. There may also be a history of these episodes often being related to sexual intercourse.
Some physicians believe that urethral syndrome may be due to a low grade infection of the Skene's glands on the sides and bottom of the urethra. The Skene's glands are embryologically related to the prostate gland in the male, thus urethral syndrome may share a comparable etiology with chronic prostatitis.
Treatment of acute urethral syndrome is antibiotics.[vague] For chronic urethral syndrome, a long term, low dose antibiotic treatment is given on a continuous basis or after intercourse each time if intercourse appears to trigger symptoms.
As a hormonal imbalance may also be considered a source for urethral syndrome, hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptive pill (birth-control pills) are also used to treat the symptoms of this condition.
See also 
- Hamilton-Miller JM (May 1994). "The urethral syndrome and its management". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33. Suppl A: 63–73. PMID 7928838.
- Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM, Gillespie WA (July 1991). "The mysterious "urethral syndrome"". BMJ 303 (6793): 1–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.303.6793.1. PMC 1670265. PMID 1859947.
- "eMedicine - Urethral Syndrome : Article by Martha K Terris". Retrieved 2008-09-25.